Egypt

جمهوريّةمصرالعربيّة
Gumhūriyyat Misr aluminium-ʿarabiyya
Arab Republic Of Egypt
Flagge Ägyptens
Wappen Ägyptens
(detail) (detail)
office language Arab
capital Cairo
system of government Präsidialrepublik
president Muhammad Husni Mubarak
head of the government Ahmad Nazif
surface 1.001.450 km ²
number of inhabitants 77.505.756 (conditions July 2005)
population density Nile valley and - delta:1120 inhabitants per km ²
independence 26.07.1952 of Great Britain
currency Egyptian Pound = 100 Piaster
time belt UTC +2
national anthem Biladi, Biladi, Biladi
Kfz characteristic ET
Internet TLD .eg
preselection +20
Lage von Ägypten
Karte von Ägypten

Egypt (Arab: مصر Misr) lies in the northeast of Africa,the peninsula Sinai belonging to Egypt is ranked generally among Asia. The country borders on the Mediterranean, the Red Sea (gulf of Aqaba), the Gaza Strip, Israel, Libya and the Sudan. The land surface of Egyptessentially consists of the current oasis of the Nile as well as the Libyan desert in the west and the south and the eastern Arabian desert. Egypt is counted to the Maschrek - states.


Table of contents

geography

the landschaftliche character of Egypt is coined/shaped ofContrast of the desert areas and the closely populated, watered culture country along the Nile. This land surface constitutes about 5% of the territory.

In the west of Egypt lies the Libyan desert, which takes approximately two thirds of the state surface. In the north of this desertis the only quite low arranged Libyan plateau, which reaches height in Egypt to 241 m. Southeast this area lowers itself the area in Kattara-lower on scarcely 134 m under the sea level off, in the southwest rises itto 1,098 m height on. In the east of Egypt, where the Arabian desert is, the mountains up to 2.184 M. rise. The highest collection of the country is with 2.637 m height of the Gabal Katrîna (Katharinenberg) in the mountains Gabal RK on the Sinai peninsula, which is in the northeast of the country and is separate from the African mainland by the Sueskanal. The center section of the country rises to on the average 500 m height.

Between the two deserts specified before the Nile flows through,its source river of the Kagera in the mountain country of Burundi is, on approximately 1,550 km length in Egypt von Süden northward, before it flows to 24,000 km after flowing through ² the large Nildeltas into the Mediterranean. Southwest from Cairo finds on the average 100 kmitself 1,827 km ³ large Fayyum basins, a basin-like oasis landscape, in whose northern part 230 km ² large Qarun lake is.

The coasts lie in the north to the Mediterranean, in the east to the Red Sea, both are by the Sueskanal connected.

climate

at the Nile delta and at the Mediterranean coast prevails mediterranes climate, there falling in the winter the temperatures and it comes to rainfalls. The remainder of the country is subject to the desert climate: Hot and drying in the summer,mildly in the winter, predominantly without measurable precipitation with dry periods of many years.

population

the population of Egypt settles primarily in the Nile valley, in the Nile delta, at the Sueskanal and at the routistic important Red Sea. In the western oases Fayyum, Dachla, Farafra, Siwa and Charga live only few humans.

The largest cities are (millions Inhabitant, conditions 1. January 2005): Cairo (7,7), Alexandria (3,8) and Giseh (2,4), Sues (0,5), Luxor (0,4) and Aswan (0,2).

See also: List thatCities in Egypt

Ethnien

the majority of the Egyptian population are Arabs. Beyond that of Egypt Nubier resides in the south. In the Libyan desert once Berberstämme lived, on those today however only few in that , In the deserts east the Nile live Arab and Bedscha speak oasis Siwa a Berbersprache - sprachige Nomaden.

religions

Egypt after the condition an Islamic state and the Islam are are state religion, the Scharia are the main sourcethe legislation. Apart from the Sunni majority one finds Kopten, which live pretty often in predominantly Christian villages however in Cairo and Alexandria, in addition, also in central and Oberägypten, Christian, above all. An official counting of the Christiansconsciously one does not accomplish, although the religion must be registered in the passport. 80 90% the Egyptian is Muslims (usually Sunniten), 10 15% is koptische Christians (mostly eastern-orthodox, a small part Koptisch catholic), the remainder distributes itself on Greek-catholic, Protestanten andJew.

Particularly in Oberägypten the Kopten became a goal of the terror of radical Muslims, frequently with knowledge and approval of the local authorities. Muslims, who cross to the Christianity, must count on national coercive measures. New koptische churches may not be built, also smallerRepairs require a Präsidialerlasses.

On the one hand the interpretation of the Islam is in Egypt usually modern and progressively, in particular by the aluminium leading in the moslemischen world Azhar university. On the other hand Egypt is for decades (beside Saudi Arabia) also a center of the Islamic fundamentalism. Like that those is there active Muslim brother shank and in is shop group of terror of aluminium-Qaida already was at times of the 11. September 2001 unusually many Egyptians in leading positions. They partly stand until today also at the point. That ittheir native roots cut, are not very probable. The Islamic fundamentalist scene sees force against Westler such as z. B. in Dahab (Sinai) in April 2006 as a component of a fair fight against an unfair system, a Godless state and onewestern-Jewish conspiracy against the Islam on.

languages

by the majority Egyptian-Arab, an again-Arab dialect is spoken. Writing language is since Arab conquest in 7. Jh. the high-Arab, only in the koptischen church becomes as Liturgiesprache still used Kopti, that in own writing, which is derived from the Greek, one writes.

In the oasis Siwa one speaks still another Berbersprache, the Siwi in such a way specified. In the south and in the oasis Charga speakmany humans nubian. In the southeast there are also Bedscha - speakers.

As foreign language English is and in the Oberschicht also still French common.

population trend

the population of Egypt grows much fast and places anyway already in itsfruitful parts very closely country settled before large problems. Around 1800 the country had only about 2.5 million inhabitant. In the year 1900 the population reached about 12.5 million inhabitant, already 2000 nearly 68 million. In the past, approximately at timesthe Pharaonen, had the country between 4 to maximally 12 million inhabitants - a total population, which was probably reached in late ancient times.

are appropriate

for history the beginnings of the Egyptian civilization approx. 7,000 years in the past. ThoseEgyptian history is arranged into many epochs:

Altägyptischer Streitwagen
OldEgyptian chariot
Sphinx before the Chephren pyramid

special the organization of the historical periods of the pre-Christian time goes on Manethoback, which divided the ruler lists of old Egypt up to the last Egyptian Pharao in 30 dynasties.

See in addition also the major item: History of the old person Egypt

from the old-Egyptian culture are to today a row from buildings received. Those probablymost well-known are the pyramids the only still received of the 7 antique world miracles from Gizeh .

In later time Christian churches and monasteries were built. The most well-known monastery is on the Sinai - peninsula lying Katharinenkloster. Most thatin Islamic time established mosques stand in Cairo. Their most important mosque is probably of the same name the aluminium-Azhar-mosque belonging to to the university.

politics

see also: Political system of Egypt

Egypt is since that 18. June 1953 a republic. ThatHead of state is since 14. October 1981 Muhammad Husni Mubarak, which is at the same time leader of the governing nationaldemocratic party (NDP). A referendum over the choice of a presidency candidate suggested by the parliament takes place every 6 years, after an announcement of Mubarak of 26. February 2005 from it however in the future free elections with several certified candidates are to become. The next parliamentary elections (every 5 years) are to take place in October/November 2005. The last elections (2000) to 454 seats the comprehensive “advice of the people” (10 seats becomefrom the president assigned) the NDP with 86% won, it followed the independent ones (under it the candidates the Muslim brother shank) with 8%, the new Wafd party (NWP) with 2%, the nationalprogressive trade union combination aluminium-Tagammu `(NPUG) with 1% and the Nasseristi party as well as the liberalA party with less in each case than 1%. The president is commander in chief of the armed forces and has the right to issue decrees. Advisory Legislativorgan is the Schura. Main source of the legislation is the Scharia. A constitutional court supervises the constitutional order.

Critics noticeon that Mubarak governs for decades by emergency act. It prevails over an often pseudodemocratic system. They say the fact that elections were partly falsified or shifted and some oppositional to illusory processes into the prison comes.

military

the Egyptian armed forcesas strongest military power on the African continent are regarded and justify the status of a regional power in the Near East. The armed forces are subordinate to the head of state Hosni Mubarak, which also at the same time dresses highest military rank as an upper commander. Those are organizedArmed forces in four branches: on the one hand the classical sections of the army, Air Force and navy; additionally the Luftverteidgungskommando functions as an own armed service of the military. In Egypt a three-year military service for men prevails starting from eighteen years. Due to the strong population growth becomehowever no more all recruits drawn in, since 450,000 active soldiers face a class strength of over 800.000 service-requiring. However the state has still additionally about 250,000 paramilitärische forces, which are consulted the ministry of the Interior to be subordinate and for the internal security of the dictatorship.

With the approximation with regard to foreign policy under Anwar as-Sadat opened Egypt also the entrance to US-American weapon supplies, which contributed for the eighties to an important modernization of the armed forces.

administrative arrangement

see for this: Gouvernorate Egypt

Economics

agriculture in Egypt (1920er years)

the economy of Egypt is coined/shaped also today still by the agriculture, which mainly on the regions along the Nile, in the Nile delta and at individual oases to be. Has itself the agricultural cultivation ofa Subsistenz - changed to an export orientation, so that relatively regards less nationaltypical food such as millet, sow beans and Kohl are harvested. About 17% of the gross domestic product are gained in the agriculture (conditions: 2000). Nevertheless Egypt is not capably, its strongto nourish increasing population, so that enormous quantities of food must be imported - in the year 1980 became over 5 millions Tons wheat from the foreign country imported and/or. three times as much, as was cultivated in Egypt. The food introduction makes aboutquarters of the total imports out, which about 3 billion US dollar corresponds. Besides exists an enormous disproportion between in and export, which led to an enormous foreign debt. This problem could also not be terminated so fast, thereEgypt up to the surfaces for the agriculture to is not at all, already used, usable hardly, since they are very arid and hardly sources of water for artificial irrigation are present. A further negative point for the cultivation of food in Egypt is thoseEstablishment of the Aswan dam; it ensured for the fact that the flooding of the Nile does not exist nearly any longer and thus the harvests and/or. Harvest surfaces smaller and more unfruchtbarer became. Zurzeit become however in the context of the Toshka project parts of the Egyptian desert west the Nilefor the agriculture usable made.

The most important export goods of Egypt are oil, cotton and aluminum, the most important import goods are food, chemical products, metals and machines.

tourism

a further important industry is that Tourism, which had to bear occasional strong break-downs after the terrorist attacks on routistic goals in the 1990er and 2000er years however (Luxor 1997, Sinai 2004 and 2005 and 2006 in Dahab.

The tourism is one the most important economicalSources of income in the country. Particularly the Egyptian Altertümer is a large attraction magnet for foreign visitors. Beside Gizeh and Cairo also Luxor is gladly visited, of where from among other things the valley of the kings can be achieved. Luxor is also the starting pointfor Nile cruises until Aswan. From there flights and bus routes are offered after Abu Simbel. Most tour operators offer then an inland flight to Cairo and to this Cairo to stay one bath vacation in Hurghada.

The tourist center is incontestable Hurghada at the Red Sea. The modern tourist place Sharm El-Sheikh at the south point of the Sinai - peninsula is particularly with friends of the dipping sport much likes, in the last years came also ever more underwater sportsman into north of it the convenient Dahab. By that generallyfar rising dipping tourism also places become south of Hurghada, along which western coast of the Red Sea, opened. For this aluminium-Qusair and Marsa Alam count briefly, as well as before the Sudanese border Zabargad.

However is the tourist attack on Sharm El-Sheikh andthe Sinai peninsula actually since the notices in October 2004 and July 2005 strongly decreased/gone back. In Dahab 24 became with three explosions by terrorists to. April 2006 23 humans killed (under it many tourists).

public expenditures for health, educationand defense

between 1992 and 2000 was the portion of the public expenditures for

to culture

sees also: Music of Egypt

German wave - TV radiatessince that 28. February 2005 daily three hours Arab program over the Egyptian satellites Nile-sows into the Near East out.

literature

  • Egypt, Meyers encyclopedia, 4. Aufl., 1888, volume 1, page 209 FF.
  • W. & S. Tondok: Egypt individually ", travel guide
  • W. & S. Tondok: Egypt - which to Nile valley, travel guide

to old Egypt see:

  • Extensive bibliography about
  • Hermann A. Schlögl: Old Egypt. (Beck knowledge), Munich 2003 (knappe introduction with literature).
  • Lucia Gahlin: Egypt - Gods,Myths, religions. Publishing house EDITION XXL, 2005 ISBN 3-89736-312-7

Web on the left of

Wiktionary: Egypt - word origin, synonyms and translations
Commons: Egypt - pictures, videos and/or audio files


coordinates: 22°-32° N, 25°-36° O

 

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