Émile Zola

Émile Zola

Émile Zola (* 2. April 1840 in Paris; † 29. September 1902 in Paris) was a French writer and journalist.

Zola is considered as one the large French Romanciers 19. Century and as guidance figurethe totalEuropean literary current of the naturalism. He took part actively at the same time in the political life and used themselves for the liberalisation of the society.

Its article J'accuse (I complained on) in the Dreyfus affair led to the resumption of the procedure and therebyto the release from custody and later rehabilitation falsely of the accused of officer Alfred Dreyfus.

Table of contents

youth and literary beginnings

of Zola born in Paris as a son of a civil engineer of Italian origin, however early (1847) died and itsFamily unprovided left. It grew the place of the last project of its father on in Aix EN Provence, where it was friendly with the later large painter Paul Cézanne. Its he spent last school years again in Paris, where his nut/mother already forwardsit had returned. After it was pleased job component end it by the Baccalauréat (1859), (z. B. it was longer time advertising boss with the publishing house hook-rushes) and writing placing ores in all category, even than poets.

Its break-through became the novel Thérèse Raquin (1867), which connects an exciting action around the title heroine becoming to the Ehebrecherin and Mörderin with a ungeschönten description Paris small middle classes. The preface to the second edition 1868, in the Zola itself against its good-civil critics and their reproach thatGeschmacklosigkeit defended, became the communist manifesto of the recent naturalistischen school, to whose boss Zola was promoted gradually.

the Romancier

starting from 1869 (until 1893) it, after the model of Balzac , conceived most of its novels as partsa cycle with the title Les Rougon Macquart. Histoire natureal et sociale d'une famille sous le Second Empire/R. - M. The biological and social history of a family in the second empire. Those altogether 20 novels of the cycle should a kind positivistic more justifiedlyFamily history its, i.e. the Bourgeoisie the Rougon branch which can be assigned and the lower layer of belonging Macquart branch, whereby the individual figures as by its hereditary factors (z. B. the slope to the alcoholism), its environment (Bourgeoisie or lower layer) and the historical circumstances (socio-economic conditionsthe second empire, 1852-70) to be completely determined introduced. Fortunately they, owing to Zolas literary temper, work humanly and alive enough, in order not to appear to the reader as bare puppets and demonstration objects.

The erzählerische work Zolas is similar to that, as that Goncourts, a find pit for social historians. However conditions described by the author are naturally rather those/of the 80's 70's, i.e. those the time of origin of the novels, and less those of the 50's/60's, in which the actions are settled.

Édouard Manet: ÉmileZola, 1868

the most important novels

to Zolas lifetimes was most successfully La Débâcle/the debacle (1892), whose action before the background of the French-German war of 1870/71 and the bloodily suppressed Paris Commune plays. Likewise more largelySuccess was Nana (1879/80), the history of a young woman from the people, who experiences an ascent owing to its sexual attractiveness to the cost-pregnant loving of a count, by its slope to dissipations of all kinds however in fall, illnessand ends to early death. Today still to be read above all L'Assommoir/the Totschläger (1877), where at the fate of a Paris Wäscherin and its family very in-usually the effects of the alcoholism in the restrained and ärmlichen Paris lower layer environment is described, and Germinal (1885), the dramatic history of a mountain worker strike in the force field of the economic and ideological antagonisms of the time, which judges Zola from the perspective of a socially engaged Bourgeois, that the theories of the socialist philosophers Fourier, Proudhon and Marx at least intheir guidance ideas knows and approves of. L'Œuvre/the work (1886) also particularly worth mentioning is, because meant with the manischen painter in the center Zolas friend Paul Cézanne believed itself and indignant with it broke.

Several of the novels, and. A. Thérèse Raquin, Nana, L'Assommoir and Germinal, were converted soon after their appearance to successful plays and also filmed later.

the journalist

of the beginning of his literary career on was Zola always also journalistically actively. To 13. It tried January 1898 with an open letter to the president to use its personal prestige for the captain Alfred Dreyfus condemned to injustice as an alleged per-German feeler gauge. This letter with the title J'accuse/I complains to kindled a undreamt-of relating to domestic affairsStorm, that France for years, often into the families inside, split D into “Dreyfusards” and “Antidreyfusards”. h. a progressive left camp and a conservative right, which were at the same time militantly nationalistic and anti-Semitic. Zola became still 1898 of the war Ministeras well as by some private people sued and in quite political processes because of “Diffamierung” to a money and (a short) term of imprisonment condemns, from which he extracted himself however by escape to London, where it remained nearly one year.

Der Schauspieler Paul Muni als Émile Zola vor Gericht (Film von 1937)
The actor Paul Muni as ÉmileZola before court (film of 1937)

death Zolas by a smoke poisoning in its Paris dwelling at the beginning of the heating season 1902 was possibly the work of a nationalistic furnace setter, who was in the summer to a repair Trade Union of German Employees nature. Six years after itsDeath its remnants transferred into the Panthéon, also in memory of its commitment in the affair Dreyfus.

Under the direction of William Dieterle developed 1937 under the title The would run for OF Emile Zola a Filmbiografie with Paul Muni inthe title part.

the volumes of the cycle of the Rougon Macquart

Grabmal von Emile Zola auf dem Friedhof Montmartre
tomb of Emile Zola on the cemetery Montmartre
  1. the luck of the family Rougon (La fortune of the Rougon 1871)
  2. the booty (La curée 1872)
  3. the belly of Paris (Le ventre de Paris 1873)
  4. the conquest of Plassans (La conquête de Plassans 1874)
  5. the sin of the Abbé Mouret (La faute de l'Abbé Mouret 1875)
  6. its Excellency Eugene Rougon (Son excellence Eugène Rougon 1876)
  7. the Totschläger (L'Assomoir 1877)
  8. a sheet love (Une PAGE d'amour 1878)
  9. Nana (Nana 1880)
  10. a fine house (poet Bouille 1882)
  11. the Paradies of the ladies (outer one bonheur the dames 1883)
  12. the joy alive (La joie de vivre 1884)
  13. Germinal (Germinal 1885)
  14. the work (L'ouevre 1886)
  15. the earth (La terre 1887)
  16. the dream (Le rêve 1888)
  17. the Bestie in humans (La bête humaine 1890)
  18. the money (L'argent 1891)
  19. the collapse (La débâcle 1892)
  20. doctor Pascal (Le docteur Pascal 1893)

the volumes of the cycle Trois Villes

  1. Lourdes (1894)
  2. Rome (1896)
  3. Paris (1898)

the volumes of the cycle Quatre Evangiles

  1. Fécondité (1899)
  2. Travail (1901)
  3. Vérité (1903)


  • Irene Albers: Seeing and knowing. The photographic in the novel work Émile Zolas. Munich: Finch. 2002. (= theory and history of the literature and the beautiful arts; 105) ISBN 3-7705-3769-6
  • refuge existing building: Between old and new possessing class. Stendhal,Balzac, Flaubert, Zola. Beitr. to French society history. Berlin: Reimer. 1987. (= writings to the culture sociology; 8) ISBN 3-496-00899-7
  • Veronika Beci: Émile Zola. Duesseldorf and. A.: Kind-badly and. Winkler. 2002. ISBN 3-538-07137-3
  • Marks of Berne pool of broadcasting corporations: Emile Zola. With self certifications and picture documents.6. Aufl.Reinbek with Hamburg: Rowohlt. 1997. (= rororo; 50024; Rowohlts Monographien) ISBN 3-499-50024-8
  • Manuela Biele Wrunsch: The artist friendship between Édouard Manet and Émile Zola. Aesthetic and genericspecific contacts and differences. Taunusstein: Driesen. 2004. ISBN 3-936328-17-X
  • Martin brown: Emile Zola and the romance.Hereditary load or inheritance? Study of a complex naturalism conception. Tübingen: Stauffenburg. 1993. (= Erlanger novelistic documents and work; 10) ISBN 3-923721-99-4
  • Ronald Daus: Zola and the French naturalism. Stuttgart: Metzler. 1976. (= collection Metzler; 146) ISBN 3-476-10146-0
  • Frederick W. J. Hemmings: EmileZola. Chronicler and prosecutor of its time. Biography. Frankfurt/Main: Fischer. 1981. (= Fischer library; 5099) ISBN 3-596-25099-4
  • Willi Hirdt: Alcohol in the French naturalism. The context of the Assommoir. Bonn: Bouvier. 1991. (= papers to the art, music and literature science; 391) ISBN 3-416-02286-6
  • Elke emperor: Knowledge and telling with Zola. Reality modelling in the Rougon Macquart. Tübingen: Fool. 1990. (= Romanica Monacensia; 33) ISBN 3-8233-4300-9
  • Karl grain: Zola in its time. Frankfurt/Main and. A.: Ullstein. 1984. (= Ullstein book; 27532; Life pictures)
  • Ralf Nestmeyer: “FrenchMore closely and their houses ". Island publishing house, Frankfurt 2005 ISBN 3-458-34793-3
  • Viktor Roth: Émile Zola around the turn of the century. Stations of a kämpferischen personal record. Nördlingen: Stone Meier. 1987.
  • Vera Ingunn Moe: German naturalism and foreign literature. To the Rezeption of the works of Zola, Ibsen andDostojewski by the German naturalistische movement (1880-1895). Frankfurt/Main and. A.: Long. 1983. (= European university writings; Row 1; 729) ISBN 3-8204-5262-1
  • Peter Müller: Emile Zola, the author in the area of conflict of its epoch. Apologie, society criticism and social transmission consciousness in its thinkingand literary work. Stuttgart: Metzler. 1981. (= Rome anise tables papers; 3) ISBN 3-476-00477-5
  • Rolf Sältzer: Lines of development of the German Zola Rezeption from the beginnings to the death of the author. Berne and. A.: Long. 1989. (= New York University Ottendorfer of series; N. F.; 31) ISBN 3-261-03928-0
  • Susanne Schmidt: The contrast technology in the “Rougon Macquart” of Emile Zola. Frankfurt/Main and. A.: Long. 1989. (= Bonn one novelistic work; 30) ISBN 3-631-40612-6
  • Karl Zieger: The admission of the works of Emile Zola by the Austrian literature criticism thatTurn of the century. Berne and. A.: Long. 1986. (= European university writings; Row 18; 44) ISBN 3-261-03560-9
  • 100 years Rougon Macquart in the change of prescription ion history. At the same time supplement to the magazine of contributions to the Roman philology, hrsg. of Winfried Engler and. Rita Schober. Tübingen: Fool. 1995. ISBN 3-8233-4145-6

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