Austria Hungary

the kingdoms and countries represented in the realm advice
and the countries of the holy Hungarian step Hans crown

Austria Hungary in the year 1914
office languages German, Hungarian and other “nationalusual” languages (Polish, Czech, Serbo-Croatian, Slovenian, Ukrainian, Italian)
capital Vienna
largest cities 1910 Vienna 2.031.000
Budapest 882,000 (with suburbs 935,000)
Prague 224,000 (with suburbs 550,000)
head of state Franz Joseph I. (1848/1867 - 1916)
Karl I. (1916 - 1918)
state religion Roman catholicism
surface 680,887 km ² (1907)
inhabitant 48.592.000 (1907)
establishment 8. June 1867
currency Austrian crown
national anthem God receives the emperor Handelsflagge
coat of arms
Wappen („k. u. k. Doppeladler“)
to Franz („k. and. k. Double eagle “)
Wappen seit 1915
coat of arms since 1915
Ungarn, Krone
Hungary, crown
Austria Hungary, end 19. Century

the double monarchy Austria Hungary (official designation: The kingdoms and countries represented in the realm advice and the countries of the holy Hungarian step Hans crown, Hungarian birodalmi tanácsban képviselt királyságok és országok és A magyar szent corona országai), also as imperial and royal ( k.u.k.) monarchy designated A, having castle existed as a head of state from 1867 to 1918 with the emperor of Austria and Apostoli king of Hungary of the house. Before the entire area standing under habsburgerischer rule was called Kaisertum Austria.

The many people state with a surface of 676.615 km ² (1914) and with 52,8 millions Inhabitants (1914) the area of the today's states covered Austria, Hungary, Tschechien, Slowakei, Slowenien, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegowina, as well as parts of Romania, Poland, the Ukraine, Italy and Serbia and Montenegros. Austria Hungary thereby was surface moderate the second largest state of Europe (to Russia) and after the total population the third biggest (to Russia and the German Reich).

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history

from reconciliation to the First World War

Austria Hungary became with Austrian-Hungarian reconciliation to 8. June 1867 based. The present Treaty secured the equal rights of Hungary in state-legal relation to Austria.

The defeat of the German federation had gone to that ahead against Prussia in the battle with Königgrätz in the year 1866. The consequence from it was the dissolution of these loose Konföderation of German states. The Kaisertum Austria, which had up to then the presidency in this federation, saw itself informing itself now forced with the Hungary. Already 1848/49 came it into Hungary under the guidance of Lajos Kossuth to the liberty fight against Austria, of which however with the support Russia one struck down. In order have-castle-reach on the inside to strengthen, took place its restructuring, whereby the emperor became a common constitutional head of state and the interests of the foreign policy, the foreign trade and military affairs were operated together. This agreement was called material union.

Reconciliation with the Hungary led however to the protest of the remaining groups of peoples, in particular the Slawen. Thus z demanded. B. everything in front also the Czechs a equal position of their people with the Germans (Austrians) and Hungary. The unconsidered interests of other groups of peoples or assimilation attempts (z. B. the Magyarisierungspolitik in Hungary) led to ethnical tensions and to terms like “people dungeons”.

to 28. June 1914 visited the Austrian-Hungarian successor to the throne ore duke Franz Ferdinand and his Mrs. Sarajevo, the capital 1908 annektierten Bosnia. Franz Ferdinand was considered as reform ready and was open for a equal participation of the Südslawen as the third state State of (Trialismus). On that day Serbia committed for the first time the Veitstag as official state holiday, which meant the anniversary of the battle on the blackbird field, at which 1389 the Serbs destroying of the Turks was struck. Nationalists, who demanded united Serbia, felt the attendance of the pair as provocation. While a drive by Sarajevo the pair became shot by the per-Serbian assassin Gavrilo Princip, which to a serious state crisis, which July crisis so mentioned, led. Thereupon the Austrian-Hungarian emperor Franz Joseph received a loyalty confession the German emperor Wilhelm II., in which it insured, “stand in conformity with its alliance obligations and its old friendship faithfully at the page of Austria Hungary [too]”. This loyalty confession provided without returns is well-known also under the designation in blank cheque. How far at this time the European war already lay in the calculation of the German leadership, is today disputed in the historical research until (see Fischer controversy). To 23. July placed an ultimatum to Austria Hungary at Serbia, since one assumed Serbia had crucial influence at the assassination attempt. The answer from Belgrade was flexible, however as insufficient was rejected, which the declaration of war of Austria Hungary at Serbia to 28. July pulled. The Russian general mobilization followed, since Russia saw itself due to the Panslawismus as Behüter of the slawischen peoples, and thus into the war against Austria Hungary to enter had. Thereupon casus foederis, the case of alliance, and also the German Reich came into force occurred the war. Because of different alliances also soon France and Great Britain explained their war entrance, with which the beginning of the First World War was not to be stopped any longer.

Austria Hungary in the First World War

the First World War began with the conflicts between Austria Hungary and Serbia during July 1914. The Russian general mobilization followed, in order to hurry the war-threatened Serbs to assistance. Both the German empire and Austria Hungary went without armored vehicles into the First World War.

Italy remained first neutral. It did not see itself despite the alliance (three-federation) with Austria Hungary and the German Reich in the obligation, since this had been a defensive alliance, and Italy the Central Powers for the responsible persons of the outbreak of war held. 1915 changed the sides finally for Italy and fought for the Entente in hope to conquer areas of the Danube monarchy.

General staff boss of the Austrian-Hungarian army was during the First World War a general Franz Conrad of Hötzendorf, under whose command the troops struck at the beginning of Serbia, which repelled ways to Hungary of defended and Italian attacks in Gorizia. The Russians began with their substantial support for the Serbian army. Although the Austrian-Hungarian army under a large number of hurting suffered, it succeeded to achieve and even into hostile territory penetrate them nevertheless also victories, although with German assistance and guidance. Thus happen with the victory in Galizien, led from Germany , in May 1915, which brief conquest of Belgrade 1915 and with Caporetto at the Italian front in October 1917, which the Italians forced to the retreat. Prisoners of war were kept firm among other things in the large camps victory mouth mountain and field brook. Large internment camps were in Drosendorf, Karl stone to the Thaya and bulk sow. In the course of the war the Austrian-Hungarian war efforts were subordinated ever more to those the German leadership. The last war years were characterized by bottlenecks, shrinking moral and restrictions of the operation abilities, which is to due to the high rate of wounding.

In June 1918 general staff boss of Hötzendorf with the remnants of the Austrian-Hungarian army undertook a final pliers movement. Their failure left a wounded realm, which was afflicted in October 1918 by an attack under Italian guidance. By the victory in the battle of Vittorio Veneto the remainder of the Austrian army one struck, with which the rule of the having citizens was terminated.

To end of the war many former k went. and. k. Soldier in the people resistance, and later into the again created federal army, over.

end of the double monarchy

short before the collapse of the monarchy, to 16. October 1918, issued Karl I. the people communist manifesto. This communist manifesto should Austria Hungary into a Konföderation convert and thus to the other groups of peoples same rights grant. In it all nationalities were called in addition to form own representative governments (national advice). Although a revision of the constitution already was at the beginning of the yearly 1918 in work, this profound transformation of the state should be carried out only according to a peace treaty. But this last attempt for the rescue of the state thing came too late and had into reality also no chance. By the national advice the peoples from the double monarchy said good-bye. To 28. October was proclaimed in Prague the Czechoslovakian republic and Hungary explained to 31. October its withdrawal from the state federation. Even new German Austria already saw itself as part of a German Federal State.

Of Austria Hungary dissolution after the First World War

at the 3. November 1918 came into force the armistice of mansion Giusti , at the 11, closed under the direction of general Viktor weber of noble from Webenau with the allied ones. November did the emperor without the Regierungsgeschäfte. Into that Paris suburb contracts (contract of Saint Germain for Austria and contract of Trianon for Hungary) the cessions of territory and borders of the succession states of the monarchy were officially specified.

The contract of Saint Germain ratified the end k.u.k. - Double monarchy and brought the international-law acknowledgment of the succession states to Hungary, Poland, Czechoslovakia, “kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes” (starting from 1929 Yugoslavia) and cessions of territory at Italy and Romania with itself. Besides it forbade the connection to Germany and the use of the name “German Austria”. Hungary lost two thirds of the national territory.

after 1919 Karl

von Habsburg contact held restoration attempts to monarchistic circles, particularly in Hungary after the decay of the double monarchy, where it was considered officially further as a king. However Miklós Horthy implemented the office of the head of state as realm Weser. In the framework its accomplished Karl of two futile restoration attempts in Hungary, the first Easter 1921 and second to 20. October 1921. It showed up however that Miklós Horthy, at least under indication of consequences with regard to foreign policy for not giving up was ready its office.

Otto von Habsburg started the most realistic restoration attempt during the Second World War, by winning vienna clay/tone Churchill for the concept of the Danube federation. In the area of Austria and Hungary a new State of “Austria Hungary” should develop after the model of the condition of Belgium, which combines likewise two large subpopulations, while the South German countries Bavaria, Baden, Württemberg and Hohenzollern Sigmaringen should be likewise restored as monarchies. The states developed in such a way should be combined in the South German federation, which represents simply one on South Germany limited variant of the historical German federation. The concept failed however because of the refusal by Franklin D. Roosevelt and Josef Stalin to the conference of Teheran.

handing hurry and countries

the river Leitha formed by sections the border between the two realm halves Austria and Hungary (the today's burgenländischen west border corresponds). From this were derived the names Cisleithanien („country on this side of the Leitha “for the western realm half) and Transleithanien („country beyond the Leitha “for the eastern realm half). Cisleithanien was called official in realm rate of represented kingdoms and countries, which became individual countries also as crowning countries designation. The countries Transleithaniens were called officially the countries of the holy Hungarian step Hans crown.

Beyond that existed the area of Bosnia and Herzegowina, administered together by both realm halves, which were occupied 1878 and 1908 under acceptance of the Bosnian annex ion crisis were integrated into the realm federation.

in the realm advice represented kingdoms and countries (Cisleithanien) 1910
country capital (inhabitant) surface in km ² inhabitant
Kingdom of Böhmen Prague (224.000) 51,948 6.769.000
Kingdom of Dalmatien Zadar (14.000) 12,833 646,000
Kingdom of Galizien and Lodomerien Lemberg (206.000) 78,493 8.025.000
ore duchy Austria under the Enns Vienna (2.031.000) 19,822 3.532.000
ore duchy Austria whether the Enns Linz (71.000) 11,981 853,000
duchy Bukowina Czernowitz (87.000) 10,442 800,000
duchy Kärnten complaint ford (29.000) 10,327 396,000
duchy Krain loaf oh (47.000) 9,955 526,000
duchy Salzburg Salzburg (36.000) 7,153 215,000
duchy (Austrian) Schlesien Troppau (31.000) 5,147 757,000
duchy Steiermark Graz (152.000) 22.426 1.444.000
Mark county Mähren Brünn (126.000) 22,222 2.622.000
Gefürstete county Tirol Innsbruck (53.000) 26,683 946,000
coastal country Triest (161.000) 7,969 895,000
Vorarlberg Bregenz (of 9.000) 2,601 145,000
countries of the holy Hungarian step Hans crown (Transleithanien) 1910
country capital surface in km ² inhabitant
Kingdom of Hungary Budapest (882.000) 282,297 18.265.000
Kingdom of Croatia and Slawonien Agram (80.000) 42,534 2.622.000
Fiume with area Fiume (39.000) 21 48,800
under common administration both handing hurry 1910
country capital surface in km ² inhabitants
Bosnia and Herzegowina Sarajevo (52.000) 51,082 1.932.000

population and nationalities

of the total population of Austria Hungary 1910

area absolute absolute per cent
of Cisleithanien 28.571.934 55.6
Transleithanien 20.886.487 40,6
Bosnia and Herzegowina 1.931.802 3.8
altogether 51.390.223 100.0

the nationalities of Austria Hungary 1910

well Distribution OF Races in Austria Hungary Historical Atlas, William R. Shepherd, 1911
nationality absolute absolute per cent
German 12.006.521 23.36
Hungary 10.056.315 19.57
Czechs 6.442.133 12.54
Poland 4.976.804 9.68
Serbs and Croat 4.380.891 8.52
Ruthenen (Ukrainer) 3.997.831 7.78
Romanians 3.224.147 6.27
Slowaken 1.967.970 3.83
Slovenes of 1.255.620 2.44
Italians 768,422 1.50
other ones 2.313.569 4.51
altogether 51.390.223 100.00

religions in Austria Hungary 1910

religion/denomination total state Austrian </br> realm half Hungarian </br> realm half Bosnia and </br> Herzegowina
catholic 76.6% 90.9% 61.8% 22.9%
Protestanten 8.9% 2.1% 19.0% 0%
Greek-orthodox 8.7% 2.3% 14.3% 43.5%
Jew 4.4% 4.7% 4.9% 0.6%
Muslims 1.3% 0% 0% 32.7%

colloquial languages in the crowning countries of the Austrian realm half

country main colloquial language other languages (more than 2%)
Böhmen Czech (63.2%) German (36.8%)
Dalmatien Serbo-Croatian (96.2%) Italian (2.8%)
Galizien Polish (58.6%) Ukrainian (40.2%)
Lower Austria German (95.9%) Czech (3.8%)
upper Austria German (99.7%)
Bukowina Ukrainian (38.4%) Romanian (34.4%), German (21.2%), Polish (4.6%)
Kärnten German (78.6%) Slovenian (21.2%)
Krain Slovenian (94.4%) German (5.4%)
Salzburg German (99.7%)
Schlesien German (43.9%) Polish (31.7%), Czech (24.3%)
Steiermark German (70.5%) Slovenian (29.4%)
Mähren Czech (71.8%) German (27.6%)
Tirol German (57.3%) Italian (42.1%)
coastal country Slovenian (37.3%) Italian (34.5%), Serbokoatisch (24.4%), German (2.5%)
Vorarlberg German (95.4%) Italian (4.4%)

source: Census of the 31.Dezember 1910, publishes in: Geographical Atlas to native country customer to the Austrian middle schools. K. and. k. Yard-cartographic institute G. Freytag & Berndt, Vienna, 1911.

Magyarisierungspolitik in Hungary

after reconciliation with Austria came it 1868 within the Hungarian realm half to a Hungarian-Croatian reconciliation. This reconciliation assured Croatia and Slawonien a limited autonomy. In the other parts of Hungary the tensions under the groups of peoples increased however. Reasons for these tensions were on the one hand the Magyarisierungspolitik of the Hungarian government and the increase of the intolerance of the nationalities among themselves. Contrary to the minorities such as Slowaken or Romanians, living in Hungary , the nationalism that had Hungary the Staatsmacht on its side and was thus in the stronger position. The conversion that actually liberal minority legislation had success in such an atmosphere hardly. The nationality law of 1868 determined Hungarian as state language, permitted however minority languages on regional, local and church level. But this regulation was often put not into practice and the minorities saw themselves to assimilation attempts suspended on the part of that Hungary. To make claimant starting from 1875 under Prime Minister Kálmán Tisza (1875 - 1890) a consistent Magyarisierungspolitik around all Nichtmagyaren in 40 years Hungary.

Already in the revolution year 1848 seized slowakische member of the Hungarian parliament the initiative around itself with the emperor Unterstützung against the Magyarisierungspolitik to get. A declaration with “demands of the slowakischen nation” was made, which one handed to the emperor and the Hungarian national government over. The Föderalisierung Hungary, the constitution of a ethnopolitischen unit, the definition of the slowakischen borders, its own federal state parliament, a slowakische national guard, national symbols, the right to use of the slowakischen language, general right to vote and a equal agency in the Hungarian parliament was demanded. The Hungary however saw thereby their powerful position in the Slowakei in danger and reacted with martial law and warrants of arrest against the slowakischen national leaders. In Vienna and Böhmen slowakische governments-in-exile were established, which became hopes of the Slowaken however disappointed. After the revolution one let the Hungary with its centralistic administration grant. The reconciliation of 1867 delivers the minorities now completely the Magyarisierungspolitik, their requests except for small exceptions of Vienna and Budapest was ignored. Between 1881 and 1901 the Slowaken did not have own delegates in the Hungarian parliament, also thereafter was it in the relationship less than their population portion constituted. Attempts forwards and during the First World War the Serbian and Romanian nationalism with concessions, considered on expansion, against to work, came too late.

economics

industrialization

note of the double monarchy

the Austrian-Hungarian economy changed during the existence of the double monarchy substantially. The technical changes accelerated both the industrialization and the urbanisation. While the old institutions of the Feudalsystems disappeared ever more, capitalism on the national territory of the Danube monarchy spread. First particularly economical centers developed Vienna, in the Colonel egg Mark , around the capital in the Vorarlberg and in Böhmen, before in the further process of the nineteenth century the industrialization held also in central Hungary and the Karpaten introduction. Result of this structure were enormous inequalities in the development within the realm, because the restaurant regions lain west generally gained far more, than the eastern. 20 was up to beginning . Century in the approximately entire national territory the economy rapidly grown and the entire economic growth could quite measure with that of other European great powers, but due to late using of this development, Austria Hungary remained further in the international comparison backward. Principal trade partners were before the First World War with far distance in the first place the German Reich (1910: 48% of all exports, 39% of all imported goods), followed of Great Britain (1910: scarcely 10% of all exports, 8% of all imported goods). The trade with geographically neighbouring Russia had against it only a relatively small weight (1910: 3% of all exports, 7% of all imported goods). Principal trade goods were agricultural products.

triumphant advance of the railway

the rail transport expanded in Austria Hungary rapidly. Already in the predecessor state, which have-castle-reach, 1841 had developed outgoing from Vienna an important portion of Schienenverbindungen. Reason for it was that the government had recognized the large Potenzial of the Eisenbahnverkehrs for military purposes, and thus much in their development invested. Important centers such as Bratislava, Budapest, Prague, Krakau, Graz, Ljubljana and Venedig were integrated into the network. 1854 was about sixty to seventy per cent of the 2000 kilometers of rail distance in national force. However the government began at this time large distance sections at private investors to sell, in order to become the financial load gentleman, which had developed due to the revolution of 1848 and the Krimkriegs.

Almost the complete railway system of private investors was taken over from 1854 to 1879. In this time the route distance in Cisleithanien by 7952 kilometers, in Hungary extended by 5839 kilometers, which had as a consequence that new areas were taken up to the reticulated system and to more connections developed. From now on it was to be achieved possible also far remote areas and be integrated into economic progress, at times, when transport still on rivers was dependent, was not possible which.

After 1879 the Austrian-Hungarian government began the railway system work because of the ponderous development during the world-wide economic crisis in the seventies 19. To put under state control century again. Between 1879 and 1900 in Cisleithanien and Hungary more than 25000 kilometers new rail distance were put on, which had as a consequence that some areas, with priority far lain east, were merged for the first time into the network. During this period it succeeded to reduce the double monarchy by means of course employment the transport costs on the inside and to open new markets outside of the country.

state-legal construction

of the emperors of Austria was in personnel union also king of Hungary. This happened in the own right and no longer in derivative from the Austrian. Hence it followed that the monarch in Hungary could be crowned also to the king.

The realm unit was expressed apart from the personnel union also by common Ministries (outside, war and Treasury). This construction was called material union. All institutions, which concerned both realm halves (for example the army), became as „k. and. k. “(imperially and royally) designates.

The government of Cisleithanien became only with „k. - k. “(„imperial-royally “) designates, whereby royally on the böhmische referred here, which the Austrian emperor likewise held. Government and institutions of the Hungarian realm half became with „M. kir. “(magyar királyi) or „kgl. ung. “(„royally Hungarian “) designates.

To 14. November 1868 after the re-organization of the emperors specified ruler title and state name:

  • With contracts locked in the name of the emperor:
    Emperor of Austria and Apostoli king of Hungary
  • personal designation:
    Its K. and. k. Apostoli majesty
  • state name:
    Austrian-Hungarian monarchy

ruler

Kaiser Franz Joseph I.
emperor Franz Joseph I.
  • Franz Joseph I. 1867-1916
    • 8. June 1867 coronation/culmination to the king of Hungary (I. Ferenc József)
    • 21. November 1916 died
  • Karl I. 1916-1918
    • 21. November 1916 mounting the emperor throne, coronation/culmination should take place after the war
    • 30. December 1916 coronation/culmination to the king of Hungary as a Karl IV. (IV. Károly)
    • 11. November 1918 government renouncement in the Austrian realm half (no resignation)
    • 13. November 1918 government renouncement in the Hungarian realm half (no resignation)


military affairs

major item: Austrian-Hungarian military affairs

name

  • Austrian-Hungarian monarchy
  • k. and k. Monarchy: aiserliche and k önigliche monarchy Danube monarchy stand for
  • k: On a length of approximately 1,300 km the Danube flowed through the monarchy and formed the main stream.
  • Double monarchy: From the state-legal construction both handing hurry and the double eagle of the coat of arms (however already 1867 ago used was) resulted.
  • Kakanien: Expression the entered vernacular originates from the novel the man without characteristics from Robert Musil and agitates from the contraction k. - k. (imperial-royally), which was used on the part of the administration for the cisleithanische realm half.

see also

literature

  • J. Ulbrich: The public law of the Austrian-Hungarian monarchy (= manual of the public right of the presence in Monographien. Bd. 4: Public law of the except-German states. I). Freiburg i. Break. 1884
  • the Austrian-Hungarian monarchy in word and picture (the crowning prince work in such a way specified), 24-bändige landeskundliche encyclopedia over all crowning countries of the monarchy, yard printering, Vienna 1885-1902
  • Adam Wandruszka (Hrsg.): The having citizen monarchy 1848-1918. Vienna, 1973-2000 (at present 11 volumes)
  • A. I. Hickmann (Hrsg.): Geographical-statistic bag Atlas of Austria Hungary, 3. Edition, Vienna and Leipzig.

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