Austrian

the designation Austrian stands for:

Historically there are the still following terms:

  • German Austrians or German Austrians for the German-speaking population of the “many people state” Austria Hungary; for the inhabitants of German Austria and/or. the 1. Republic of Austria.
  • Old Austrians designate(only) the Austrians today all former inhabitants of the Austria-Hungarian double monarchy, that did not live today's Austria in the area. With respect to groups of peoples (nationalities) one differentiates and/or. as the simplest method after the prevailing languages German, several slawischer, Roman and Hungarian native languages.

Table of contents

history

the origin of the name decreases/goes back on Ostarrichi (about „defined area in the east “); the word changed in the way of writing to Austria. The oldest well-known documentary mention of the name comes outthe year 996 and was the name for a region close new yards to the Ybbs in the today's Lower Austria. Historians assume Ostarrichi designated the Marcha Orientalis („Marks in the east ") the Babenberger (today for instance the Lands of the Federal Republic upper and Lower Austria). Austrians were toothat time thus the inhabitants of this country; on the one hand the members of the aristocracy and the knight shank and on the other hand the not-noble citizens. The country developed comparably the formation of the Steirer and the animal oilers in the high Middle Ages.

In the late Middle Ages the prince house of the having citizens transferred „the house Austria “with its inhabitants. In the process of the following centuries the having citizens increased their possessions first around the today's Steiermark, then Görz (Kärnten), Krain and Tirol, until it corresponded to the today's Republic of Austria in for instance the area. 1526 came still the Kingdoms of Hungary and Böhmen (with Mähren, Schlesien and Lausitz) under the rule having citizens of the prince in Vienna and thus to „the house Austria”.

By „the Austrians” becomes also in the chronicles of the European wars 18. and 19. Century reports. The Austrian armies covered thereby soldiersmost different nationalities (nationalities) from the countries having citizens of the emperor. The having citizens at the same time placed for many centuries the emperor of the holy Roman realm of German nation and dominated, as the strongest the federation belonging power, in 19. Century the following German federation.

The inhabitants of the having citizen realm defined themselves usually,independently of their language, over their national affiliation, thus as Böhmen, animal oiler, Steirer. With the growing together of the having citizen realm also the identity became as an Austrian (likewise independent of the language) more strongly, particularly with members of the army and the official conditions. In order to define German-speaking Austrians of anderssprachigen, becamealso the term “German” uses.

Only due to developing the understanding of the affiliation to a nation grew the idea of a nation as a state-basic people after the French revolution. That was particularly with the not-German-language population the case, in particular with the Czechs changed into reconciliation. In addition, the German-speaking population identified itself more strongly with the Austrian state, developed an understanding of the affiliation to a kind German culture nation.

In 19. Century, after the end of the HRR, came it to efforts of the different German states, to a common realmto together-find and to considerations, in which form a largeGerman realm would be realizable, all German-speaking humans of Central Europe (with exception of the Dutchmen and Swiss), thus therefore the Austrians, in a realm unite should. The German federation under guidance of the having citizens originated in to 1815. 1871 became alsothe smallGerman solution in such a way specified the German national state (German Reich) without Austria formed under guidance of Prussia. From now on distinctive between (Germans) the Austrians and the realm German (a linguistic usage, that itself with many Austrians only after the fall of the common National Socialist largeGerman realm 1945changed). Austria, as part of a many people state (K.u.k. Monarchy), was continued to strengthen during this time and had with the having citizen emperor house, with princes Eugen von Savoyen or Franz Grillparzer its „national symbol figures”.

After the end of the First World War in the year 1918, the decay that, a new republic of those remaining Austrians “Cisleithaniens “developed for Austrian-Hungarian double monarchy on approximately an eighth of the former rule area of the having citizens. The establishment accompanied with the desire „German Austria “, like the name from 1918 to 1919 read, with in the meantime republican German Reich(German Republic of, late Weimar Republic) to unite, however with special privileges as well as Berlin and Vienna in the change as capitals. Nearly all political parties of Austria, with exception of the monarchists and the communists, strove for this combination. There were various motives for this combination desire: GermanNational thought, the economic situation (many considered small “remainder Austria” economically not survivable) or both. The union was then forbidden however by the allied powers for various reasons and also the state name had to be changed in accordance with the regulations in the contract by Saint Germain. To 21. October 1919the name in „Republic of Austria was changed “. The relationship to the national (Germans) identity remained zwiespältig in the following years. Width of parts of the Austrian population and German national parties, initially also socialists and Christian democrats, later the national socialists, wanted further the connection to the German Reich. Into thatYears since 1919 with many Austrians in addition, a new self understanding had developed and did not want therefore the independence of the new Republic of Austria maintained few.

As (since 1925 stateless people) the Austrians a Hitler, who became only as 43 year old (1932) citizen of the German Reich, itsHomeland to the German Reich attached, became thereby also its compatriots realm Germans. The terms „Austria “and „Austrians “were forbidden, which annektierte country left Hitler in „ostmark “and in „Danube and alpine realm gaus “to only rename later. Colloquially there were however further thoseAustrian; Hitler became among other things from his generals (and before of Paul von Hindenburg) devaluing as „the Austrian Gefreite” designates.

In now „the largeGerman realm “and in the fright time of the Hitler dictatorship and II. World war said good-bye many (former) Austrians mental after andafter of the German nation desired before. However of Hitler and the national socialist in this time particularly heroisierte „Deutschtum became “straight also of many Austrians ideologically strongly inside light. The proportional portion of the NSDAP - party members was in the ostmark (Austria) more highly than in the rest of realm area.

But it gave also Austrians, who carried civilian disobedience out, for example by public stating, like demonstrative applause with the praise of Austria during the performance of Grillparzers „to king Ottokars luck and end “in the German folk theatre, or by organizing themselves in groups of resistances. Their most well-known one had as symbol „O5 “selected - whereby „the 5 “the 5. , Thus „OE “designates letters of the alphabet („E “) for „o (sterreich) “.

After the fall of the largeGerman realm and the reestablishment of the Republic of Austria the designation lost „German Austrians” or „German Austrians” with the Austrians and in the other succession states„the third realm “rapidly at meaning.

See also: Foreign Austrian outside of

Austria constantly approximately

400,000

owners of the Austrian nationality live history of Austria [work on]; in addition come still some 100,000 native Austrians, who already accepted the nationality of their new homeland.

The majority of the foreign Austrians livesand works in Germany (185.000) and in Switzerland (40.000); further lives about 36,000 in central and South America, 30,000 in Australia, 28,500 in the USA and 22,500 in Africa.

Most emigrants in 20. Century left Austria for economic reasons, in the 1930er-Jahren and during“also many politically pursued ones and Jew went to the time „of the third realm into the exile.

1955 were created in Vienna as official protection of interests the association „foreign Austrian work “and furnished at the same time in the State Department a department for foreign Austrian [1 ].

the surname “Austrian”

acquaintance carrierthe name Austrian:


see also

Wiktionary: Austrian - word origin, synonyms and translations
 

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