Austrian film history
Austrian film history begins 19 with the developments of several scientific and business pioneers in the Austria . Century. Some substantial developments in the film technology decrease/go back on Austrian scientists and entrepreneurs.
The first ten years after the first film demonstration 1896 in of Austria Hungary capital Vienna by the brothers Lumière were further characterized by active Erfindertum and developing the first cinemas. The film production was limited for the time being to individual attempts and raids of private people. Only starting from approximately 1906 up to World War then numerous film production enterprises, which with literature filmings and dramas at the international silent movie market, which let listen attentively was dominated particularly by the Frenchmen, developed the First, for the first time. Financially strong French entrepreneurs were it also, who made the Austrian film producer up to the First World War at the home market large competition. To women at this time as director inside, producer inside and an important role came to film script authoresses, as it since that time were no more reached.
With outbreak of the First World War and thereby conditioned import prohibition of foreign films brought to the Austrian film industry isolated now an unexpected upswing. In the further silent movie time the Austrian film work reached its high point in the film production, particularly since the domestic Filmstudios near-dared itself now also to large and aufwändige productions. The emigration of domestic directors, producers and actors begins in addition, at the same time abroad. This was strengthened starting from center of the thirties by the increasing Repressionen of the national socialists on the entire German-language film market, which directed the emigration particularly into the Hollywood in developing.
During the national socialism Vienna beside Berlin and Munich become main one of the main manufacturing plants of the German propaganda films, by the National Socialist administered vienna film. In the post-war period despite large destruction, poverty and hunger starting from 1946 the first film production companies are already opened again or again based. With music comedies and homeland films the domestic film-creative would like to attach to the Austrian film work before the national socialism, and dissociate themselves at the same time from the National Socialist film.
Starting from the late 1960er-Jahren is to be noticed apart from the using cinema dying due to always far common medium television also arising a kind „the new Austrian film “. The number of productions altogether achieved however in these years a lowest point been never there with many years in those straight mark five to ten films was manufactured. Reason for it was among other things the rising influence of the American film.
Into the 1990er-Jahren the revival of the Austrian film began. After decades of the music comedies, the homeland and Kriminalfilms one dared oneself now - often socialcritical - documentary films and dramas near, like these last at the beginning 20. Century were on a large scale produced.
inventions 1832 the invention „of the Lebensrads “- a turning stroboscopic disk, on which a small number of pictures is fastened, the one continuously repeating course of motion resulted in - via the animal oiler mathematician and astronomer Simon soil compactor. It lets it successfully multiply starting from 1833 under the designation „to charm disks “.
Later accomplished some years Franz of Uchatius of attempts to combine „the charm disks “with the Laterna magica so that the moved pictures several persons can be demonstrated at the same time. From this „ the apparatus developed for that for the representation of mobile pictures “, from the Schausteller and charm artist Ludwig Döbler to 14. Jänner was demonstrated 1847 in the Josefstädter theatre the first time.
For the projection objectives were used, which became of Joseph Maximilian Petzval of the company Voigtländer originally for the haven guessing photography polished. Before it was 40 years university professor for mathematics, mechanics and practical geometry.
Viktor of Reitzner announced to 25. Jänner 1891 one „photographic, continuierlich working series and Projectionsapparat “ to „the privilege “(= patent) on, in March takes place also a patent in Germany. The evaluation took place however only 1896 under the name „Kinetograf “. Also the physicist Ernst Mach contributed his part to film history. With investigations and experiments to animal and vegetable growth he developed the quick-motion apparatus technology.
Since 1887 the reproduction technician Theodor realm was occupied with moment photographies. During its time of employment in London it developed a series picture camera, which was functional starting from 1895 starting from 1894. But when it announced it in June 1896 in England to the patent, it was to be placed already too late around jedwege requirements on the use of this technology.
1898 developed Paul Rudolph with the Cinemascope procedure a new method for the picture enlargement. Of the Cinemascope-Film wurde jedoch erst in pine 1950er - Jahren zu einer großen Konkurrenz gegenüber pine bisherigen film product ions.
1904 announced August Musger its „series apparatus with mirror wheel “to the patent. However it failed during the prototype production. Because of financial difficulties later also the patent expired. 1914 brought however the enterprise out Ernemann in Dresden a slow motion apparatus , which had taken over construction principle August Musgers without its denomination. With the physicist of the society, Dr. Hans Lehmann, stood for Musger quite often in exchange of letters.
starting from the first demonstrations until 1914
first film demonstrations
starting from 1885 existed with „the emperor panorama “, in which up to 12 visitors were allowed at the same time to take view against payment of a Stereoskop, already in former times a predecessor of the cinema.
1896 were the year, when in the Schaubude of Josefine Kirbes in the Viennese Wurstelprater was to have found the first presentation of „living pictures “instead of. Only somewhat later took place to 20. March of this yearly in the Viennese lehr and laboratory for photography and reproduction procedure first occupied public Kinovorführung with the Lumière' Kinematographen before loaded public.
Starting from 27. Daily conception in the Mezzanin of the house Kärntnerstrasse 45/Ecke jug first race 2 in the first district of Vienna followed March. There Eugène Dupont, an envoy of the Lumières, which their invention in all large cities of Europe admits to make wanted, presented their first works. This happened against an entrance fee of 50 cruisers and was daily possible from 10 o'clock in the morning to 8 o'clock in the evening. At the program stood short Dokumentarszenen of the Lumières, which lasted only few minutes long. The new free one press praised the quality of the photographs, and delivered with its report for the opening of this conference room the first film criticism of Austria. In April 1896 the program was updated to a large extent with newer works, and to 17. April more visited also the emperor the Etablissement, which conversed on French with the owner - so the new free one press at that time.
Without exception imported the Kinematographen - in Austria year still long none existed such producer - is from then on mostly with Schaustellern in the Wurstelprater, on fairs, to find in Wanderkinos and also in „the city Panoptikum “from Louis Veltée at the Kohl market 5. Als Oberösterreichs erster Wanderkinobetreiber gilt Johann Bläser.
The Wanderkinos are it also, which present the Kinematographen for the first time in nearly all large cities of the whole monarchy - if the brothers had not personally forestalled Lumière. Legal framework was that already 1836 issued „vagabond and looking plate law “, into first clings 20. Century also for the acquisition of cinemas and/or. demonstrating from films to application comes.
Of films one could not speak at that time yet. For technical reasons only few minutes long documentary and fiktionale „Kurzfilme were produced “with titles like „cases of a tree “, „pigeon feeding “, „shooting a feeler gauge in the Turkish-Greek war “ or „an uncanny dream “, which were shown immediately in the Schaubuden in the Prater or elsewhere in the city, beside other abnormalities and curiosities. Who the actors were played at that time inevitably only a subordinated role. First „filming acre “with recognizing value developed only with aufwändigeren and longer productions in the years after 1900.
Likewise 1897 was introduced in Linz for the first time short films in the context of a Varietéprogramms in „Roithner's Varieté “. The first complete film performance found to 20. March 1897 instead of - in the garden salon of the hotel „to the golden ship “<ref> smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Kutschera: Loved dream world. Linz 1961< /ref>. In Höritz in the Böhmerwald living and dying Jesus Christ the first performance took place on domestic produced Filmmaterial in this year at the performance of the play. To the Untersützung of the play a Kinematograf was present - 3000 meters film in the environment were turned off, by which 30 roles photographs to 30 meters each were finally demonstrated< ref> Peter A. Shower: Films in old Austria. Of the Höritzer Passionsfilm. Vienna 1996< /ref>.
1898, in December, gastierte the Wanderkino of Gottfried identification ice in the Viennese Neustädter hotel „to golden deer “produced films in the style of the brothers Lumière to present over there: „The arrival of a course taken up in the station by Viennese new city “ , „a tunnel travel in the prospect car while driving “, and „exit of the workers from the Lokomotivfabrik Viennese new city “<ref> E. Kieninger: A la Lumière. In: Media and time 4 (1993), S. 23< /ref>. Likewise 1898 were legally arranged that all entrepreneurs must for the public demonstration of films an examination placing. The number of the Schaubuden and small theatres continued to increase nevertheless in the following years. „Current pictures “enjoyed of large popularity.
at the beginning 20. Century
There is at the beginning of simple areas in hitting a corner hotels and yards of housing estates, into which as much as possible chairs were put into and the cinema programs with the bar by beverages and the sales of meals were accompanied. But already 1902 received the Viennese „“- operator Gustav Münstedt the concession to Singspielhalle for the establishment of a cinema in place of the Singspielhalle, „the Münstedt cinema palace “. Up to then it had given film demonstrations in circus tents and Jahrmarktbuden at the Wurstelprater in Vienna - apart from the demonstrations Eugène Duponts - only. Likewise 1902 began the Brünner Emil God-dear - called Homes - in its house at the Kohl market apart from „piano “and abnormality looking even playing also with kinematographischen demonstrations. The Homes Fey cinema, as „the world panorama was called “starting from 1905, had sensational success, which continued however not for a long time. Soon there were better equipped cinemas. Between 1903, when there were three cinemas in Vienna only, and 1905 also from several Schaubuden, theatres and tent cinemas cinemas developed further firm. Centers were thereby the internal city, which Wurstelprater and the Mariahilfer road in Vienna Maria-help.
1904 established itself as the first of the French film companies, which prepared large competition for Austrian productions up to the outbreak of the First World War, the Pathé Frères in Vienna, and began with the establishment of cinema halls. 1908 followed Gaumont and 1909 the Société Eclair.
1905 were created the first film rental business enterprise of Austria Hungary. In this year existed already six to cinemas in the Prater with the light play theatres quiet , Schaaf , Münstedt , core, small and shrubs, in which irregular customers by „Ausrufern “to „the Kinematographi conceptions “were enlisted. The Ausrufer - also „Rekommandeure “mentioned - was often the cinema operators themselves, which drew the attention of cinema irregular customers to their enterprise as word by word „signs “of the early Viennese. Thus they attached to a tradition, which had already given it in the Varietés. They were replaced still before the First World War by indicating panels. A large cinema outside of the Praters was starting from 1904 „ the tent cinema created by of Louis genius westends “, in which it let a lighting system, which help the cinema to large admittingness install.
When one took model for the cinema enterprise itself the theatre, and so for instance the writer appeared and composer max of Brod with a cinema attendance „amuses that there is here a cash, a clothes woman, music, programs, hall servant, seat rows, all this pedantisch exactly the same as in a real theatre with alive players “. Some of the 12 firm cinemas, which exist in Vienna around 1906, came out actually also from theatres. So for example the 1898 established Jantsch theatres, which 1905 in „Lustspieltheater were renamed “, and films before 800 up to 1000 Zusehern presented. The silent movies were accompanied mostly with electrical organs on those the most well-known opera and Operettenmelodien were at that time played. There were your “Pianospieler mentioned in the early silent movie time however also „.
„Pikante “Erotikproduktionen starting from 1906
Up to the year 1906 in Austria only foreign films, or films of foreign producers were shown, since up to this year still no Austrian film company existed.
Rapidly the erotischen Kurzfilme at that time of the 26-jährigen Viennese photographer Johann black one produced starting from center 1906 enjoyed of internationally extreme popularity among the men. In its photo studio in the pheasant lane 49 of the 3. Viennese of municipality district it created to it times the Saturn film, who ranked still among the first film production companies of the monarchy. It moved a little later to the ear mountain ring 15, where it could develop the production. Its it dispatched catalogs to the film selection also abroad. Thus Saturn studio stood pour film piquants “, from the reference „we makes followed here attentively that our film of purely artistic tendency it is and we avoid on the most embarrassing, for the beauty by Geschmacklosigkeit abort to do “at the catalog of the yearly 1907 written „.
To everyone of the 20 films offered in the catalog there was a specification and a photo - in such a way he had cribbed himself from from the large French Produktionsgesellschaften like the Pathé Frères. One charged after Filmlänge. Thus „ a modern marriage cost “ (1907) with 110 meters 1.907.198 crowns. Other films in the catalog were about „at the slave market “, „the sand bath “ and „female ring fighters “. Its business driving was interrupted at short notice 1911, when the police seized or censored the films. One year later was it, and Egon squints because of „pornographischer representations “ for 24 days in the district court Neulengbach was arrestiert.
1912 produced also max of Reinhardt its first film, which should be censored due to naked and Sexszenen. Whereupon in the paragraph „max of Reinhardt and the film will be entered still more in greater detail “. In the same year the dear savingist Felix Dörmann created „the Vindobona film together with the architect Tropp, which withdrew however still in the same year, “. In further consequence it was renamed 1913 in „of Helios film “, into „the Austria film “and afterwards into „the Duca film “, whose film studio was in the Kandlgasse 35 in the sieved Viennese municipality district new building. Since Dörmanns did not bring hoped for success to productions, it speculated in the need of the visitors after naked scenes. Films appeared like „one day in the life of a beautiful woman “, „the goddess of the love “and „side jump “, which were noticeable by the fact that the mainrepresenting women were shown frequently in the bathroom, with the sock change and even with the toilet attendance. Above all the Badesezenen was to be censored cause for the police these films, also years after „the pikanten films “by Johann of black ones. Its work ended at the latest with beginning of the First World War, where it as a reserve second lieutenant to engage had, and already in one of the first battles, to 10. October 1914, around the life came. Felix Dörmanns film company terminated its activity 1914, not least due to being missing success.
blossoming the Austrian film production
during in other European cities from the beginning own movie theater, developed in Vienna many shop cinemas were established. This were usually adapted restaurants, or narrow, long stretched business premises. 1908 gave it already to 25 of such cinemas, under it also „the Bellaria cinema “. The first film magazines were „Kinematographi round-look “starting from 1907 were given change, and „the Austrian comet “starting from 1908.
With 35 minutes the play length first evening-filling Austrian feature, „from stage to stage “, is under the direction of Heinz Hanus - which is to have written with Luise Kolm also film script - the producer and married man by Luise, Anton Kolm, as well as the assistant Jacob Julius mark in December 1908 in Vienna to have been uraufgeführt. But the only one the this - with exact data to turning places and action, as well as that the film was also abroad spread and still many further details, which it gave in interviews decades later from itself - testified, was an alleged film script author and director Heinz Hanus. Neither in newspaper reports nor in the two film magazines of the time at that time Austrian comet and Kinematographi round-look could a reference to such a production be found.
Several films with the title could be sought out „from stage to stage “, but came these from the German, French and American producers Pathé (1907), Duskes (1910), E. Verdigris (1912) and universal (1913). Loaded reliability of Hanus' statements also thereby that the first publicly announced features of Anton Kolm, which were substantially shorter alleged producers of „from stage to stage “, who appeared in the year 1910, all together than 35 minutes, and the film productions generally only in later years, with the arising of new techniques, became longer. Occupied however a performance of Robert is pride - „the luck girl “- in the Viennese Raimundtheater 1910. This play resembled that allegedly first Austrian feature contentwise in far parts.
In the year 1908 existed with Sophie Nehez the first Mrs. the Viennese film before leader examination. Prominent Viennese Cinemascope cinemas were in the first years „world mirrors “and „the Eos the cinema “. Karl Köster and Hermann Prechtl created 1908 firm „Kinematografen theatre “in complaint ford. In much-laugh existed at this time already two to cinemas. Between 1908 and 1910 19 clay/tone pictures ( shellac - record was demonstrated synchronously with the film) appeared the Operette very successful in Europe „the tome dream “.
1909 appeared the first accurately datable documentary film from Austrian production. Between 8. and 11. September 1909 filmed the photo bromine G.m.b.H. in largely Meseritsch „the emperor maneuvers in Mähren “, on which emperors Franz Joseph and his German colleague emperor Wilhelm II. acted. This remained however also the only production of this company.
and Luise Kolm created the Edison Kinetoskop 1910 - the daughter of Louis Veltée - as well as Jacob mark of Austria first Filmstudio under the name „first Austrian motion picture film industry “in Vienna. Still in the same year they called into „Austrian-Hungarian cinema industry total Ltd. the enterprise “over, and 1911 created them again it as „a Viennese art film industry total Ltd. “. The first production of the society appeared in the spring 1910: The carnival course in Colonels. Veit. A little later, to 14. March, filmed the young enterprise the funeral of mayor Karl Lueger. The film was shown in 22 Viennese cinemas. The Austrian comet commentated this in its expenditure of 24. March with „thus finally once a Viennese film, which will take its way by the world. “ Likewise already 1910 developed first advertising production in the broader sense: Since lady hats were very popular at this time, in cinemas however for poor visibility in the rear rows, produced Anton Kolm the hat in the cinema ensured, in order to provide for this problem of remedy.
The competition by foreign enterprises, which still controlled the market, was large. The Kolms and Jacob mark reacted to it in that it as possible filmed from the beginning as much, in order to be able to supply to the Viennese with cinemas current reports from Vienna. Among them events like the launching of a vessel k.u.k. - War navy - battle ship SMS Zrinyi in the port of Triest or the flight week at the airfield Viennese new city - at that time one of the largest airports of the world in still recent aviation history.
After French model Anton Kolm introduced the amusing Kurzfilm also into Austria . With the citizen of Berlin actor Oskar Sabo he had found his leading actor in production from 1910 , the bad mother-in-law. 1911 filmed Kolm types and scenes from the Viennese people life, where among other things the famous Viennese was to be seen people singers Edmung Guschelbauer, and 1912 Karl Blasel as a dentist with leading actor of the same name, who was already for approximately one decade a popular Viennese Komiker.
Austrian film scene around 1910
after the first years „of the cinema boom “were also in the 74 Viennese cinemas - from those 41 within the belt lay - which numerous films with the Frenchman max of Linder likes extremely. In this connection „the cinema small could provide “a good reputation, since it could offer already early regularly current foreign productions, it from Paris imported. By max Linder appeared alone in October 1910 each week a new film: „Les Débuts de Max of outer cinéma “(Austria premiere at the 1. October 1910), „COMMENT max fait le route you moons “(8. October), „Qui A tué max? “(15. October), „max prend un bain “(22. October) and „Le Soulier trop petit “(29. October).
Other films, those at this time premium ores, were among other things Italian production „Come fu che l'ingordigia rovino IL Natale A Cretinetti “with French plays the André Deed or one year later GermanAustrian CO production „Mueller and its child “, part of one, in beside German silent movie star the Henny havens and Friedrich the Zelnik with Curt A. Strongly also an Austrian along-played, as well as the purely Austrian continuation with other occupation, Mueller and its child, part of II, produces from the Viennese art film industry.
At that time one fell back gladly to literary collecting mains of well-known writers, in order to lure with well-known titles public in the cinema. The action of the books could be shown for lack of clay/tone and because of the small available recording time however only strongly weakened. Of Austria only important film company of the time at that time, the Viennese art film industry approximately around director and producer Anton Kolm reached into its productions on works of Ernst Raupach, Franz Grillparzer, E. T. A. Hoffmann or Ludwig Anzengruber back. Lively such filmings were d'Art however by those Paris production company film, which already ordered 1908 their manuscripts with the most well-known authors, and these then of the directors and actors of the largest stages to realize left. Also the Begleitmusik let that compose enterprises of famous composers, existente not for a very long time.
On literature collecting mains 1911 also the social dramas Mueller and his child, the village nincompoop, the luck doll, nut/mother were based - tragedy of a factory girl and only a poor farmhand of the Viennese art film industry.
In the numerous Wanderkinos of the time at that time above all comedies were shown and „documentations “like „Austrian alpine course, a travel after Maria cell “.
Since still „the vagabond and looking plate law “of the yearly 1836 applied, there was an active, but unsettled in Vienna, cinema movement. Licenses were assigned „as required “a cinema in a borough. This led to the fact that itself the mostly small shop cinemas often in few frequented side lanes or - roads settled. The consequence was that many of these cinemas closed still in the first months and years, or while maintaining their names into others, better frequented roads moved.
Consequence of the indistinct law situation were also doubtful regulations and proceedings in the administration. Like that approximately also one was „behaviour lamp “obligating for each cinema apart from an emergency lighting, and the Praterinspektionsbehörde pursued earnings during the cinema boom in every detail. Thus it came 1912, at the high point of the boom, for the increase the rent for cinema operators on tenfold, while the remaining Praterbetriebe remained exempted from this step of the Colonel yard master office.
1911 were created „the federation of the cinema kinoindustriellen “and in the year 1912 appeared of Vienna first own cinema law, „the Kinematographenverordnung “. Since that time one needed a concession for the enterprise of a cinema. In the same year the international cinema exhibition took place in Vienna the international Kinematographenkongress and.
The writer Felix Salten, who brought 1911 out a book over the Wurstelprater, granted the film a large future, which in primitive short productions at that time only few could recognize. Artistic requirement in addition, he wanted to only then grant to the film, „if it directors and actors would succeed, against the level of poor province stages to stand out “.
On a popular novel of the Frenchman George you Maurier appeared based 1912 the film Trilby, which 1914 under the name Svengali in somewhat longer form were equivalent again filmed. 1915 became the book also in the USA, and 1927 in Germany film - with Paul Wegener and Anita Doris (the later woman of the director E. W. Emo and nut/mother by Maria Emo) in the main roles. 1932 followed a further US production of the Kolm Erstverfilmung.
max of Reinhardt and the film
1912 were the year, in which the theatre director and director max of Reinhardt carry out his first film project. It created its own film company and let the literature filming the Mirakel produce. It at the same time could be secured also the exclusive rights for the filming of this work in many countries in the world, came around however nevertheless not around a law case, when still in the same year citizen of Berlin films a production company the book under same name.
1913 closed Reinhardt with the citizens of Berlin projection A. G. Union (Pagu) a contract off to manufacture for 600.000 Marks in the following years several films. However only two silent movies produced in Italy came out: „The island of the blessed ones “ and „a venetianische night “. In both films max Reinhardt his cameraman Karl friend some required off, since it required on special holders as for instance of the lagoon in the moon light. The island of the blessed ones praised of the criticism above all going by, there to Reinhardt „larger weight on the clarity of the expression and the stimulation of the expression play put “ (Kinematographi round-look, No. 276, 22. June 1913). The film remarkable by erotischen play style played on the one hand part in the antique one, where sea Gods, Nymphen and Faune occurred, and which went actors naked into action, and on the other hand part in the present, the strict customs adapted. Those predominantly citizen of Berlin actor had to take partly two roles - one in the past and one in the present. Thus Diepelmann and Willy Prager played William both the narrow-minded fathers and the sea Gods, and Ernst Matray bachelors and a Faun. Leopoldine Konstantin acted like the Circe.
Width of parts of the film should have fallen however the film censor to the victim. Here it acted beside naked scenes also over „the first Sexszenen turned by master hand “<ref> Fritz walter: In the cinema I experience the world. Vienna, 1996. S. 63< /ref>, which were described as follows in the censorship report: „In II. ‚Humans in view `the scenes of the naked Najaden up to that have act instants to be removed, where the same turn themselves and jump in water. Furthermore with exclusion of the scene, where the Faun is stung by Amors arrow and konvulsische twitching makes, where it away-carries the girl beta-constantly and, further must the scenes is removed, where the girl is because of the soil and is stroked by the Faun, where it wants to entreissen the sea God the Faun, so that the scene begins only again, where the young man saves the girl. In III. Act from the scene Philister on the island of the blessed ones, where Circe with the two old persons sits on the bank, must be removed everything from that instants, where its maid brings the charm drink. Further the dear scene between Circe and the two bachelors must away-remain. Only when way remaining all scenes enumerated here the film may arrive at the demonstration. “ (from the owners of cinema No. 37, the official organ of the realm federation of the owners of cinema in Austria). Actually however one cut not in such a way, one prescribed as.
Into „a venetianische night “ likewise actors of the German theatre played. Maria Carmi played the bride, Alfred Abel the young stranger, and Ernst Matray received this mark the roles of Anselmus and Pipistrello from max of Reinhardt. The turning work, which began at the station of Venice, was noticeable above all by the fact that the present Venezianer was instigated by an old fanatic against the German-language film-creative, in the consequence on the Filmapparat fell themselves and the photographs blocked. When the police arrived, however not the troublemakers, but the film-creative were taken firmly. Only on intervention of a German consul the turning work under presence could be continued and finished by police.
first foreign careers
apart from often the max of Reinhardt, which could be regarded after its film productions as most well-known Austrian film-creative abroad, creating in Germany, tried still some different their career luck abroad. Thus Erich von Stroheim pulled 1909 into the United States, where he hired himself for the time being in the again created Hollywood as Komparse. Soon he became however an assistant of director and producer David Griffith. Joe May produced Operetten in Hamburg and turned starting from 1912 among other things the film series approximately around detective Stuart Webbs. 1933 emigrierte the native Joseph almond - likewise after Hollywood. His Mrs. Hermine male nurse, admits Mia May under the artist name, went with him. Its brother, Heinrich iron brook, remained as an actor for the time being in Vienna.
The Viennese actor Georg William Pabst began at „the new Viennese stage “, played however starting from 1910 in New York, and in the First World War of the Frenchmen one interned. Admits became it however as a director in Austria. Joseph Delmont, that its career as cameraman in Mueller and its child began, worked briefly in the United States with wild animals before the camera, however career made in Germany as director and a film script author. Smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Oswald worked starting from 1913 in Berlin as Filmdramaturg, changed however only little later in the direction subject. For attention it provided as a founder of the clearing-up film with the treatment of taboo topics as for instance the abortion.
Hans Theyer and Eduard Hoesch made themselves earned as cameramen of Wochenschauen and features world-wide, particularly in Denmark. They furnished the majority of their work however in Austria, where Hoesch brought in itself after the Second World War as producer and a director of homeland films. 1911 begin Joseph of star mountain its Hollywood career. Up to its first direction it should last however still to 1924. In the following years he worked for the large film production companies, and 1930 he provides Marlene Dietrich, which had also already participated in one of May's films, with the main role in „the blue angel “, with which Dietrich the break-through succeeds.
rapid growth of the cinema and Filmwirtschaft and the first large-scale productions
to 15. March 1912 took place in Vienna the premiere of the first large film from Austrian production: The unknown quantity - based on a Kriminaldrama of Oskar Bendiener. Direction led Luise Kolm, which turned off 10,000 meters negative material and up-brought 10,000 crowns for production. As an actor one engaged among other things the Viennese public favourite Karl Blasel, Viktor Kutschera, Karl Ehmann, Anton Edthofer, Hans Homma and Eugenie Bernay. Claire Wallentin of the German folk theatre played the countess Claire Wolff Metternich Wallentin in costume of the Austrian theater-Kostüm and - decoration studios.
In November 1912, when already further Austrian film production companies with the foreign competition struggled for market shares in the cinemas, the Gänsehäufel appeared the first documentation of the Viennese to art film industry with, which concentrated beside the week looking reports of current events particularly on features.
Still in the same year also of Austria appeared first historical feature: „Emperors Joseph II.“. It was produced by the Sascha film in the free light theatre close ore elevator control race and in monastery new castle. Much is over the film however no more well-known. Only the name of a Darstellerin: Else Heller of „the citizen theatre “, which had already along-played 1911 in Mueller and its child. The directors were Sascha Kolowrat Krakowsky and the less well-known J. H. Largely. Also „the Vindobona “- production „the Musikantenlene “, with the Hauptdarstellerin Eugenie Bernay praised much of the criticism, appeared in that year.
As the most interesting recent discovery this yearly is considered the Komiker Heinrich iron brook, which completed first appearances in „the Budapester Orpheum “, a Kabarett convenient in the center of the Jewish immigrant quarter in Vienna Leopoldstadt, its. It specified well-known Kabarettsoloszenen in films like „house ball with the Blunzenwirt “or „Klabriaspartie “, where the behavior of Jewish map players is shown in the coffee house. Into „the circus countess “„the Vindobona film “of 1912 it played the circus clown, beside Eugenie Bernay as „Minka “. Felix Dörmann stepped likewise in this already 900 meters long film as „a count Veckenhüller “also.
With the blossoming of the domestic as well as international film industry also gradually further film magazines developed. „The photo theatre “and „the drama graph week “followed starting from 1911, and starting from 1912 „the film art appeared “, which by „the Cinéma Eclair “in order one gave. Likewise 1912 appeared „the Kastalia “, which for scientific and instructional films was published by school people. In the further years still „the film week “(starting from 1913) and „Paimanns film lists “(starting from 1916) followed - a magazine, in which until 1965 in lexical form criticisms of all films started in Austria were listed.
1913 existed in the entire monarchy of approximately 400 cinema enterprises, as from a statistics this yearly comes out. Of it about half was Wanderkinos, and from the 200 firm cinemas were more than half in Vienna.
In September 1913 with demonstrations under the title „speaking film “in the Sophiensälen (Edison Kinetophon and Gaumont demonstrations) for the first time also in Vienna Tonfilme were presented. For different reasons - particularly because of high material costs and the too small international rental business at that time met with this however little approval. In the same year the 1912 to Vienna moved Alexander Joseph creates „Sascha “count Kolowrat Krakowsky, who had already created 1910 the Sascha Filmfabrik in Pfraumberg in Böhmen - with „the Sascha Filmfabrik “in the pasteboard home lane 2/Ecke faithful road in the today's Viennese municipality district Liesing its first film factory in Vienna. One of its first productions was „the production of the ore at the steirischen ore mountain in iron ore “, but already experimented it years before with the Filmerei. Thus it established a film laboratory, which it carried forward 1912 to Vienna to 1910 in its lock in largely Meier yards, and 1909 it already filmed privately among other things a motorrace at the Semmering. 1915 he takes over the Filmexpositur k.u.k. War press accomodation in Vienna.
Important event of the yearly 1913 was the monumental film Sodom and Gomorrha, from the Hungarian part of the monarchy coming and for the Sascha film the working Michael Curtiz on the Laaer mountain was moveable which. In addition probably largest window blind superstructures in Austrian film history developed. Its enormous equipment including the following destruction - some Statisten died - provided for astonishment.
procedure with turning work
J. H. Largely peace man was however second after director walter, who described its film work. In the Austrian comet, expenditure No. 151 of 5. , He wrote once a report to April 1913 over his film work under the title the Viennese cinema art. For the occupation of its films with actors it was reported therein: „I am however the largest enemy of so-called Mimikern with the cinema, the ballet-like movements disturb and work unnaturally. But a just as large enemy am I also from what one makes now in Germany that one e.g. a hairdresser of a real hairdresser, a waiter of a real waiter to play leaves. The Dilettant becomes at the moment, if it comes on the stage, unnatural and linkisch. Only actors should, well bezalte actors to be used [...] in the case of occupation of the roles I proceed after the appearance of the actor that if possible few Perücken and make-up must be used. “
Over the difficulties the turning work it wrote: „The apparatus may be distant from the actor at the most 5 1/2 m, so that the front clearance amounts to at the most 4 1/2 m. Thus the persons, who stand otherwise next to each other, must be arranged one behind the other. The difficulty consists thus of the fact that nobody is covered, the freedom of movement remains and the whole looks natural. “
experiments to the Attraktivierung of the film
J. H. Large was it also, which could be issued together with a Mr. roaring a patent on combining of film with stage performances. The reality should cooperate with the motion picture film. „E.G.: From the film a ball is thrown by a person against the spectator, caught here by a real person and thrown then again to the person in. Order a bar girl goes from the film into the public, served here with refreshments and returns again to its schemenhaftes film life. “, so large likewise in its Viennese cinema art - articles. By way of trial was converted this concept under the direction of Hans's Otto lion stone 1913 in the Adria exhibition, which offered similarly the topic park Venice in Vienna reproductions - in this case of Adria opinions, ship's models and a small pond as Adria -. The film „king Menelaus in the cinema “ was supplemented with actors on the stage before the canvas, which referred the public.
Around an apparent plasticity of the film pictures to, called in the year 1912 the Viennese Karl Juhasz and Franz Haushofer reach „the Viennese Kinoplastikon total Ltd. “ in a theatre at the Naschmarkt, later „vienna line the cinema “, in the life. The cinema screen was on its own, decorated stage. The Viennese art film industry produced 1913 several kolorierte titles particularly for this theatre: „The Boxer “, „the conscience “, „aids in the emergency “, „the hungry knight “ and „Mirza, the white slave “. Since success was missing however, the theatre existed not for a long time, and those idea was again forgotten.
During abroad, in Germany particularly by Oskar Messter, already for years „clay/tone pictures “ were manufactured, then Tonfilme are to have been already tried to manufacture in the Kinetofon - procedures in Vienna starting from 1913. Details are unfortunately not well-known in addition.
the emperor and the cinema
although emperors Franz Joseph technical innovation in principle sceptically to rejecting faced, had he from the film a positive opinion - probably in acknowledgment of the large advertising and propaganda potential this particularly under the simple population particularly liked medium. Thus he could be filmed frequently of - for the time being however only French operating surgeons - with his activities: For instance with „the emperor maneuvers “ with his German counterpart emperor Wilhelm in Mähren 1909, with the Gamsjagd in the same year in bath Ischl, with the wedding of successor to the throne Karl 1911 in Schwarzau, or also at the Adria exhibition 1913 in Vienna.
1911 reported Kinematographi round-look on an occurrence with a speech of the emperor at its 81. Birthday, at which also an operating surgeon of the Austrian-Hungarian cinema industry, as art film industry was called the Viennese at that time still, was present. It placed its photograph apparatus close against the emperor, however by a man of the attendants due to the Knarrens of the apparatus was requested not to film during the speech of the emperor. „Emperor Franz Joseph heard it, seized the master of the attendants with the arm and said, so that it could hear the operating surgeon: ‚Leaving you the man only its work to perform, me does not disturb it! `The operating surgeon kept turning, and as the emperors closed, he signed to the Kinematographen friendly too. “
As the emperors 1916, developed the last large „yard report “died from the monarchy. Sascha Kolowrat Krakowsky filmed the funeral for the Viennese cinemas.
1993 placed Austrian film archives under the title „k.u.k.: Emperor and cinematography “ a 3-stündige lining up of all photographs of emperor Franz Joseph together. Among them also photographs of its „journey by Bosnia and the Herzegowina “ in the year 1910, where among other things Christian and mohammedanische children pass together with the peaceful a photograph place to be seen are.
situation of cinema and film before beginning of war
the first cinema in Vienna, which starting from 1913 of the kind train and scientific film had used up itself, was directly that 638 visitors seizing „universe cinema “in 15. Viennese municipality district. In only 1913 opened cinema beginning with September 1914 war reports over the front happening was also ever more frequently shown.
1914 played max new field, which became rapid the first star of the Viennese art film, in the ministers of the Kirchfeld also. Mrs. Gertraud nameless followed a little later, where he at the side of the people actress Hansi sneeze, which had 1913 a small role in Johann bunch at the beautiful blue Danube and with the director of the theatre in the Josefstadt, Josef Jarno, is married already, plays.
Likewise 1914 took place with Speckbacher a monumental production of the French director Pierre Paul Gilmans, who acted of the liberation struggle of the animal oilers against Napoleon. For the photographs, at which also members of the Exl - stage, how for example Eduard Köck was involved, original Speckbacher became - sword and 2000, likewise historical weapons basic, Statisten use.
From 1911 to 1914 102 new cinemas in Vienna opened, so that now not less than 150 cinemas existed. The constant cinemas controlled the maintenance scene in the large cities. In Vienna also several free air cinemas and roof studios existed. 25 production companies provided for various productions. At this time also the discussions experienced the censorship around „the protection of the children from the film “, generally, the relationship between theatre and film operators and such a thing their high point, on which in the section „culture fight for cinema and film “is entered more in greater detail.
In the first years of Austrian film production about 130 short and longer features, often from own ideas or domestic book collecting mains, developed until 1914 partly - above all which concerned technology - also of the foreign country, in particular France, affects. In addition came over 210 documentary films. The range of the Austrian film work extended from short documentary films and week looking reports, small pieces of people, drama filmings and family dramas, crime film alga layers, Operetten and historical large films up to film-grotesque.
1914, 25 years after the completion of Bertha of Suttners novel „the weapons down “, became in Copenhagen, which films capital of the film production country Denmark , this novel of the Nobelpreisträgerin of 1905 of Holger Madsen, meaning at that time. The first performance took place however only in September 1915, in the middle in the war happening of the First World War.
The Austrian film historian Fritz walter determined for the Austrian film work of the Vorkriegszeit: „The thoughts of the historian John clay/tone on the creative power of the monarchy, which apparent understood itself as ‚merry Apokalypse `, zeigenm that a final tendency it prevailed, at that time by the critics was seen in such a way and Kraft had to work until today. “<ref> Fritz walter: In the cinema I experience the world. Vienna 1996. S. 54< /ref>
during the First World War, 1914 to 1918
In the course of the mutual declarations of war of the European great powers, which led to the First World War, also France became the enemy of Austria Hungary, which entailed among other things the dissolution of all French film companies in the monarchy. The import of foreign films was forbidden at the same time. In the following war years the expected upswing of the domestic film production occurred, but went this substantially more slowly meant of than.
1915 reached Sascha Kolowrat Krakowsky its commitment of the automobile corps in Galizien to the war press accomodation to Vienna, where he took over the line of the Filmexpositur, which were subordinate to war archives. To the cooperation it could win numerous directors and other film-creative, among other things Karl Hartl, Fritz Freissler, Gustav Ucicky and Hans Theyer.
1916 had supplied Kolowrat Krakowsky a hangar stand from Duesseldorf, in order already by some directors missed first large Filmatelier to it to Sievering furnish to let. It was the first freely standing Filmatelier of Austria. To 4. April of the yearly went out of that so far draws to co-operation between Kolowrat Krakowsky and Oskar Messter „the Austrian-Hungarian Sascha Messter film society Ltd. “, late Sascha Messter film.
1916 died emperors Franz Joseph, and the politically inexperienced Karl became its successor. It was contrary to its father frequently at the front, about which some photographs witnessed. On these he is to be seen frequent in discussions with soldiers and when lending medals. Without consideration for conditions and rank the imperial pair vibrated informally the hand to everyone. Its role as people emperors could accept Karl by cinema and film more easily. 1917 appointed emperors Karl Eduard Hoesch his personal operating surgeon (cameraman). In the propaganda film „our emperor “ one sees Karl praying even for the weapon luck of its troops.
1916 was substantially intensified the build-official editions for the establishment of cinemas in Vienna. These editions led just like the First World War to a set of locking and to a first stagnation with the establishments of cinema in Vienna. Also during the war further cinemas in Vienna were opened nevertheless. To this time scarcely 50% the Viennese cinema and approximately 90% of the rental business enterprises were led by Jewish owners. 1917 opens only four new cinemas in the city. After the end of the First World War “„the federation “became from the former „realm federation of the Kinematographenbesitzer. This is renamed 1920 in „central association of the Austrian light play theatres “. 1918 were only added a cinema to the 154 Viennese cinemas already existing.
When in December 1917 in Germany the UFA was created on suggestion of military and politicians, and with the buying up of production companies, studios, institutes for copying and cinema chains, came also Oskar Messters company began into the hand of the UFA, and thus also to a certain part the Sascha film, to the Oskar Messter of portions held.
The later NSDAP - member Heinz Hanus, one of the pioneers of the Austrian film, creates „the federation of the film directors and cameramen in this year “. Kolowrat Krakowsky opens „the Sascha film industry AG “- the largest film production and institute for film rental business of Vienna.
From all during the First World War photographs exist to produced films only from four films.
still different changes
in the film production became development of the film production beside the innumerable Wochenschauen and the dozens propaganda films, which were produced in the five war years, apparent. Thus hardly detective films were produced, and disappeared to grotesque of comedies, how they were until recently still very popular, nearly completely from the cinemas. Instead had society dramas, more difficult literary comedies and costume films boom. How mentions initially, it lasted its time, until the Austrian film production to so far not since been heights increased, and to beginning of war there was also only once a break-down of the films shown in the cinemas. But until 1918, when the cinemas could not be heated for lack of coal no more, and lack of raw film got the film production in trouble, the number of productions rose annually.
From the literature collecting mains the works were Ludwig Anzengrubers, which took place frequently in rural environment, much particularly like. By these among other things „ the perjury farmer became “ (1915), „double suicide “ (1916), „in the spell of the obligation “ (1917) or also „the violating mark “ (1917) most successfully films. Like film criticisms described from at that time, the Austrian film production developed itself the actions further, kind of play, film script collecting mains and direction practices at that time strongly. The film scripts were simpler more durchdachter and the action despite larger complexity to understand. The German expressionistischen film of the 1920er - years some was here thematically already anticipated. So for instance into „the queue of the passion “ from 1918, which „the blue angel “(1930) resembles strong from the topic the German film in addition, the French „Vampire “(1931). Outriders such independent, more complex productions, were the directors Carl Meyer and Hans Janowitz, which was substantial representatives of the early film expressionism in Austria.
Goods in the years before the Viennese art film and the Sascha film and/or. Sascha Messter film the largest domestic production companies, then was ordered to new enterprises place in the isolated Austria Hungary. With , A-Zet film, Astoria film and Leyka film fall-likes to maintain ground could new producers at the market. 1913 created the later director/conductor of the Decla production in Berlin, Erich Pommer, „the W. A. F. “- „the Viennese of author film “- Produktionsgesellschaft. On W. A. F. also the propaganda documentation is „our war fleet “, to 22. May 1914 was firstspecified to lead back. Before he had taken over 1911 the agendas of the Société Eclair, and he pulled 1914 back to Germany - even to Berlin.
Became from 1908, which year of the first of longer features, and 1914, which year of the beginning of war produces, altogether approximately 120 films, then were it in the war years between 180 and 190. Alone 1918 100 Austrian features to be manufactured - a value in the intermediate war years be even still exceeded could. In addition still another multiplicity came at war week looking, which were likewise shown in the cinemas. Well-known actors were at that time the eccentric Harry Walden as well as Karl Götz, which for example in „Mandarin played “, a production the Sascha film of Paul Frank and Fritz Freisler, main roles. After a comedy of Rudolf appeared to Austrians and Belá Jenbach with Gustav Waldau in the main role in December 1915 „the gentleman without dwelling “. When directors worked the brothers Conrad and Robert Wiene , which later celebrated both successes large in Germany under others also.
first of filming acre
which filming acre at this time constituted, was that they could live on the fees from the film business, without working besides for instance on theatres. The fees for the films had to be accordingly higher therefore if actors did not come from the theatre, and also otherwise attended to no other activities, which with the abundance of the film productions would have been anyway only with difficulty possible. So seen two of filming acre developed in the years of the First World War, in the course of the rising number of domestic productions: Liane Haid with the Viennese art film and Magda Sonja with the Sascha film. Male one of filming acre gave it in this sense none, but existed an abundance of much employed to male actors, who could not live however on the film alone, and besides usually followed to the theatre looking plaything or the Kabarett. Some the most well-known of it stroke ore was Marischka, George Reimers, Franz Höbling, Otto Tressler and Willy Thaller. Further one of star gave it only at the theatre, whereby these could be won occasionally for film appearances, as for instance to Hermann Benke, Karl tree gardner, Hermann Rome mountain, Josef Reithofer, Anton Edthofer, Friedrich Feher and Hans Rhoden.
1915 were the year into of Austria first film star its first role received. Liane Haid played heart and hand in the propaganda film „with for the native country “ a double role. Contrary to other much-busy actor with the Viennese art film it received from the outset to monthly 200 crowns, instead of the usual 150. The Produktionsgesellschaft developed it gradually to the star, and until 1918 the monthly fee rose to 400 crowns, which did not prevent it nevertheless to complain their employer. It called it „exploiters “and gave actually with the turning work a Lungenspitzkatarrh and a pleurisy to have already tightened. Also because of the costumes it weighted, whereby its own Kostümbildner, how him art film had the Viennese, was not usual at that time with many other Produktionsgesellschaften. From time to time also costumes from theatres could be lent.
1917 played Liane Haid in „the spendthrift “also, a filming of a piece of Ferdinand Raimunds. It was this up to then longest Austrian production with 3400 meters of play length. Thus the Viennese art film still became their role of the pioneer before the Sascha film as fair within many other ranges again once. Liane Haids of appearances in this long feature were praised by the criticism because of their naturalness and „the authenticity of the characterisation of a bejahrten family nut/mother “. After the First World War Haids father George let it build in Schönbrunn its own Filmatelier, which exists this very day. Liane Haid later still turned for other film companies numerous further films. Their successors as a film star with the Viennese art film was first Dora emperor, who came from A-Zet-film, and little late Thea Rosenquist. With the Sascha film was a usually used actress at this time Magda Sonja. Over the effect of the mask organization in the film the Danish actress made itself EH Roth thought, which participated before the First World War in several Austrian productions.
Kolowrat Krakowsky let propaganda films as directors/conductors of the Filmexpositur, responsibly for propaganda films, abkommandieren necessary coworkers and actors from the Filmbranche for the war press accomodation. Thus the largest part Austrian film-creative death and shank at that time in the war escaped. A well-known exception was however max new field, to which only after the war service again as hero and lovers into action could go. Some the propaganda documentations and - was „ the release of the Bukowina films “, „war into 3000 meters height “, „combat day with the animal oiler emperor hunters “ as well as the two-divisors „the economic development Montenegros “ and „the collapse of the Italian front “. These films were examined by the censorship nevertheless. For example had close-ups of verarztet becoming or pleased Italian soldiers with „distorted faces “from the films to be cut.
A well-known propaganda film of Sascha Messter, which and war opponent should instruct Skeptiker „a better one “, acted of a Nörgler, which saw the efforts of the soldiers in the war in the dream, which shook it much. As in „the reality “two boys too little money had been able to draw around war loans, gave it them the money and drew also directly. Further propaganda films worth mentioning were „the Viennese art film “- productions „the dream of a Austrian reservist “ (1915), „with heart and hand for the native country “ (1915), „with God for emperors and realm “ (1916), „suitor service “ (1918). Never into the cinemas the unfinished documentation under the title came „prisoner-of-war camp field brook “.
The film production company „Robert Mueller “had the godfather child “ (1915) produced by Alfred German German „. „A-Zet film “contributed with „the child of my next one “ to the propaganda film production and „fall-likes “let 1918 with director Karl Tema „Konrad Hartls life fate “ take up. The quality of such films stepped naturally into the background, went it nevertheless only around arousing and receiving enthusiasm for war in the population. The film criticisms knew only good films, and schwärmten from contents. 1918 dared itself the Sascha Messter film to the filming of a work Beethovens near. Fritz Kortner played in „the martyr of its heart “ Beethoven so well that he was promoted in the consequence to one of the most important expressionistischen actors in the German-speaking countries.
Photographs took place for example in the again established large Filmatelier „the Sascha film “in vienna Sievering, where particularly contactor ditches were dug. The film music came more frequently than the war years ago from well-known composers such as Franz Lehár and Carl Michael Ziehrer, which could be inspired like many other cultural personalities of this time of the war.
Rare, but the more prominent, criticism at the propaganda films came from Karl Kraus, who the war press accomodation, which criticized „Sascha film “ , stroke ore Marischka, poet colleague and week looking operating surgeons publicly.
war week looking
in September produced the Viennese art film first war-week-looks the country: „the war journal “. As cameramen were Raimund Czerny and Heinrich identification ice at the fronts. After appearance of the first eight expenditures also the Sascha film stepped together with „Philipp and press citizens “and the Austrian-Hungarian cinema industry society with the publication of those first war-week-looks on the market. This carried the designation „Austrian cinema weekly report of the northern and southern theater “. Despite the out-curving title this Wochenschau more success had. 1915 were designated it into „Kinematographi war reporting “, afterwards „Sascha Kriegswochenbericht “. To it also „the Sascha Messter week appeared parallel “.
in intermediate wartime, 1918 to 1938
in intermediate wartime continued to rise on the one hand the number of Austrian productions, on the other hand one the Austrian and German film industry mixed itself appreciably. Austrian film-creative, as for instance the rain eating urine Leontine Sagan with „girls in uniform “in the year 1931, participated in German productions, and German film-creative - as for instance director and film script author Henry Koster into the 1930er-Jahren, in Austrian. It outweighed the commitment of Austrian film-rubbing in Germany due to the greater possibilities and importance of the German film market however, where some as directors and producers for the then largest German-language film company, which was active Ufa in Berlin.
The years after the First World War were coined/shaped also of strong inflation.
Since the introduction of the Kinematographenverordnung 1912 the assignment modalities of cinema concessions in as much as one individuals fewer in the postwar years changed, than rather for non-profit associations concessions for the guidance of cinemas and/or. Approved to light plays. Under the First World War were this above all war veterans, invalids - and widow associations, as they developed in the years after 1918 numerously. Also national education associations, those particularly in the years „red Vienna “a set of Viennese cinema led - most well-known „cosmos the cinema “in Vienna new building - received prefer concessions. 1919 was assigned five cinema licenses in Vienna, to 1920 was added 13 and 1921 7 further cinemas. 1921 achieved the German-language film production their first high point.
1922 were Ottakring with 13 light play theatres and 5,764 cinema places the cinema-strongest district of Vienna. Followed highway, new building and Leopoldstadt (without Prater) with twelve cinemas each. In the Prater gave it at this time to eight cinemas with 4439 seats, which meant the second highest number of seats of Vienna after Ottakring. In favorites, Meidling and in the internal city gave it per to eleven cinemas, in all other districts less than ten. The district with the few cinema seats was Döbling with scarcely 1.000.
the early 1920er-Jahre: Aufwändige of monumental films write history
at the beginning of the 1920er-Jahre came also into Austria monumental films into mode. Reason was natural business interest, since such exotic large-scale productions, in which beside mass scenes been never there and detail-faithful window blinds and costumes also naked scenes came forwards, attracted the public in crowds. Interest existed also, particularly since one discovered 1922 the grave of the Egyptian Pharaos Tutenchamun, what world-wide for attention provided, and a proper mode wave released. Also numerous Hungarian film-creative before the Béla Kun fled beginning of the 1920er-Jahre - regime to Austria, which is again-reflected in the film production. Like that the most important directors of Austrian monumental films - Alexander Korda and Michael Kertész - were Hungary. Some further large names of the Hungarian film at that time, which moved at that time to Vienna, were Vilma Banky, Michael Varkonji, Béla Balázs and Oskar Beregi. Although the monarchy did not exist any longer, the Austrian film work was still coined/shaped by many, now foreign, film-creative.
Already 1920 let build Sascha Kolowrat Krakowsky in the Viennese Prater, west the rotunda, the film city „old London “. There Alexander Korda turned „prince and begging boy “, based on a novel Mark of Twains. 1922 received Alexander Kordas production „a sunk world “ in Milan even a film price.
1922 appeared the monumental film „Sodom and Gomorrha “, produced by the Sascha film Sascha Kolowrat Krakowskys. This ruled 1918 in the United States around the there Filmwirtschaft to examine itself. There it also the idea came to produce in Austria monumental films with a multiplicity from Komparsen to since these were very popular in the USA at this time, and it also the USA as sales market in the visor had. In that 1920 to 1922 produced film led Michael Kertész, which called itself later in the USA Michael Curtiz, direction and the Ungarin Lucy Doraine played the main role.
One the leading actor, walter Slezak, son of the singer Leo Slezak, told in its 1974 appeared book „when goes the next swan “from its discovery through the director Michael Kertész, which admits its life long for its language difficulties was: „An at night against half twelve, strolchte I into the Sacherbar at the opera ring, set me and required a Scotch with soda. I smoked a cigar and offered the picture of a blasierten elegant Roués and living man. At the Nebentisch sattwo gentlemen and a lady. These white on me, the gentlemen turned and stared me to on for a long time and thoroughly. I recognized the woman - she was an at that time very famous Hungarian film star, Lucy Doraine. It smiled me I smiled back. And then one of the two gentlemen stood on [...] and sat down to me: ‚Gestotten, you before-floated me! `. He spoke this sentence absolutely seriously and with a thick Hungarian accent. I must have looked very much blöd, because he continued: ‚You understand please - you are my vision! `. I thought a risen Irrenhäusler to me would have sat down, and I was decided not to provoke him. ‚Natural, I understands perfectly.! `. - ‚No, you understand not `, said it completely sadly, ‚however I will explain, bit-task-hone. I am called Kertész, Mischka. I prepare forwards ‚Sodom and Gomorrha `. Putting one from sin - and I need picture-beautiful young Bur -, and you, bit-task-hone, are picture-beautiful young Bur! `. Slowly I understood [...] “
singular in Austrian film history am the film whether its extents with the turning work. The American monumental films, which Italian antique films and the German costume films should all together are over-bid. Hundreds of craftsmen, architects, Dekorateure, sculptors, Stukkateure, stage farmer, Pyrotechniker, camera men, Frisöre, Maskenbildner, cutters and thousands of assistants and Statisten, mostly unemployed persons and children, found last to the three years continuous turning work occupation in of inflation and unemployment coined/shaped Austria. Thousands of costumes, Perücken, beards, Sandalen, Flitterschmuck, banners, horse bottom plates and such a thing were mostly locally made particularly for production. Architectural masterpiece was „the temple of Sodom, sketched by three architects, “, which ranked in this epoch world-wide among the largest film buildings. Little surprising that „Sodom and Gomorrha became “one of the most expensive ever films manufactured in Austria. It cost about five times so much nevertheless, as was planned.
At the end of the film the temple in itself should collapse, why Pyrotechniker were employed for breakup. Nevertheless breakdowns arose, with which there was even dead one and hurt one, what also judicial consequences have should. The director was freely spoken, „the Wannenmacher “(art ammunition technician) was condemned to 10 days detention and 500,000 crowns fine.
From the film was until 1987 only 25 minutes in safekeeping of Austrian film archives. Further parts of the film could be received however from Soviet film archives, from film archives of the GDR and the ČSSR, as well as from Bologna and Hungary, so that today all four sequences of the film are again received.
1923 open the largest Austrian Filmstudios to Kolowrat Krakowsky at the rose hill in wall. There those turned Vita film, the follow-up company of the Viennese art film industry, for 12 million crowns in the year 1922 the monumental film „Samson and Delila “. Director was Alexander Korda, which like also Michael Kertész before the Béla Kuns - regime in Hungary to Vienna had fled. As also with „Sodom and Gomorrha “ the woman of the director played the main role also in „Samson and Delila “. The strong Samson was played by Alfredo Gal.
Further large-scale project of these years was the Sascha film „Harun aluminium Raschid “, that the Fritz long - film „Dr. Mabuse, which was shared to players “. Director was again Michael Kertész, which produced the also following monumental film for the Sascha film.
Into „the slave queen “ one divided 1924 in the middle into Vienna the Red Sea. Owing to trick-technical rework the gigantic timber construction is in the result, from which from both sides on a mark the entire water could be omitted not to recognize no more. Those altogether 100 m ³ poured into an final, eight times eight meters large and a meter deep, wood basin. The Wasserwände on both sides the way were modelled from gypsum, which in the monochrome photographic film looked deceptively genuine. With only one admission now both the division and the reunification of the sea could be represented. For first one cut the photographs of the collapsing Wassermassen simply backwards into the film.
The actors were filmed in the dry one, and flooded only afterwards by „the sea “. Director was again Michael Kertész. The costs of the film are to have amounted to 1.5 billion crowns. The sum is related by the constantly high inflation to center of the 1920er-Jahre, is however nevertheless one of the highest ever amounts spent on a Austrian film. Hauptdarstellerin was not this mark the woman of the director, which became divorced Michael Kertész of Lucy Doraine. Therefore it fell back to the woman of its competitor Alexander Korda, Maria Corda. The castle theatre actor Hans Marr played the Moses.
The Filmprämiere took place in the Eos cinema, at which the Sascha film participation held. The cinema was old-Egyptian opened and with God pictures and Kriegerstatuen verziert to this cause.
the last years of the silent movie
only eight years after end of war and the end of the censorship in the course of the establishment of republic 1926 the cinema censorship was abolished. Despite the introduction the film rental business companies flower to a grant obligation for imported foreign films - resulting from the worse situation of the Austrian production companies - ever more up. 1926 were issued also „first Viennese the cinema law “, after which the authority lay in affairs of cinema from now on with the country. In the same year also the film magazine appeared „my film “, which was from now on, up to the attitude 1956, one of the most influential Viennese film magazines.
1927 succeeded to the Fritz long with the socialcritical Science Fiction, working for the Ufa - classical author Metropolis a film of world validity. It was besides the most expensive film that the Ufa had ever financed, which got the film company temporarily also in financial trouble. In this year Vienna had 170 cinemas with 67.000 seat and 308 Stehplätzen. Only four Viennese cinemas seized more than 1000 persons, the bulk of the other Viennese cinemas seized between 200 and 400 persons.
Likewise 1927 came to a jurisprudence study the 20-year old Viennese Alfred tin man over camera training in Paris as the film. It went first as a Kameraassistent to Berlin, and emigrierte to 1929 into the United States, where it starting from the late 1930er - years as director and a producer career makes. For its Kurzfilm That mothers might live even received it a OSCAR.
1928 rose the number of cinemas to 178 in Vienna and 750 in Austria altogether. 70 rental business enterprises existed. In Vienna in this year the cinema operating institute GmbH (Kiba) was created, to of them to primary tasks it belonged, the social-democratic interests within Vienna by the guidance from propaganda cinemas to to strengthen.
In the course of the world economic crisis of 1929 there was a uniform price of 50 groschens per parquet place in Vienna, 60 groschens per balcony or lying place. In the same year also the first Tonfilm shown which to first violent protests of the cinema musicians led. In the consequence most silent movie cinemas of Vienna were converted consistently to clay/tone film cinemas.
beginning of the clay/tone film era
the first cinemas, which changed over to Tonfilm, were 1929 among other things the cinemas „Ufa “, „castle “and „operas cinema “. The Tobis Klangfilmverfahren was used. The portion of Tonfilmen of the total number of the films shown rose to 158 of 569 in this year. One year later outweighed already the Tonfilm in the cinemas, and 1932 ran no more silent movies in Vienna. This caused a heavy crisis of the so-called cinema musicians, who demonstrated starting from 1929 several times on the roads of the capital.
Many the former small Grätzelkinos did not get over the introduction of the Tonfilms for financial reasons, and others, better situierte cinemas, used this paging phase for large change actions as for instance the adornment of portals, initially and banking halls, the auditoriums and the technical mechanisms. For the three clay/tone systems at that time in the Viennese the cinemas were used counted apart from at most used Movietonverfahren of Western the Electric and the sound film system of the Tobis at that time sound film of the Ufa also the magnetic sound procedure.
1930 attained the 1896 in Budapest born Attila Hörbiger in the unsterbliche Lump at the side of his two years older brother Paul its first Filmrolle. At the same time that wrote active, and later than film script author Samuel of savages with „humans, first pulled to Berlin, as a journalist in Vienna on Sunday “its first filmed film script. 1931 followed the film script to the Erstverfilmung of „Emil and the detectives “, which he wrote together with Erich Kästner. After the seizure of power of the national socialists in Germany the jüdischgläubige Samuel of savages emigriert into the United States, where it wrote film scripts as Billy of savages first further, and then as a director to world fame arrived. The later director and film script author Harald Reinl began his career than Stuntman in Ufa productions at this time.
When the film did not have 1931 „in the west anything new “premiere in Vienna, this led to a political scandal, accompanied from demonstrations, interfering reactions and tumults. In the same year Luis Trenker in the main role appeared „mountains in flames “with the south animal oiler. A film of the Austrian director Karl Hartl working for the Ufa in Germany, which became 1938 also leader the vienna film. As leading actors in German production M - a city looks for a murderer succeeded in this year also from the today's Slowakei coming Austrian Peter Lorre the break-through.
Already into the 1920er - the 1930 turned out for years to a copying and an institute for dyeing in the group of the Kolowrat Filmimperiums at that time verkommene Sascha film factory in Vienna to reconciliation led in the course of the conversion of the film production of mute to Tonfilm into a heavy crisis. 1932 were taken over the enterprise by the brothers Pilzer, and a little later, after entrance of the German Tobis clay/tone picture fig. AG, the Produktionsgesellschaft in Tobis Sascha film industry AG was renamed.
To 1932 all cinemas Vienna were converted to clay/tone cinemas. This caused a heavy crisis of the so-called cinema musicians, who demonstrated starting from 1929 several times on the roads of Vienna.
in the Austrian Ständestaat
the politically unstable situation in the young Federal Republic of Austria led 1933 to a Putsch of Engelbert Dollfuss and culminated 1934 in the Austrian civil war, in which Dollfuss his position could strengthen. Under its autoritäter guidance the liberty of opinion was strongly limited and the censorship was introduced to many ranges. In addition, this time is characterized with the rising influence and pressure pressure of the national socialists on the Austrian state and its mechanisms - also cultural.
As reaction to the political situation the portion of the films, which were turned in the Prater, continued to increase into the 1930er-Jahren. Because the breaks social in the Ständestaat officially existences could not be brought up for discussion in the Prater, which young and alto from all social classes visited, still ansatzweise. Such films like „Vorstadtvarieté “from 1936 had to fight however nevertheless with the censorship.
1933 are converted „the central association of the Austrian light play theatres “into a public body, and those protection of interests is ständisch reorganized. A committee of the light play entrepreneurs of Austria was furnished, who functioned as a body of public right, and to which each cinema operator in Austria had to belong. The structure of the committee essentially remained identically to that one of the central association from the year 1920.
In the same year the Viennese actress Hedwig EH Maria Kiesler with a zehnminütigen naked as well as provided a love scene in the film „Ekstase “ for a scandal. The Viennese arms rüstungsindustrielle Fritz Mandl, which it married still in the same year, forbade the looking plaything to it, on which it emigrierte 1937 into the United States and made as Hedy Lamarr career.
End of 1933 the rose hills became - studios adapts again, and there the Tobis Sascha produced 1934 with „masquerade “, which should become the sign „of the Viennese of film “, their last film. Since that time Studios were only rented, and Tobis Sascha concentrated on the distribution of films.
Likewise 1933 forbade the German propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels the co-operation of Jews in the German film industry, which to an emigration of numerous film-creative to Austria, respectively Vienna, led. Thus Henry Koster turned here comedies, among other things with Franziska Gáal, further were Paul Czinner, Elisabeth Bergner among other things actively. The German realm film Reich reacted to Jews to the emigration of Jewish film-creative with the menace of an import prohibition for Austrian productions, should further in Austrian films participate. This threat could only by concessions of Oskar Pilzer, in which role of the president of the Viennese film producer combination, are turned away.
1934 were also the year of the later Grande lady of the German play art Paula Wessely. The offer of a main role took the successful folk theatres - and Josefstadt - to actress in masquerade at the side of Adolf well-being-bridges on, and attained international admittingness.
1934 led several Lands of the Federal Republic the film censor in the Austrian Ständestaat. 1935 followed with the new „Wino cinema law “a further aggravation of the condition-national control measures. At this time there were 179 cinemas in Vienna and 738 in completely Austria. In Vienna 13 production companies resided. From the 300 films, which started in this year, were followed most American origin, of German productions. Only 27 films were produced in Austria.
1935 could nevertheless still become generally accepted the national socialists acting from Germany with the argument of the import prohibition Austrian films to Germany. Jüdischgläubige coworkers were forbidden from now on in the Austrian film industry in fact. Although the Viennese film producer combination had given way, the national socialists issued 1935 that in Germany proceeds developed may be reconducted to Austria. This led to it that Austrian film enterprises had in Germany money, in Austria however a failure close was located. From this a stop of the Austrian film production resulted.
Also Tobis Sascha was heavily affected by these measures. Negotiation attempts of Oskar Pilzer over a money transfer failed because of the fact that the national socialists no more did not want to negotiate with Nichtariern. Since he believed the enterprise in a situation offering no prospects under his guidance, he sold the Tobis Sascha film industry AG to 23. Jänner 1937 to the Creditanstalt around only 1000 Schilling, which he did not get however paid off.
The Creditanstalt closed a little later a syndicate agreement with the German Tobis AG, which was subordinated already to the National Socialist trust company Cautio. The Tobis Sascha was dissolved and again-based 1938 as vienna film GmbH.
Starting from 1937 cinema law that could be only transferred a concession due to a law novella to the Viennese, which an actual need („local need “) after a new cinema location prove could.
during the national socialism, 1938 to 1945
after the connection of Austria at Germany suffered the film nature due to the strong censorship, using driving out and killing Jewish, foreign and regime-critical citizen, a renewed low impact. This met the Austrian film and cinema nature also therefore very hard, when before seizure of power of the national socialists in Germany approximately 90% were the film lender and 50% the Viennese owner of cinema of Jewish faith. Jewish cinema enterprises were arisiert within fewer days „“, and those censorship was continued to intensify. Likewise already immediately after the invasion, to 12. March 1938, was dissolved „the central association of the Austrian light play theatres “as well as „the committee of the light play entrepreneurs of Austria “.
By productions the Tobis Sascha film going now as vienna film into action became Vienna beside Berlin and Munich the main manufacturing plant of propaganda films. Their branch office in the filter star lane in new building furnished the citizens of Berlin realm film chamber, which supervised the Austrian film nature . To 18. June became the German realm culture chamber Reich in Austria valid.
To 27. August of the yearly appeared in the cinema journal a list, after which there were 65 „Jewish briefly after the connection “, 19 under „Jewish influence “standing and 86 „arische “cinemas in Vienna. By October 55 the Viennese cinema was handed over to 1938 on „earned party comrades “. „The Ostmärki Filmtheater of enterprise total Ltd. central “the largest cinemas of the city kept like „the Scala “and „to Apollo cinema “or the former „cinema “, which was renamed in „Ufa cinema “.
Once eye-witness of the Novemberpogrome in Vienna, decided to engage itself the then young Oskar Werner time life against fascism and Antisemitismus. Over an uncle that only 16-jährige came as Komparse to the film, where he receives hotel Sacher “a small speech role in briefly the film playing before the First World War „. After the first performance in the cinemas the Second World War broke out a little later.
In the December of the yearly „the Arisierung was “up to „westends “and „arcades the cinema “finally. The cinemas „Kruger “, „Nestroy “, „Votivpark “, „Sweden “and „elite cinema “as well as „castle the cinema “played at this time as only Viennese cinemas still „hostile films “of the fremdsprachigen foreign country.
In the following years also too „fremdländisch the “sounding term was finally replaced „cinema “approximately „light plays “or „Filmtheater “. „Maria Theresien cinema “was renamed by the again used agent in „ostmark “, other former „cinemas “lost simply these „surnames “used up to then and was called in the following years directly „crank “, „cross “or „Royal “. Only „high city the cinema “could hold „cinema “for the surnames still to 1941.
Cinemas in Vienna operated the Viennese Kiba in this year sieve: „Apollo “, „shrubs “, „Maria-help “, „operas “, „Scala “, „Sweden “and „world mirrors “. Further cinemas were operated in Linz and Steyr. In the autumn of the yearly finally also the Kiba was transferred of „the Ostmärki Filmtheater of enterprise GmbH “, a daughter of the German „Filmtheater GmbH “. Thus also here „synchronising had taken place “. The Kiba remained during the war also the only operating chain, which was allowed to continue in „the Danube and alpine realm gaus “apart from the arisierten individual enterprises.
1939 had reached the number of cinemas in Vienna with 222 one to today highest level been no longer there. From then on the number of the cinemas decreased/went back again clearly.
also the Wienerin March Harell arrives to 1939 over her man, the vienna film leader, Karl Hartl at the film. It begins its career equal with a main role - in the opera ball - filming of 1939. Their parade role delivers always the actress speaking in the Viennese dialect 1944 in the Viennese dear film Schrammeln .
Production guided by films, of the realm propaganda Ministry, was limited now almost exclusively to propaganda films for that German Reich. Only isolated it succeeded to create far masterpieces so for instance to Willi forest, whose Viennese blood fastens amazingly anti-German tones, which cannot only be read retrospectively as comment to the political situation.
In Vienna at this time the cinemas were „Kruger “, „Nestroy “, „Votivpark “, „Sweden “and „elite cinema “as well as „castle the cinema “the only cinemas still „the hostile films “of the fremdsprachigen foreign country played.
To 8. Jänner 1943 was introduced by the Viennese chief of the police the cinema operating barrier starting from 22 o'clock.
With heavy bomb attacks in June a quarter of all Viennese of cinema enterprises was destroyed approximately, among them „shrubs the cinema “in the Prater, „the Sascha film palace “and „Sweden cinema “. At the 1. September was issued a disqualification for all theatres, to cinemas was allowed to further-play however. This led to the strange thing that from the people opera starting from 6. October 1944 for some months the second largest cinema of the city with less than 1,550 places did not become.
Against end of war, in April 1945, further Viennese cinemas were destroyed with air raids, and also the history of the lively cinema scene in the Viennese Prater ended with its destruction by the Bombardments end of the Second World War. Only the Lustspieltheater continued to exist under different names up to a fire 1981.
in the second republic, since 1945
in occupied postwar Austria
after the Second World War and release from the national socialism Austria of the allied ones was occupied, and the film industry came due to the war sequences such as destruction, poverty and hunger only very sluggishly again into running. The Austrian cinemas had to remain closed only one month, until the monitoring device of the allied ones, „for the information service Brunch “, were installed. He transferred the program monitoring as well as „the Entnazifizierung “to film and theatre active artist. To 10. May of the yearly was adopted the relevant law to „the Entnazifierung “. It concerned a majority of the Viennese cinemas. During the conversion of the Entnazifizierungsmassnahmen however numerous irregularities arose in Vienna. Thus most cinema enterprises were handed over to not their former owners or their inheriting, but the city-own Kiba. Likewise still in May from the former „realm film chamber “under the new administration „the committee of the light play entrepreneurs of Austria “(„central association of the Austrian light play theatres “) was repaired. A bomb fund for the recovery of the worst damage was likewise brought into being. Already in August 1945 were 35 cinemas again in enterprise.
1946 created the Soviet Besatzer with „the Sowexport film rental business “their own film rental business. The production of the first homeland films began starting from 1946, whereby the dark atmosphere of the Nazi homeland films was replaced from larger ease. 1946 created Elfi of Dassanowsky and Emmerich Hanus at the farmer market 24 in of Vienna first district the Belvedere film. Its first productions were „the luck mill “(1946) and „fairy tales of the luck “(1949), which Gunther Philipp and Nadja Tiller provided its first Filmrollen. Rapidly it so for instance already came to the connection of motives of the homeland film with those the comedy, in the first Austrian postwar homeland film, faith in me from 1946 (direction Geza of Cziffra). Here the director Franz Antel played a substantial role - often in co-operation with the actor and film script author Gunther Philipp.
1949 attained the 1938 into Switzerland fled Maria Schell into the angels with the trombone its first main role. 1954 received it for its role into the last bridge the golden palm at the film festivals from Cannes.
Likewise 1949 wrote Antel and Philipp the book to small swindles at the Wolfgang lake (with Haas, Hans whale-trusts gets, Gunter Philipp, Nadja Tiller, Rolf Olsen among other things). Rapidly it came to further Wolfgang sea-films, and this model was continued to use in the word ago sea-films of the 1960er and 1970er with few changes.
1953 existed still over 200 cinemas in Vienna - numerous district and Grätzelkinos, which profited in the first years after end of war from the numerous international films, which one could show now finally also in Vienna. At the 1. Octobers 1954 changed 32 cinemas of large vienna due to a new fixing of the boundaries into down-Austrian territory.
Franz Antel turned into the 1950ern some the most successful Austrian films, whereby he oscillated between category and in espionage (1955) even the case Colonels Redl from the monarchy took up and a quite respectable film submitted. However Antel was very soon active as a director in the Federal Republic of Germany with large success and returned only to the late 1960ern also as a producer to Austria. Important directors of these years were Alfred Stöger, stroke ore Marischka, Harald Reinl, Gustav Ucicky, Hans bulkhead Schöbinger, Alfred Lehner or Alfons of mute, whereby they usually implemented no aesthetic innovations, but for rather conventional productions ensured. The homeland category was finally expanded since the time of the monarchy and enriched with new motives, whereby in particular Sissi of Ernst Marischka (with Romy cutter, Karl Heinz Böhm among other things) from the year 1955 the outstanding example represents, which obtained also international success and experienced two continuations.
The Viennese Prater, once popular turning place, seemed after the Second World War only sporadically in film productions up, approximately in „Viennese inside “from 1952.
1955 were issued Viennese the cinema law, which was amended several times in the following years - last 1980. It prescribes the concession obligation for the cinema enterprise. Each enterprise must find in an authorized business premises instead of and employ a trained and examined film before leader, that must be announced to municipal authorities (mA 7). In the same year appeared also the cinema business premises regulation, which appointed themselves as the majority to the first cinema-build-legal regulations from the year 1916.
high point of the homeland film production
1956 was introduced the broad wall procedure and the Cinemascopetechnik, soon thereafter also the stereophonic sound.
1958 reached the postwar film production a high point. The homeland film related also some Operettenverfilmungen were, particularly in the white Rössl of Werner Yak-generic terms (with Haas whale-trusts, Peter Alexander) from the year 1960. Isolated attempts to turn homeland films which did without positive designs and more strongly contemporary aspects into the foreground moved, individual cases remained and occurred only, when the category was understood already in abating. Examples are the red intoxication of 1962 (direction Wolfgang sharpen; with Klaus Kinski) or the woman devil of 1966 after the drama by Karl beautiful gentleman (direction George Tressler; with Sieghardt Rupp, Maria Emo, Hugo God-crept among other things). Because the homeland film attracted at first many spectators and seemed financially successful, it came rapidly to an overproduction, so that less and less films obtained profits.
Beside the homeland films and him category took other goals used pursuing projects a subordinated rank. Thus turned George William Pabst with the last act of 1955 (with Albin Skoda as a Hitler) the first film over the last days of Adolf Hitler. Before it had already concerned itself in the process ( with Ernst Deutsch) with the topic Antisemitismus.
Austria was into the 1950ern a popular turning place for productions of the German Federal Republic, which could fall back here to favorable conditions. The chance resulted at the same time, beyond the national borders admits to become for Austrian film-creative. Numerous film directors and above all actor moved away into the Federal Republic. Once before the national socialist into the United States fled, established itself Otto Preminger in the 1940er and 1950er-Jahren as producer and a director. Thus it produced 1952 the US film angel face and played 1953 as an actor in Billy Wilders important US postwar film Stalag 17 as a German commander of camp also. Further he already discovered at the beginning of the 1930er-Jahre the film talent Paul Henreid. Likewise into the United States fled, are promoted it there to the successful actor - it played one of the main roles in the cult film Casablanca - and director.
Into the 1960er the filming and place Austria suffered a setback. Above all US productions came to Austria, in order to turn here, but from the European Koproduktionszirkus Austria was impossible, because it was not member of the EEC. Only isolated Koproduktionen, approximately with Italy or France were to register. It did not succeed however to attach to modern Filmästhetiken for instance the French Nouvelle Vague. The director Eddy Saller tried to establish a Austrian Trashfilm failed however. More successfully productions were in the Erotikbereich, for instance the cap brook he films of briefly subsequent endorser with Christine Schuberth.
Into the 1950ern and 1960ern it came however to a development typical for the Austrian film: The large motion picture films locked for innovations, but flowered the avant-garde film with work of Peter Kubelka or briefly Kren, who enjoys and among the substantial works of this category ranks today international appreciation. This tradition set Ernst Schmidt jr. and Dietmar Brehm successfully away.
Center of the 1960er - a cinema dying used years in Austria, which found only in the middle of the 1990er with the new building of numerous cinema centers an end. Between 1960 - particularly starting from 1965 - and 1977 whole 700 cinemas closed their gates. Alone between 1970 and 1972, which are considered as „the blackest “cinema years of Austrian history, a third of all cinemas closed. As one of the principal reasons the rising spreading is called of TV-devices. The first cinema center of Austria opened 1979 in Braunau. 1980 opened then also in Vienna with „the multiplex “the first cinema center. 1983 gave it in Vienna of 96 halls in 69 cinemas. 1984 took place in Vienna „the Viennese cinema exhibition “in the Viennese town hall . 1986 existed 536 cinemas in Austria, of it 97 in Vienna.
Since the first public Kinovorführung in the year 1896 are occupied to the 400 cinemas in Vienna. If it had given cinemas occasionally in all districts, then there were already 1992 nine districts, in which there was no more cinema. In the other districts there were five with only one cinema. With a set of cinemas it concerned also relevant Sexkinos.
new one, younger directors received only into the 1970ern the possibility of showing a their being able. In addition above all Peter Patzak, from the beginning international requirements counted to be sufficient wanted and rapidly with the ironically broken Kriminalfilmen of the ORF row Kottan determined (the kongenialen film scripts written Helmut Zenker) for attention ensured (into the 1980ern a series, which consisted of in-hour episodes and was produced until 1984) became from the row. Dieter Bernese could for the first time establish a critical homeland film, which admits beyond the borders became with the ORF series Alpensaga. Further important directors, who ascended in those years, were Fritz Lehner, Mara Mattuschka, Franz Novotny (exit - only no panic, 1980) or Kitty cinema. The important cameraman Christian Berger tried also temporarily in the direction subject.
1993 existed to 260 cinemas in Austria, of it 50 in Vienna. 1994 if only 379 cinema halls were registered, their number rose until 2001 to a new highest level of 564. However the number of the cinemas continued to sink at the same time, on 176 in the year 2003. These had however over 553 halls and 100.000 seats, which results in an average of more than 3 halls per cinema. However in Vienna with the building of several large cinema centers a so high seat surplus and an associated low extent of utilization were reached that the number of the cinema halls was reduced due to economic problems alone between 2001 and 2002 191 to 166 again.
As the oldest cinema was considered to the world up to his locking in the year 1999 Viennese the Erika cinema, which 1900 were created.
public handling cinema and film in the change of the time
already 1900 created the Viennese „Academy of Sciences “as first scientific Institut Europe Phonogramm archives, in order to collect among other things also being correct haven advice of artists and personalities of the public life. From this institution 1955 Austrian film archives followed .
emergence of the instructional film
1910 obtained the countess walter churches issuing a law, to which forbade children the attendance of cinemas, around these too „protects “. The possibilities of the cinema use, instead of rejecting it, wanted the Viennese Gymnasialprofessor Dr. Alto ark in the year 1907, when it ansuchte around a subsidy from 300 crowns to the production of instructional films. This was granted to it, but appeared also today the still received films, which showed Glasbläser, a Hafnermeister with the work, a Zeugfärberei and short urns, only 1912 in the cinemas. The first film demonstration in a school found to 20. May 1912 in the citizen school at the Friedrichsplatz in 15. Viennese municipality district Rudolfsheim Fünfhaus instead of.
The association „Kastalia “created 1912 „the first Austrian training and reform cinema company Ltd. “, which then at the Kriemhildplatz in Rudolfsheim Fünfhaus the first large school cinema „universe “, which gave 1913 the first school conceptions. This happened after the same sample as with the pupil conceptions led by school advice Jaksch to the Urania. School's groups Vienna were led out completely to the conceptions.
culture fight for cinema and film
certain one of circles of the population and the authorities watched cinema and film in its developing years despite the large popularity, or straight therefore, as „Unkultur “. This negative aspect adheres to the Austrian film until today, which shows up among other things in the fact that Austria with delay for many decades was the last Western European country, which passed a film promotion law. Into the 1980er - years Austrian film history was hardly brought up for discussion or regarded as a cultural component of Austrian history. The zaghaften beginnings of the domestic universities for scientific argument with Austrian film history always only minimum financially one supported.
To today acknowledgment film as artistic medium was rooted already in „the vagabond and looking plate law “from 1836, who into the 1920er, not completely taken place from authorities - equal vagabonds it placed years owners of cinema which meant that cinema operators had to please for a license, and these received only after discretion of on-duty official, or also not.
A law forbade the attendance of cinemas starting from 1910 children, and complicated censorship examinations made for the Filmwirtschaft the life further heavy. Protests cinema and film-creative starting from 1907, which united starting from 1910 in federations, led only 1912, at „the international Kinematographenkongress “in Vienna, to easements. The vice-president „of the federation of the cinema kinoindustriellen “, Alexander Ortony, referred on this occasion in a speech to the fact that „many culture peoples miss to the censorship completely, and nobody can state that France, Italy or Hungary at the edge of spoiling would therefore be “. Similarly as Austria at that time into Western Europe only Germany, which had an unclear and decentralized censorship system, was. Until 1918 was to be participated the actors of the castle theatre forbidden in any form in films. There were exceptions only very rarely. Further theatres, as for instance the folk theatre, followed this example, in order to protect itself against the direct competitor cinema. Only with the appearances of Alexander Girardi and productions of the director max of Reinhardt at 1913 began itself the situation somewhat to ease.
In the newspapers, film and literature magazines published constantly contributions by sizes from film, theatre and literature, which also for and against a continuous exchange it supplied itself as for instance whether the theatres thereby are now damaged, and which decrease/go back book paragraphs, or whether their positions take, replace or supplement film.
Published starting from 1913 (thought on an aesthetics of the cinema of George Lukács) and 1914 in Germany („to the sociology cinema “of Emilie of the Altenloh), but this for the time being nothing changed already first scientific papers to cinema and film in the rising resistance of school administrative boards, church, police and theatre federations against the cinema. Only in the middle of the 1920er relaxed these „culture fight “with the appearance of the large film-theoretical writings of Sergej iron stone and Béla Balázs.
- Fritz walter: In the cinema I experience the world: 100 years cinema and film in Austria. 1. Edition. Publishing house Christian Brandstätter, Vienna 1997, ISBN of 3854476612
Web on the left of
- www.filmarchiv.at - Austrian film archives