Austrian convention

the Austrian convention (actually: Concerning convention the re-establishment independent and democratic Austria, given to Vienna to 15. May 1955) became to 15. May 1955 in Vienna in the lock Belvedere between allied crew powers the USA, USSR, France and Great Britain and the Austrian government signs and stepped to 27. July 1955 officially into force.

Table of contents

general and structure

Intending coin to the convention (2005)

the subject of the contract was the re-establishment of a free, sovereigns and democratic State of Austria. Basis of the present Treaty was also the Muscovites declaration of 30. October 1943.

Signers of the contract were the ministers of foreign affairs at that time Wjatscheslaw Molotow (Soviet Union), John FosterDulles (the USA), Harold Macmillan (Great Britain) and Antoine Pinay (France) for the allied ones and Leopold Figl as Austrian ministers of foreign affairs as well as the four High Commissioners of crew powers.

The convention consists of the preamble and the 9 parts:

  1. Political and territorial regulations
  2. military ones andRegulations over aviation
  3. reparations
  4. cancellation of allied powers
  5. property, rights and interests
  6. trade relations
  7. regulation with controversies
  8. restaurant economics
  9. final clauses

substantial ones points of the contract

in addition to the general regulation and acknowledgment of the Austrian state are in the article 7 the minority rights of the Croats and Slovene regulated. In the article 4 Austria, does not commit itself like always constituted political or economic combination with Germany [too] goes (connection prohibition). In the article 9 Austria commits itself to dissolve all National Socialist organizations andto permit no remanipulation of Nazi tables and fascist organizations.

Austria quit beyond that on, afterTo explain conclusion of the convention from free pieces the always-lasting neutrality, those thus not in the convention, however with this in closeConnection stands.

In the time of the cold war the connection prohibition and the always-lasting neutrality were interpreted going by that an entry to the EEC and/or. to the European Union is not permitted. Later this changed - and since 1995 (entry) Austria is member of the European Union.

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consequence zones of occupation in

Austria as consequence of the present Treaty crew powers up to 25. October 1955 Austrian national territory. The 26. October as National holiday (until 1965: Day of the flag) is brought sometimes with this date in connection, refers however to to 26. October 1955 into the Federal Constitution taken up Austrian neutrality.

Austria was with the convention the only State of, that after 1945 up to samtenen revolution 1989 on peaceful way by contract from all crew powers became free.

emergence

first attempts a contract to negotiate were already undertaken in the Jänner 1947 in London of the first selected postwar government of Austria. Starting from March 1947 the further negotiations became to Moscowshifted. There itself Austria - encouraged by the Muscovites declaration - when “first victim of Nazi Germany” saw, one believed also demands like an affiliation of South Tyrol, which should be strengthened by signature actions in South Tyrol, places to be able. These desires became however very soon a removalgiven. Also with the Nürnberger processes by the Soviet Union this victim role had been related and also the State of Austria into the responsibility at the war had been referred also. Thus the rounds of negotiations failed usually because of one particularly from the Soviet Union demanded linkage with a peace treaty of the allied ones with Germany. With increase of the cold war a convention became then ever more improbable. The westallied feared that their troops were cut off in Italy by Switzerland and a neutral Austria by the main contingent of its armed forces in Europe.

As only it, a loss of parts of Kärntens succeededto prevent to former Yugoslavia. Both by the president change in the USA von Harry S. Truman to Dwight D. Eisenhower and by death Josef Stalins 1953 became the negotiation climate appreciably better. Also the Austrian negotiation style changed, after Julius Raab Federal Chancellor became. Ofit the utterance comes:One may not pinch the Russian bear always into the tail stub.

To the citizens of Berlin conference of minister of foreign affairs of 25. Jänner to 28. February 1954 was allowed to participate Austria as equal partners. The Soviets wanted to originally agree a contract with a neutral Austria, butonly under the edition that Soviet troops up to the conclusion of their own Friendsvertrages with Germany would remain stationed in the country. That agreed however the Western powers and also Austria not and drove without result home. Only by the entry of the Federal Republic of Germany to NATO 1954 camesurprisingly a solution in view. But only in February 1955 a break-through in the negotiations could be really obtained particularly with the Soviet minister of foreign affairs Molotow, so that the contract came within easy reach.

Already with the arrival in Moscow the greetings of the Austrian arousedDelegation with all military honours hope for a positive end of the negotiations. They were successfully locked in the middle of April. Already Julius Raab announced to 15. April with its arrival from Moscow at the airfield bath Vöslau: “Austria will be free”. These negotiations are considered also asBirth of the always-lasting neutrality, which had at that time also critics within the Austrian dealers. The Soviets required to embody the neutrality directly in the contract. The dealers of the ÖVP wanted to also agree, while the SPÖ - dealers strongly against it arose. These negotiations were remarkable, because the Sovietsa always-lasting neutrality as precondition for an independence it saw which again the Soviets had to convince Austrian dealer of the fact that only after an independence of Austria a legally obligatory neutrality could be decided. Finally one came for well-known execution: the free and sovereigns Austria became thatNeutrality act decide. The negotiation results were held in the Muscovite memorandum.

Still with the final hearings in Vienna lodged a complaint minister of foreign affairs Figl to paint the partial responsibility of Austria at the war from the preamble which succeeded to it with all contracting parties.

“Austria is” “

Austria is free” is free inUtterance of the Austrian minister of foreign affairs at that time Leopold Figl after the signing of the Austrian state contract. These words fell with its speech directly before the signing of the contract in the marble hall of the lock Belvedere in Vienna, not how often stated at the balcony with the presentation of the contract. This is one of the most important political quotations of recent history in Austria.

This concerns of far circles of the Austrian population as konstitutiv expression felt for newer Austrian history, which is repeated accordingly frequently in the Austrian broadcast in word and picture.

It is comparablein their weight in for instance with the expression of American president John F important for Germany. Kennedys to 26. June 1963 before the city hall beautiful mountain in Berlin: “I am a citizen of Berlin!” or the initial words of the speech of the German minister of foreign affairs Hans Dietrich Genscher of the balcony of the GermansMessage in Prague to 30. September 1989: “I came to you, in order to communicate to you that today your departure… (Remainder goes in the rejoicing under) “.

At present the state contract were stationed about 50,000 Soviet soldiers in Austria. From military side up to the conclusion on it one counted,that the crew would last longer. Thus crew powers already built for settlements for the families, like in Salzburg, already followed, where the Americans the Camp Roeder for 10.000 persons established and partly already inhabited. In September 1955 the last Soviet soldiers left the national territory,those the westallied followed to 25. October, one day before the Nationarat decided the neutrality act.

Long years after the convention became in each case to 15. May in many places a liberty fire ignites. There was also the question whether the national holiday to 15. May or at celebrated the alreadyDay of the flag, that 26. October to be celebrated should, until the choice 1967 on the 26. October fell.

In the anniversary year 2005 the authentic original to the contract, which is deposited in public records of the State Department in Moscow, was abroad brought, for the first time after the signing and upthe Schallaburg in Lower Austria and shown in the Viennese lock Belvedere of the public in the context of exhibitions.

literature

  • Austria is freely - Leopold Figl and the way to the convention, of Ernst Trost ISBN 3-85002-332-X
  • case of model for Germany?, of Michael Gehler - ISBN 3-7065-4062-2
  • Austria is free - the Austrian convention 1955, of Stefan Karner and Gottfried Stangler (Hg.), ISBN 3-85460-224-3

see also

Wikisource: Austrian convention - source texts

Web on the left of

 

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