1. Book Mose

Tora /the books Mose (Pentateuch)
Bereschit * 1. Book Mose = genesis
Schemot * 2. Book Mose = exodus
Vajikra * 3. Book Mose = Levitikus
Bemidbar * 4. Book Mose = numbers
Devarim * 5. Book Mose = Deuteronomium

the 1. Book Mose, on Hebrew Bereschit, on Greek genesis mentioned, is the first book of the Bible. The Hebrew name shows its first words: In the beginning(בְרֵאשִית). The designation of the five MOS books after their initial words reflects theirUse for the reading in the synagog service in the Judentum.

The title genesis however originates from the Greek translation of the Tanach, the Septuaginta, which was kanonisiert in the orthodox and catholic Christianity as old will . It summarizes contents of the first verse:

In the beginningGod created skies and earth.

The Greek word for „create " (εγένετο, egeneto) meant as noun (γένεσις) „birth “, „origin “, „emergence “. It translates the Hebrew verb bara, which is used in the Bible exclusively for God creative acting in contrast to human abilities. It describesgenerally the creation of God, which poetically also cradle of mankind is called. It is topic of the first two chapters of the book.

The German designation follows the other church linguistic usage, that traditionally Mose as an author emphasizes and thus more strongly after revealing that Tora to itand the chosen God people Israel alludes. These are contents of the further books Mose, which form the first main part of the Bible together with the genesis as Tora. For Jews such as Christians the creation of the world is already Tora in the sense of obligatory instruction for the wholeLife, the God humans gives and orders.

Table of contents

overview

the 1. Book Mose acts of God creation, which aims at humans, serves it and is entrusted to it. The Biblical creation narration ties at developing myths and cosmogonies in of Israel antique environment (above all the Gilgamesch Epos),borders itself in addition, clearly against mythische conceptions (z. B. the branch ral Gods Babyloniens) off. A Theogonie and a mythology, i.e. a differentiation and a representation of different Gods - as for instance in the Greek legends Homers - one cannot take from him. Here that worked1. Requirement of the Bible after.

From the creation of the world first an early history of mankind (Adam and Eva, Kain and Abel , Noach, those with the people board gene becomes outgoing. ends to 10) told. The early history of the people Israel follows, beginning alsothe appointment of the ore father Abraham. The life and family stories of the Patriarchen Abraham, Isaak and the Jakobs represent the origin of the Israeliten, their laws, customs and religious conceptions under the aspect of göttlichen choosing and the federation with Israel up to death Josefs in Egypt.

Of it outgoing the abrahamitischen religions in such a way specified Judentum, Christianity and Islam refer their respective interpretations.

The 1. Book Mose stands in close relationship to the other four books Mose written Tora or the Pentateuch.

contentwise summary

the book leaves itselfcontentwise roughly into two parts arranged: Prehistory (chapter. 1-11) and father history (chapter. 12-50).

Prehistory covers two creation stories (chapters. 1 and 2, like a Christian Hexaemeron mentioned), history of the garden Eden and driving Adam and Evas out from it; Kain and Abel, chapter. 3 and 4),the Sintflut around Noach (chapter. 6-9) and the building of towers to Babel (chapter. 11, first part).

This einführenden part follow father stories: the narrations in the country Israel around the Patriarchen Abraham (chapter. 12-25) as well as Isaak, the Jakobs and Esau (chapter. 25-35). By it God setsinto the wrecked world a benedictionful new start (gene. 12,1-3).

The book closes brothers (chapters with history at Josef and its. ), the action to Egypt shifts 36-50, where then 2. Book Mose sets.

the creation

the 1. Book Mose beginswith the creation of the world by God in six phases, which are called days often. In order to be able to speak however of days at all, only once the nature of a daily must be created. This happens in the 1. Book Mose in chapter 5. Whereupon follows alsothe second phase the second day.

  1. The light is created and the day is created.
  2. The Himmelsgewölbe is established.
  3. Country and water are separated, and plants will create.
  4. Heavenly bodies are brought to the Himmelsgewölbe.
  5. Sea animals and birds will create.
  6. Land animals and humans will create last,womanlike and male.
  7. Sabbat: God rests.

The source of the light before the emergence of the heavenly bodies is not brought up for discussion thereby, just as little like the source of the existence of God. It is a very short report. There God is. It sets the beginning of world and time.The prehistory of the world melts into the short sentence, “the earth was wildly and empty (confused)” together.

The artful, short narration is to have developed about at present the Babylonian shank. In demarcation for the polytheistischen world view of the Babylonier it already puts the singularness out JHWH ´s,the gentleman over the entire creation is. The faith of the Israeliten in Babylonian banishing, in the apparent defeat of the people of Israel, found its own face in these few words of the creation report. It had the temptation of the apparently victorious religion Babylons with its splendid Liturgien(Liturgie of the New Year celebration) resist.

The author of the report on the emergence of the sky lights (gene 1.14) had particularly to exert here. Small Israel surrounded by the large culture peoples of the Babylonier and Egyptians, which admire among other things also the Gestirne as Gods. The authorit shows in short sober words that the Gestirne is not Gods. It calls it lights, lamps, the God hangs up at the sky at the time to measure. They do not even receive a name! For humans of the time at that time it must an uncanny Frevel beenits to call the large divinities sun and moon lamps. Here the boldness of the Biblical text authors flashes.

The creation report is the moment of the break with the levantinischen religions and the outbreak from the Vielgötterei, the word of God, the reason of a God alonethe crucial clarification is, clearing-up of history. To what extent here existing conceptions from the writing-free area (Echnaton, Jethro of the Midianiter) were taken over, is not clarified.

Adam and Eva

Erschaffung of the EH

second creation history act more of the world and humans inless idealistic way: God creates (in two versions) humans:

  • 1. Mose 1,27: as man and a woman
  • 1. Mose 2,18: Adam („humans “), first humans, from earth („adama “) and gives it the garden Eden as domicile. There Adam is lonely and under thatAnimals to find God from a rib of Adam EH wants, creates no companion (Hebrew:Chava), the first woman.

The existence of these two versions points those differently to dogma tables out sources. The rebellion against God (only Christian as: Case of sin designates), with the Adam and Eva forbid-proves of„Tree of the realization of property and bad “eat, lead to driving out from the Paradies, since God does not want to risk that two humans also still from the tree of the eternal life, beside the tree of the realization, to eat.

God forms humans out of earth of thePlough land (gene 2.7). That is to be called, you humans is from the same material, how your environment and how the wind the dust of the earth sweeps, then is issued it mortal humans. You are not a God, you made yourself, you are not limited. Youis earth. But it is also a Tröstung. Humans are a part of the world, like everything else also. It is not Dämon and no bad spirit, as sometimes it seems. All humans are earth, beyond all history, box, races and culture.

Thus thatHumans to humans become happen still another second. The raw material earth formed out of the God humans, becomes only correct humans, as it God blows its breath, its spirit into the nose (gene 2.7). God steps thus into humans - its creation- inside. In it skies and earth touch themselves.

This humans, equipped with its breath, created by God from earth, can place themselves also in a free decision against God. That is described with the term sin. Humans want more from the life, more liberty,more desire. It develops a true greed, sits down away over the order of nature, over any human order and holds themselves alone for the measure of all things. The sin drop report is a epische history, into which a theological statement is fitted out. It is not minutes.It is to be asked idly: “Why could the queue talk?” or “Adam and Eva ate which fruit?”.

The Israeliten had taken and had partly populated the country Kanaan in possession. The Kanaaniter had a magnificent heidnischen cult, which did not miss its impression on the Isrealiten.The queue was thereby a holy animal, which was high-put represented up and for fertility and life. The queue stood thus for the Heidentum and every time the Israeliten turned to a Götzenkult, mischief and emergency broke out. Thus the queue becomes into the creation reportset back, in it the religion of the inhabitants Kanaan gleams also through. Who turns to the queue, purges to spoiling, like first humans in the Paradies.

All animals pull now on Adam (Adama, good earth) past. He does not find an aid among you. Thus a demarcation findsto the animal cult of the heidnischen environment of Israel instead of. The animal is placed under humans. God uses now a ruse, shifts Adam into the sleep and takes from it a rib (gene 2.21). Out of this rib God forms a woman named EH. Becomes clear,Man and woman are. That was in the eastern world at that time, with its animal, fertility cults and Himmelsgestirnverehrungen a small revolution.

The queue (gene 3.1) promises the two a still larger attraction. They are to eat a fruit from the tree of the realization. The tree is in the also at that time already dust-dry areas of the Orients a picture for water, shade, life absolutely. At this Lebensbaum fruits for the two, which now already live in the Paradies, grow a still larger power increase mean. Perhaps finally directly its as God. The end of historyis well-known. They feel for the case of sin “arom” (naked, poor, ignorantly ohnmächtig become) (gene 3.7). Them it had however promised the queue that it “arum” i.e. intelligently, knowing, powerfully becoming.

God offends now to Adam and Eva from the Paradiesgarten with the realization trees. They are punished, thoseForces of nature place themselves from now on against humans. Everything which it do is finally and often only under agonies and troubles attainable. Wrong and pain found now to their place in the human life (gene 3.19).

The first two children of Adam and Eva,Kain and Abel, are born. Kain kills its brother and is banished, however by God drawn that humans do not kill him whether its murder debt (the origin of these other humans not avowedly); Enoch, one of its sons, creates the first city, i.e. the first town foundationin connection with the first murder one sets. The origin of further humans remains unclear; the further children of Adam and Evas are only casually mentioned.

Fundamentalist groupings, which regard this narration as historical factual report, often point out that the sons and daughters of the twofirst humans among themselves geheiraten to have must. The marriage prohibition among brothers and sisters, v.a. serves the protection from genetic deformations, could not seize at that time yet, since Adam and Eva and their children still without genetic defects were. Only in the course of geologic history the hidden genetic becameDefective ones in the hereditary material of humans accumulated.

Noah

history Noahs begins with short, relatively kryptischen remark over „sons of the Gods “and/or. „God “, or „giants “, that got with people women Kinder. Vorsintflutlichen humans become „age-old “800 or 400 etc. Years. Thatin the following generations Sündhaftigkeit beginning of humans opposes the destruction of all humans with exception Noachs and its family to God. Noach builds a ship, the ark, on which he with its family and a pair of each animal species -- after another verse up tosieve pairs -- the following Sintflut survives. God recognizes that the survivors humans, Noach and its family carry still the vorsintflutlichen spoilingnesses in itself, promises however in a federation with humans to never erase again all life by a Sintflut the rainbow becomesthe symbol for this. The narration over the Sintflut was possibly taken over by the Sumerern and reformulated as narration over the federation of God with humans.

the building of towers to Babel

a summary description of the peoples, the descendants Noachs, becomes by history of Building of towers to Babel (Bawel) interrupted, which in genesis chapter 10 begins and in gene. Kapt. 11,10 one continues. Humans revolt to these against God and answer with the language confusion and the scatter of the peoples, which supply at the same time a mythologische interpretation to that with variety of the languages.

ThatTower to Babel is to have been built during the Babylonian shank and/or. existed and to the highest divinity Babylons to have heard.

Abram and Sarai

Abram (late Abraham called), a Nomade, follow the call of God from its homeland Ur in the country of the Chaldäerin it and its descendant promised country Kanaan. His Mrs. Sarai ( late Sarah called) and its family as well as its nephew plumb bob with its family accompany it. According to dry a stay in Egypt Abram and plumb bob separate, in order to avoid conflicts over pasture reasons.Plumb bob settles in the valley of Sodom.

Sodom and Gomorra

three messenger (angel) appear with Abram and confirm that it and Sarai despite their high age within period of one year will have a son. Further report it of the plan of God, the cities Sodom and Gomorrato destroy due to the sins of their inhabitants.

Abrahams request to kill but no innocent ones is accepted by God, leads however only to the rescue guides and its family; all different die. Guide woman rigidly with the view of the place of the destruction to the salt column; Guide daughters believeobviously, those whole mankind is destroyed, and bears therefore from its father of children, the master fathers of the trunks Ammon and Moab.

Sarahs childlessness: Ismael and Isaak

around the childlessness to escape, decide Abram and Sarai that Hagar, a farm servant Abrams, for descendant Abramsto ensure is. The child Abrams with Hagar, called Ismael, becomes the master father of the Arabs. God blames Abram and Sarai because of their Unglaubens and closes a federation with them, in which it renames it in Abraham and Sarah and which cutting all male descendants asIndication of the federation prescribes. Sarah bears soon thereafter Isaak. God examines Abrahams faith, by requiring of it to sacrifice its son. Abraham is obedient, Isaak remains through God stop areas in the last instant alive. See victim Isaaks.

Abraham is 100, Sarah 90 beenits, when them Isaak was born. This becomes convincing, if one sets not 100 and/or 90 years, but 100 and/or 90 harvests, which took place about twice in 12 months. The year as summary of 12 months was probably unknown for lack of seasons in the desert.

the Jakobs and Esau

Isaak marry Rebekka and have twin sons: Esau, which become a hunter, and Jakob, which become Nomade. Follows history of the right of the Erstgeborenen, which buys Jakob Esau for a lens court. As Jakob also still the benediction Isaaks for itselfby deception, flees he receives on advice of its nut/mother, in order to escape Esaus anger. With the brother of its nut/mother it recruits Rachel and Leah, which it marries both its daughters, whereby it must serve for it 14 years. With both women and their twoFarm servants has it finally twelve sons: Carrots, Simeon, Levi, Juda, Dan, Naphtali, Gad, ashtrays, Issachar, Zebulon, Josef and Benjamin. It has also a daughter named Dina.

With the Jakobs' return to its homeland he is different an at night in the ring fight with a mysteriösen nature, thatas God, an angel or humans one understands. Jakob goes out of the ring fight superior out and requires of its opponent to be gesegnet, before he releases him. This gives on it a new name to the Jakobs: Israel, as much as „with God struggles “.

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Josef and its brothers

Josef are Jakob's favourite son and verpetzt its brothers repeatedly with the father, it therefore by its brothers are hated. They sell it as a slave to a caravan pulling to Egypt and report Jakob, it was killed by wild animals.

Josefin Egypt as a slave to a yard official of the Pharaos one sells. Its wife lets Josef with wrong accusations throw in the prison, as he itself refuses with it sleeping. Due to its ability to interpret dreams Josef becomes released however again and becomes an influentialMan in Egypt. When it sieve greases and sieves dry year in Egypt predicts correctly and the country by a supply attitude plan from the hunger emergency saves, its position is secured as Wesir.

Because his family in Kanaan under the Dürre suffers and in Egypt grain buywants, it can get it to itself to Egypt. It reconciles itself with its brothers and can take still from its dying father parting.

Jewish representation

in the Judentum has also the first Parascha (Jewish week section) the name Bereschit, which T/plate-asked on first after Simchat Torah one reads.

Mose as an author in Jewish tradition

after the Jewish teachings takes the book off the period of the Erschaffung of the world in the first year up to Josefs death in the year 2309 (1452 v.d.Z.). Afterwards is the authorthis book Mo, which was thus only born after Josefs death (see Schemot). Here the Mo entire Torah already received at the Sinai from God.

meaning

Bereschit is a part of the Torah and is thereby the basis for the Judentum andwith starting point for the Christianity and the Islam, whereby both show the narrations with different emphasis or changes.

Thus many contents in this book, whatever have today still importance great for the Judentum, are, although the actual emergence of the Jewish people only innext book one describes.

Thus the Jews from Bereschit learn among other things:

  • that God the world create and created.
  • that God intervenes in the run of the world.
  • which meaning and tasks humans in the world have.
  • that all humans from the same ancestors descendand in this sense are alike.
  • the federation between God and Noach and its descendant.
  • which God is probably obliging and which Mitzwot (requirement) Nichtjuden for a fair life to fulfill must.
  • the allocation of mankind into different peoples.
  • the federation between God and Awraham (Abraham) andits descendants.
  • the federation between God and Ischmael (Ismael) and its descendant.
  • the emergence of the Jewish people.

Mitzwot in Bereschit

the following Mitzwot (requirements) are contained in Bereschit:

  • Are fruitful and does not mehrt you (see Bereschit 1:28)
  • roasted Mila (see Bereschit 17:2 FF)
  • thoseVene of the thigh eat (gene. 32:33)

comments

Christian representation

author shank

the 1. Book Mose does not call an author. The German name follows the Jewish and Christian tradition author shank of a Moses, those the entire Pentateuch („the 5Books Mose “) as of Mose sees written.

A widespread, but particularly Lehrmeinung disputed under conservative arms sees several authors, those the 1. Book Mose from a number of older excessive quantities arranged and smoothed.

The question the author shank and time of origin is in the article to the Pentateuch in more detail treats.

Contentwise there are some direct references to the dating of the text. Anachronisms like the mention of camels (chapters. 12, verse 14-16; Chapter. 24, verse 10-11) and caravans (chapters. 37, verse 25-28) as well as the purchase to israelitischer kings (chapters. 36, verse 31) points to oneEmergence after that 10. pre-Christian century; only since that time were kings in Israel. Camels became in 12. or 11. pre-Christian century domestiziert, and the oldest referring to camel caravans in the Near East originate from that 7. Century. The purchase to kings of the Philister(Chapters. this dating supports 26, verse 1) in the Near East: Archaeological excavations find first philisische settlements since that to 13. Century, and first cities (Gerar) in 7. Century.

With the dating of the Patriarchen on the time between that 25. and that 16. pre-Christian century (depending uponLehrmeinung) results an emergence of some centuries after the events.

important one statements and topics

the main part and the attention is on the second part. The first part is frame-giving nature, for the narrations over and around the people Israel. In thisLight should be seen also the discussion of the creationists and the fundamentalist Christians with their criticism of the evolution theory.

In the large Babylonian report on the Erschaffung of the world Enuma Elisch, the light God Marduk splits the body of the Urdrachens. Firmament and earth are the brokenBody of the dead kite and from the blood of the kite created Marduck humans. The writers of the creation report of the Bible, place themselves completely soberly and saucily against this dämonische view of the world. No, they say, then it cannot have been. We humans everything,are formed out of good earth, beyond all cultures and history. Straight this thought is the basis the creation report of the Bible. God is also no impersonal it, which in the width of the universe roll. God steps again and again into contact to its creation.

God picture

The 1. Book Mose justifies a monotheistische world view, in which the world was created by a God. This God is partly described in antropomorphischen terms, and it appears selected humans, for who it makes reports. Contrary to other mythologies of the Near East knows that 1.Book Mose a only one, however drawing God; all other non-human intelligent natures like for example, angels " (in the Hebrew origin text, messengers “mentioned) are it in rank underlaid and from him created. It takes place however no philosophical or formal reason or definition of this God. Its description followspractical criteria of the religious life of humans, who it meets.

References become partial other divinities in the 1. Book Mose as reference to a henotheistische predecessor religion understood, which is recognizable only in traces. After this aspect would be the alttestamentliche Monotheismus that of the Zoroastrismus temporally subordinate.

people picture

the people picture of the 1. Book Mose begins with the description of the creation of humans „in the picture of God “and implicitly as the crown of the creation. As also in many other creation myths, entire mankind comes from a pair of people, here Adamand EH, off. Exactly taken a second „bottle neck follows “with Noah, after which all humans decrease/go back to the three sons Noahs and their wives.

Humans are seen primarily regarding God; in this regard its purpose and its fulfilment exist. Thisbecomes with the meaning of the federation, the God with all humans closes also clearly: Once with Noach and later with Abraham, in each case representatively of all descendants. In particular the federation with Abraham leads special to the aspect of the people Israel as the people selected of God, thatPromises to be made.

conception of the world

the conception of the world of the 1. Book Mose essentially is not a creationism, but verwoben a mythischen narration, in the myths of the antique fronteastern world, it acts of göttlichen powers and humans, in the beginning offirst humans, then of humans of the first generations of the people Israel and changes itself to an historical narration. God appears partly than clearly standing over the world, partly in addition, than within the world effective and living (see also Gan Eden).

From the succession of the generations and the indicated years by religious Jews and Christians was tried to determine the age of the world. This takes place on the assumption of a literal interpretableness of the narrations. There itself the years in the Hebrew Bible of those the Greek Bibledifferentiate, and some data are ambiguous, one came to several different possible results. Already in the Middle Ages a such procedure of rationalistic aligned theologians was rejected and a allegorische Lesart was represented.

Today the history of the 1 becomes. Book Mose to a large extent as attempt understood, to that oneTo understand time in the Near East living master and groups of peoples in their relationship with the people Israel.

see also

to literature

Jewish

  • Leopold Zunz: The holy writing. ISBN 3857050020
  • SamsonRaphael deer: Bereschit.
  • W. Gunther Plaut: Tora. Hebrew-German, 5 Bde. (Bd.1, genesis) ISBN 3579026461
  • W. Gunther Plaut (Hrsg.): Tora in Jewish interpretation. (Bd. 1 - Bereschit.)
  • J.H. Hertz: The Pentateuch. Hebrew-German.
  • Rödelheimer expenditure. With German translation of J. Wohlgemuth.

Christian

 

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