13. Additive for the condition of the United States of America

of the 13. Additive for the condition of the United States of America (Thirteenth Amendment ton the United States Constitution) became to 31. January 1865 the Federal States for ratification submitted and stepped to 18. December 1865 into force. It created the slavery in the entire area of the United States finally off.

The original document 13. Constitutional amendment

table of contents

wording

section 1

English

Neither slavery nor involuntary easement, except as A punishment for crime whereof the party sound have been duly convicted, sound exist within the United States, or any place subject tons their jurisdiction.

Germans

neither slavery nor hard labour, excluded as punishment for a crime due to a legal judgement, are to exist in the United States of America and all places, which are subject to their iurisdiction.

section 2

English

Congress sound have power ton enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

German

the congress receives the power this additive with appropriate laws to intersperse.

historical

background

Lincoln und sein Kabinett unterzeichen die Proklamation zur Sklavenbefreiung
Lincoln and its cabinet under character the proclamation for slave release

with Abraham Lincoln was selected 1860 a gemässiger opponent of the slavery to the president of the United States by America. Lincoln, whose choice was an important reason for the outbreak of the war of secession, wanted to abolish the “special institution” of the south gradually and compensate the owners for it. The longer the war of secession however persisted, the more became in Lincoln the conviction strongly that the slavery had to be finally abolished. , he explained the slaves in the Southern States dropped from the union to 1862 , after the battle of Antietam with the Emanzipations proclamation as the 1. January 1863 for free.
Against the actual institution of the slavery Lincoln could not proceed as a president however, but an additive was necessary for the condition. This additive was for the first time suggested to the congress in April 1864 and immediately by the senate with 38:6 voices was discharged; in the house of representatives however it missed the necessary two-thirds majority, since it received only four voices on the part of the democrats. <ref> mrlincolnswhitehouse.org: Passage OF Thirteenth Amendment </ref>. And its party men did not give up to Lincoln however; in its fourth annual speech before the congress to 6. December 1864 recommended the president the “repeated view and Verabschiedung” <ref> infoplease.com: Lincoln's Fourth Annual Message ton of Congress </ref> the additive. Thereupon the additive became to 31. January 1865 again the house of representatives suggested and reached this mark the necessary majority, in order the Federal States for ratification to be suggested.

ratification

of the 13. Constitutional amendment became to 31. January 1865 of the congress discharges and the Federal States for ratification submitted. The first state, which did this, was Illinois only one day later, followed from Rhode Island and Michigan to 2. February. To 18. Decembers 1865 had 27 that at that time 36 member states the 13. Constitutional amendment ratifies, and it became of minister of foreign affairs William H. Seward announces. It is worth mentioning that Mississippi and Kentucky the text only 1976 and/or. 1995 ratified, after they had rejected it 1865.

the Corwin Amendment

of the 1865 ratified was actually already the “second” three tenth constitutional amendment of the United States, which in the process of the 1860er years to the debate. In March 1861, toward end of the office period of president the congress with extremely limited projection/lead (133 yes-voices in the house of representatives and 24 in the senate with 132 discharged James Buchanan, respectively 24, forces <ref> See for this the detailed article of the English Wikipedia: Corwin Amendment </ref>) an additive for condition, which as Corwin Amendment (designated after the delegate Thomas Corwin from Ohio, which brought in it in the house of representatives) admits became and a last attempt represented to prevent the war between north and south. The text of the Amendments planned that no constitutional amendment could be ever adopted, which would permit it to the congress to abolish the slavery. The constitutional amendment was ratified also in several states, disappeared however then in the course of the war of secession from the consciousness of the policy and never reached the necessary 3/4 of the US states; instead of its 1865 became “protects” 13. Constitutional amendment discharges and ratifziert.
Further “thirteen-width unit” a constitutional amendment had been suggested 1810 by the congress and should forbid among other things carrying foreign honour titles to Americans. As in addition, the Corwin Amendment was never really ratified the Titles OF Nobility Amendment. <ref> see also for this the detailed article of the English Wikipedia:Titles OF Nobility Amendment </ref>

further Amendments in the future

with that 13. The colored slaves their liberty had attained constitutional amendment. When reaction to it however so-called Black code became discharged in numerous states, which cut the rights of the former slaves. Only with the constitutional amendments 14 and 15 received the colored ones finally the American citizen and choice rights. In practice were they however much-locate further restrictions and unequal treatment suspended.

sources

< references/>

Wikisource: English text 13. Constitutional amendment - source texts
Wikisource: German text 13. Constitutional amendment - source texts

literature

  • Shelby Foote: The civil was: A Narrative: Volume 3: Talk River ton of Appomattox, Vintage Books, 1986, ISBN 0394746228
  • Michael Vorenberg: Finally Freedom: The civil was, the Abolition OF Slavery, and the Thirteenth Amendment, Cambridge University presses, 2004, ISBN 0521543843 (not seen)
  • Margaret E. Wagner (publisher), Gary W. Gallagher (publisher), Paul Finkelmann (publisher): The LIBRARY OF Congress civil was Desk Reference, Simon & shoemaker, 2002, ISBN 0684863502

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