1974

Richard Nixon
Nixon
back Helmut Schmidt steps
Schmidt
new Federal Chancellor in close proximity to Xi'an
Terrakottaarmee
the Terrakottaarmee to 1974 discovers yearly dedications United Nations
as
a president: „Year of population of world “
bird of the yearly (Germany): Flour swallow
1974 in other calendars
of Chinese calendars year of theWood tiger 甲寅
Islamic calendar 1394
Japanese calendar 昭和 Shōwa 49
Jewish calendar 5734/35
Malayalam calendar 1149/50

the year 1974 was particularly affected by the aftereffects of the oil crisis of the yearly 1973. In this year stepped besides the president of the United Statesof America, Richard Nixon, due to the Watergate affair back.

In the Near East was defused the Jom Kippur war begun by Egypt and Syria by the invasion of American troops. The Israeli government boss Golda Meïr had because of the high Israeli losses in April 1974withdraw. In the north of Cyprus the Cyprus war began, in Portugal came it for carnation revolution so mentioned with the invasion and occupation by Turkish troops. Also in Germany it surrounded Willy Brandts by the resignation due to the espionage affairits personal adviser Günter Guillaume a change of government.

The year became as well as sporty particularly by the soccer world championship in Germany, with that the German soccer national team the title got the Boxkampf between Muhammed Ali and George Foreman in Zaire („Rumble inthe Jungle “) dominates.

Table of contents

politics

politics
1. January

Switzerland: Ernst Brugger becomes Federal President.

Sweden: The parents insurance comes into force.

Finland closes a free trade agreement with the EEC.

The Federal Republic of Germany meets an outline agreement with Botswana over development assistance.

EEC: The Federal Republic transfers the presidency in the advice of the European communities.

2. January Spain: Carlo Arias Navarro is sworn in as an Prime Minister.
18. January agreement over a troop decartelization of Egypt and Israel.

Federal Republic of Germany: The Bundestag passes the federal immission control law.

25. January UN-troops engage into the positions at the Sueskanal, freely made by the Israelis .
31. January assaults of members of the PFLP on the Japanese message in Kuwait and the JRA on a shell plant in Singapore.
7. February Grenadaits independence from Great Britain receives.
8. February in the Upper Volta ereinet itself a Militärputsch.
20. February the German Bundestag ratifies the nuclear weapon check contract
21. February Yugoslavia: A new condition is issued. Tito is betimmt to the president on lifetime.
28. February Great Britain and Northern Ireland: No majority with the parliamentary elections, new elections to 10. October
2. March in Spain is accomplished the last mark an execution. The Anarchist Puig Antich and the German refugee George Michael Welzel are killed.
7. March Agreement over the mechanism of constant agencies in Bonn and east Berlin
14. March the deputy minister of foreign affairs of the GDR, briefly Nier, and the undersecretary of state of the German Federal Republic Günter of gau sign minutes in Bonn over the establishment „constant agencies “.
22. March Federal Republic of Germany: The Bundestag decides to lower the age for majority of 21 to 18.
1. April Burma: A new condition comes into force.
2. April the Republic of the Niger becomes member in the UMOA (westAfrican monetary union) and that BOAD (westAfrican development bank).
11. April Israel: Golda Meïr withdraws as a Prime Minister minister, their successor becomes Jitzchak Rabin.
16. April the Niger: President Hamani Diori is fallen by a Armeeputsch.
24. April South Africa: Elections, which keeps national partytheir absolute majority.

Federal Republic of Germany: Günter Guillaume, personal adviser of Federal Chancellor Willy Brandt, is exposed as a feeler gauge of the GDR.

25. April Portugal: Fall of the dictatorship by „the carnation revolution “. The military junta „movement of the armed forces “takes overpower.
30. April execution of the 19-jährigen Leyla Kassim and four further students after heavy tortures because of „promotion and approving the separatist efforts “in Südkurdistan
6. May Federal Republic of Germany: Willy Brandt steps as a Federal Chancellor because of the espionage affair over Günter Guillaume back.
15. May Federal Republic of Germany: Walter cross-eyed is selected to the German Federal President.

Portugal: General António Ribeiro de Spínola becomes a president.

Northern Ireland: The Ulster Workers Council proclaims a general strike .

16. May Federal Republic of Germany: Helmut Schmidt is selected from the Bundestag to the Federal Chancellor.

Portugal: Adelino Palma Carlo becomes an Prime Minister there (to 17. July).

18. May India leads the first nuclear weapon test through („Smiling Buddha “).
19. May in France becomes Valery Giscard d'Estaing (50.8%) forwards François Mitterrand (49.1%) selected to the president.
21. May the government under Sanya Thammasak in Thailand withdraws.
26. May the People's Republic of China announces publicly a military aid agreement with the red Khmer .
2. June Bhutan: Jigme Singye Wangchuk becomesto the king crowned.
8. June the Palestinian national council (PNC) publishes on its 12. Meeting a 10-scoring program.
11. June after a three-day-long strike in the public service decides the Bundestag one starting from that 1. January retroactive increase of the officials - and employee salariesaround 11%.
23. June Austria: Rudolf Kirchschläger is selected to the Federal President.
29. June Argentina: Isabel Martínez de Perón is sworn in as a state president.
1. July EEC: France transfers the presidency in the advice of the European communities.
15. July Cyprus: Putsch of Greek generals.
17. July Portugal: Colonel Vasco DOS Santos Gonçalves becomes an Prime Minister. „The movement of the armed forces “hits a radically socialist course and comes thereby into contrast to Spínola.
20. July Turkish invasion in Cyprus.Beginning of the Cyprus war.
23. July collapse of the Greek military dictatorship.
27. July in Washington D.C. the Impeachment begins - procedures against the acting US president Richard Nixon because of „handicap of the law “.
30. July Rhodesien: Elections, victory of the white minority party Rhodesian front
9. August the USA: US president Richard Nixon withdraws in the context of the Watergate affair .
15. August South Korea: President park Chung hee escapes an assassination attempt with a public speech scarcely.
21. August those Geneva disarmament conference is extended to 31 participant countries.Are taken up to the 1. January 1975 the Federal Republic of Germany, the GDR, Peru, Zaire and Iran.
4. September admission of diplomatic relations USA GDR.
10. September the independence from Guinea-Bissau is recognized by Portugal.
11. September Portugal becomes again member in that UNESCO.
12. September Ethiopia: Emperor Haile Selassie I. by the military one sets off.
13. Septembers members of the Japanese Red Army attack the French message into the Hague.
17. Septembers Grenada, Guinea-Bissau and Bangladesh become members that United Nations.
30. September Portugal: President de Spínola withdraws. Its successor becomes a general Francisco there Costa Gómes.
3. October the Italian Prime Minister Mariano Rumor explains its resignation.
10. October the labour party wins the new elections in Great Britain, Harold Wilson becomes a prime minister.
18. October the democratic People's Republic of Korea becomes member in the UNESCO.
19. October independence from Niue, in free association with New Zealand
1. November Guinea-Bissau becomes member in the UNESCO.
12. November San Marino becomes member in the UNESCO.
13. November PLO - Leader Yassir Arafat holds his first speech before the UN plenary assembly.
14. - 16. November conference of world nourishing in Rome.
17. November Greece: First free elections after the military dictatorship, victorythe Nea Dimokratia under Konstantinos Karamanlis.
25. November shooting at the border between Mali and Burkina Faso
26. November Japan: Prime minister Tanaka Kakuei explains his resignation after a real estate scandal.
9. December Japan: Miki Takeo becomes a prime minister.

EEC: Summit in Paris. Establishment of the European advice. Resolution for the creation of an economic and a monetary union.

13. December the independent Republic of Malta is proclaimed.
19. December Cearbhall Ó Dálaigh is sworn in as a fifth president of Ireland.
Switzerland ratifies those European human right convention.
For the first time in their history the Federal Republic of Germany registers a sinking number of inhabitants: at the year end 62 million inhabitant are counted, a decrease around 110.000.
Continuous events
KSZE conference in Helsinki
Viet Nam war

a substantial factor for the international political and economicalDevelopment were the effects of the oil crisis of the previous year 1973, which apparent became particularly in Europe and America 1974 and which economic power out pointed, which the Arab OPEC - states to exercise could.

Europe

the European economy was 1974 beforeeverything by the strongly increasing inflation coined/shaped, which became internationally apparent both in the individual states and. Particularly the policy of detente between western NATO, coined/shaped by the commitment of Willy Brandt - States of, everything in front the Federal Republic of Germany, andtheir eastern neighbour, that had controlled the previous years 1972 and 1973, displaced by the internal economic problems of the European nations. The European economic union came increasingly into the criticism to intensify the problems predominantly by representatives of Great Britain. In Decemberafter a conference of several days a financial adjustment for poorer regions was decided such as Ireland and Italy.

The attempts to meet the inflation by trade restrictions and lowerings of customs duties led themselves to a decreased economic growth of the nations and to a discontent of the population,in some states by several changes of government and national strikes made noticeable. In Italy no government majority could be found, the formation of a government impossible, in Great Britain had two elections to be accomplished, in order to educate a new government.

In Portugal and Greecedictators were fallen.

Above all

the advancements in the east politics and the developments of relation to the German Democratic Republic a central role played Federal Republic of Germany in the Federal Republic of Germany apart from the economic crisis. To 25. April of the yearly became the personalAdviser of chancellor of the German Federal Republic Willy Brandt, Günter Guillaume, as a feeler gauge of the GDR unmasks and released so the espionage affair, to 6. May with the resignation Brandts from its office ended, only four days after the opening ofconstant agencies in the two German capitals Bonn and east Berlin. To 15. May was selected walter cross-eyed to the new German Federal President, one day later appointed the Bundestag Helmut Schmidt the successor Willy Brandts.

The movement 2. June“, to West-Berliner the Stadtguerilla belonged, murdered to 5. July in West Berlin Ulrich of neat, one of their former members. In a claim of responsibility neat was called „traitor and counter in a revolutionary manner “, who had been executed after a death sentence. The same group was suspected, to10. November in West Berlin the Court of Appeal president Günter of Drenkmann to have likewise murdered. Meanwhile several RAF stepped - prisoners against their prison conditions into a hunger strike. Holger Meins died to 9. November. To 29. November refuge of meals became and Ulrike Meinhof because of attempted murder with the release from Andreas Baader to 14 and/or 8 years imprisonment condemns.

German Democratic Republic

the international acknowledgment of the GDR came 1974 to a provisional conclusion. Thus 2 became to. May the constant agencies thatboth German states in the capitals furnished. To 4. Septembers took up the GDR and the USA diplomatic relations. Between the two German states it overcame to a number of bilateral agreements, for example over the course of the border in the Lübecker bay,garbage transport from West Berlin and the continuation of the Swing - regulation in the German domestic trade.

Parallel to it in the GDR memories of all-German from the public were erased. Thus applied starting from 1. January the new license number „GDR “, during the introduction of new notesto 14. September was replaced the old currency designation „to Marks of the German issuing bank “through „Marks of the GDR “. In one to 17. Septembers adopted constitutional amendment finally said good-bye the GDR of the term of the German nation and the goal of the reunification. From the condition of the GDR all appropriate passages were painted. The 1971 on VIII. Party Congress of the SED decided major task in the developed socialist society, the increase of the material and cultural life level of the people on the basis of onestrong economic development, a component of the condition became. In addition the Council of State of the GDR was devalued clearly in favor of of people chamber and Council of Ministers.

France

Valéry Giscard D' Estaing

in France could itself the republican Valéry Giscard D' Estaing in the second ballot scarcely against François Mitterrandintersperses and became thereby president of its country and successor of Georges Pompidou, to 2. April of the yearly had died. This office kept Giscard D' Estaing until 1981.

Although Valéry Giscard D' Estaing was popular with the people, he saw himself inRun of the yearly 1974 with strikes and demonstrations because of the economic situation of France and against his politics confronts. It had promised with the choice to close the social gap by training and tax revisions. As it however in December of theYearly of the economic crisis with shortening national subsidies, subsidies and tax increases to meet searched, it with extensive strikes was answered.

Portugal

in Portugal came it to 24. and 25. April 1974 for carnation revolution against the dictatorship dominant in the country under Marcello Caetano. Trip was a publication of the general António de Spínola, in whom it demanded the Portuguese colonial policy criticized and a prevention of the current political situation under participation of the people. The revolution started after an agreed upon radio bringingthe song E depois DO adeus (after the parting) from Paulo de Carvalho and went altogether very unblutig. In the evening 25. April handed over to Caetano the government to the provisional head of state Spínola. In the consequence political becamePrisoner releases, and at the 1. May came it to a comprehensive general amnesty for deserters and conscientious objectors.

António de Spínola withdrew in September 1974 after disputes with the left wing of the new government of its office as a provisional head of state andstated from now to the conservative opposition, its successor became Francisco there Costa Gomes.

Great Britain

in Great Britain led the economic crisis together with the restrictive policy by prime minister Edward Heath already to at the end of of 1973 to substantial strikes, above allin the coal mines of the country. In order to meet these, Heath limited the work time of the industry to one three-day week, instead of negotiating with the mine workers. In February 1974 it lost thereupon with the House of Commons elections the majority in the parliament. The choice hadhowever, and a minority government of the labour party the office business up to the new election in such a way transferred no clear winner in October. Meanwhile became to 17. June of the Palace OF Westminster by a bomb attack of the Irish Republican Army damages. The new elections became from the labourParty won, and Harold Wilson became a prime minister. Despite the change of government it came however further to economic unrests, particularly by the demand of the government to nationalization of enterprises.

In Northern Ireland the Ulster Workers Council called to 15. May to the general strikeup. Reason of the protest was the Sunningdale Agreement, an attempt, to solve by the power division between unionists and nationalists the Northern Ireland conflict. After two weeks barricade fights Brian Faulkner gave to 28. May as a head of the government up. Thus was both the strikeand the Agreement terminates.

Italy

also in Italy determined the financial crisis the policy of the country, the economic crisis led here to strong unrests and to an economic and social collapse. Over months there were no services by mail, and to thatLarge cities became scarce by the influx of the country the dwellings. In the government cases of corruption accumulated themselves up, with those cabinet members by oil enterprises were paid and the Christian-democratic government party lost increasingly the support. The Prime Minister Mariano Rumor became in this yeartwice close put to withdraw due to problems with its coalition partners from its office which he did in October then.

Greece

the Greek military dictatorship was at the beginning of the yearly 1974 by the seven-year-old struggle for power between dictatorship, monarchy and people, in addition,Army and fleet and within the army zermürbt. The rebellion in the poly-technical University of Athens in the November of the previous year had continued to weaken the dictatorship, and the coup of Dimitrios Ioannides to 25. November 1973 was the last attempt, the regimeto hold at power. It proclaimed the state of emergency again. As now to 15. July 1974 the Cyprus conflict openly broke off, was the Obristen too weak, to 20. To oppose July in Cyprus invading Turkish troops somewhat. Many militaryturned away from the Obristen, and which had to withdraw from them used government under Adamantios Androutsopoulos.

Konstantinos Karamanlis, already several times Greek prime minister between 1955 and 1963, turned thereupon with support of the French president Valéry Giscard d'Estaing from itsParis exiles back and the Regierungsgewalt took over. Due to the precarious situation it was forced to live on a yacht in the port which was guarded by a destroyer. It removed Kollaborateure of the dictatorship from the administration and eased the relationshipto Turkey. It legalisierte the communist party of Greece (KKE), left the establishment of the Panellínio Sossialistikó Kínima (PASOK) at the 3. September too and created even the Nea Dimokratia (lp). With the first free elections to 17. November became with the victorylp the government of Karamanlis legitimizes. During a popular vote was decided not to introduce those in the previous year of the Obristen abolished monarchy again.

Cyprus

to 27. January died Georgios Grivas, former commander of the Greek national guard. It was to Cyprusreturned, in order there the EOKA - B to develop, those in the underground against president Makarios fought for the Enosis to reach the combination with Greece. By its death the EOKA came to the Strippenzieher under direct control of Dimitrios Ioannides,behind the window blinds of the military dictatorship in Athens. To 15. July 1974 putschte the EOKA-B with the help of the Greek national guard and made Nikos Sampson the president of Cyprus.

Turkey, beside Greece and Great Britain protecting power of the island, reacted, after Great Britainremains neutral, with a military invasion to 20. July and occupied the northern part of the island. The threatening war with Turkey led to political chaos in Greece, and to 23. July broke down there the dictatorship with the resignation of the Obristen.

To 25. Peace discussions in Geneva between the three protecting powers began July, and Turkey stopped its advance. To 8. August began a second round of talks, this time under participation of the Greek and Turkish Zyprioten, but the discussions ended to 14. August without result.It comes to renewed fighting, those in a further armistice to 16. Ended to August. The Turkish troops control at this time 34% for the island. The UN established thereupon on the demarcation line one „the Greens zone “, to today (2006) thoseBorder between Turkish and Greek part of the island forms.

200,000 Cyprus Greeks were forced by the conflict to flee from the Turkishly occupied part while 50,000 Cyprus Turks from the south were sold.

Yugoslavia

to 21. February became a new in YugoslaviaCondition issue, which explained Josip Broz Tito as the president on lifetime. The Yugoslav communist central committee consisting to 2/3 of Slovenes and Croats ensured at the same time for it that one granted to the individual partial republics more autonomy, up to the right for the splitting off fromYugoslavia. The Land of the Federal Republic Serbia was three-divided with the autonomy proclaiming of the Kosovos and the Vojvodina. Reason for this was the autonomy effort of the Albanians and Hungary, those at the time at that time 50% and/or. 15% of the there population constituted. Similar autonomy efforts in thatPartial republic Croatia living Serb were not accepted.

America

Argentina

president Juan Perón, which had only come in the year before it power, died at the 1. July. Its office took over Isabel Perón, its third wife, thus around thoseFollow-up in the presidency no discussions or new elections was risked. It was however completely overtaxed of the office. Neither it had the education nor the political talent to fill out this task for the advantage of their country. It was the puppet thatbehind their standing peronistischen ruling power. Their term of office coined/shaped by irregularly returning „outlaw strikes “(„huelgas “) and officially arranged stop of the life („paro general “). Their reign was coined/shaped of economic fall and renewed terrorism. Already underPerón created halfnational terror brigade Alianza Anticomunista Argentina (AAA) provided for the first disappearing so mentioned and murdered numerous oppositionals and activists that linking. Isabel Perón became already two years later, to 24. March 1976 of military arrested and under house arrest placed.

Nicaragua

after the country two years by a military dictatorship Triumvirat under Anastasio Somoza Debayle had been governed, left myself these in September for the second time to the president to select. While the American support for its regime shrank, the opposition became,led of the Sandinistas (FSLN) more strongly. In December Guerillas kidnapped 13 prominent ones from the policy, under it several members of the family Somoza. The group secured itself a ransom of 1 million US Dollar and reached the release of 14 prisoners. Somozareacted, by it the martial law imposed and the national guard began.

The political stage was weakened the USA US president Richard Nixon in the USA dominated by for two years the running Watergate affair strongly, also the 1974. After already numerous involved ones to resignationwas forced, accused or condemned, finally became to 27. July introduced by the legal committee of the house of representatives a Impeachment - procedures against the president. Nixon came the procedure, which would have been very probably successful, by its resignation to 9. August before. Of itsSuccessor, vice-president Gerald R. Ford, he became to 8. September in advance in all charges begnadigt.

By the Watergate affair the democrats drove clear victories in the same year with the elections to the house of representatives (+49 seats) and to the senate (+3 seats). In the house of representatives they placed thereby scarcely over two thirds of the delegates.

Likewise in this year the USA and shortened the military aid for the regime withdrew the last soldiers from Viet Nam in south Viet Nam, which to its collapse inYear later led.

The American troops had withdrawn itself Asia Viet Nam after the signing of the peace contract of Paris 1973 completely from Viet Nam and stood the regime from Nguyễn Văn Thiệu into south Viet Nam briefly before the end. Of corruption, criminalityand nepotism drawn Saigoner regime had to bear now an economic crisis, which had been caused by the outlet of the most important employer (US-Army) and the oil crisis of 1973. 1974 confessed congress of US Saigon an effective military aid of only 400 million dollartoo, which did not cover the need of the ARVN developed still further. And finally the Nixon forced fastened by the Watergate affair to the resignation did not know Thiệu any more the promised assistance assigns become to let. In the cities unemployment of approx. prevailed.40% and the Oberschicht created gradually its possession abroad. 240,000 deserters turned 1974 the ARVN the back. On the other hand the communist in the south, who controlled still around the 25% of the country, with support from Hanoi had succeeded, a strategicto be obtained as economic stability. “Their position could not shake the numerous conflicts around the adherence to the weapon style conditions and respecting „the national advice. Also after that Paris agreements threw the USA altogether 250,000 tons off explosive over Kambodscha. ThatCongress, that redefined its authority with regard to foreign policy debited to the white house, refused however further attacks on south Viet Nam. In the year following on it finally the guidance in Hanoi decided to look for the decision. In March 1975 the border was exceeded.Those numerically and materially superior ARVN collapsed quasi in itself. Hue and Đà Nẵng changed end of the monthly into communist rule. Thus the Viet Nam war was terminated.

Kambodscha

in Kambodscha became the civil war raving since 1970 the self runner. Duringthe VR China a military aid agreement with the red Khmer closed, withdrew themselves the USA step by step and was limited to Bombardements. Several attempts to initiate peace negotiations failed.

Burma

to 4. January separated after proclaiming the socialist ones Federal Republic of Burma the revolutionary council up, dictator Ne Vienna president became. The highest legislation, executive and judikative power turned into on the again created popular assembly (Pyithu Hluttaw). At the 1. April received the country under the password „Burmesi way to socialism “a new condition.

To 25. November deceased to Sithu U Thant, until 1971 Secretary-General of the United Nations, in New York. Its body was transferred into its homeland Burma to Rangoon, but Ne Vienna refused a honorable there to itFuneral. U Thant belonged to the democratic government, that had eliminated Ne Vienna with its coup d'etat 1962. To 5. Decembers kidnapped student the body briefly before the official funeral, buried him on the area of the 1962 destroyed student union of the universityRangoon (RUSU) and established to it a Mausoleum. At the 11. Decembers one stormed the area of the burmesischen military, some students were killed. The body was removed and buried at the foot of the Shwedagon Pagode. This action led to road protests in Rangoon,and the government imposed the state of emergency.

Japan

the central event in 1974 in Japan was the resignation of the prime minister Tanaka Kakuei in the November of the yearly. A substantial confidence loss already went to this during the energy crisis ahead 1973, in the apronwhich it lost about 30% of its constituency. Under its government the inflation rate rose so strongly that Japan 1974 had the highest rate of all industrial nations and the economic growth fell for the end of the first quarter the first time since that 2.World war on almost zero. In October 1974 the magazine Bungei Shunju Tanaka Kakuei knows besides numerous doubtful real estate businesses from the 1960er years after. Among other things it had paid a Geisha to lock business for it. Its rivals within that A liberal-democratic party (LDP) used the opportunity to bring it before a public hearing in the parliament. It stepped to 26. To prevent November back, in order that the business guide of the Etsuzankai (its support organization), with which it a relationship had before the parliamentto state must. New prime minister became Miki Takeo, likewise of the LDP, which the office became to transfer as consent of the government.

In the last month of its reign Tanaka Kakuei received the US president Gerald Ford, that as a first president of the USAthe country visited. The discussions in Tokyo served above all to improve the economic relations of the USA with Japan. Were overshadowed selbige apart from the affairs around Tanaka Kukuei also by a scandal around American nuclear weapon transportation: Admiral Gene LaRoque explainedin the apron before congress of US that American ships, which transported nuclear weapons in Japanese ports had run in, without informing the government of Japan about it. Opposite Japan the US Government got that this only the unofficial opinions of a military were, one straightactual disclaiming of the data did not take place however.

The East Asian anti-Japanese armed front committed to 30. August a bomb attack on the firm center of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries.

People's Republic of China

the People's Republic of China was in the last phase of the culture revolution. Prime minister Zhou En-Lai could not implement the office business because of its cancer suffering any longer. Therefore transferred in August Deng Xiaoping, that only in the previous year on that 10. Congress of the kp China rehabilitated by it and made its deputy was kommissarisch,its office business. Likewise in this year the campaign against the 1971 deceased Lin Biao and the anti-Confucius campaign began.

The Portuguese colony Macao attained independence, the People's Republic after the carnation revolution wanted however the administration not to take over, why Macao too” became Chinese territory under Portuguese administration “.

India

in India succeeded to 18. May the first nuclear weapon test („Smiling Buddha “), thus became the country the sixth country possessing atomic weapons.

The Near East

Israel

at the beginning of the yearly 1974 was Israel in the middle in the Jom Kippur war against Syria and Egypt, to 6. Octobers 1973 a simultaneous surprise attack on Israel led. To 18. January 1974 was closed, by Henry Kissinger negotiated, with the Egyptian government a troop agreement on deconcentration, and to 31. May one with the SyrianGovernment. Internationally the war entailed an Arab oil embargo for the states, which acted with Israel.

Palestinian movement

the strong Israeli Gegenwehr in the Jom Kippur war made clear to the Palestinian movement that the Arab states would not succeed to defeat Israel militarily.Instead a three-phase plan was developed. In the armed fight Israeli territory should step by step conquered and on „released “areas a state as basis for further fights to be established, in order to then provoke a final decision war. These goals becameto 9. June on that 12. Palestinian national council in Cairo in a ten points program laid down (Wikisource).

At the same time the PLO achieved the international political acknowledgment. To a conference of Arab heads of state in October in Rabat it becomes as exclusive representatives thatPalestinian recognition. The break-through succeeds then one month later at the United Nations. To 13. November holds Yassir Arafat a speech before the UN plenary assembly (Wikisource).

To 22. November accepted the UN plenary assembly resolution 3236 (Wikisource),those the right of the Palestinian people to on self-determination and autonomy recognizes in principle. The PLO was recognized of the UN as a representative of the Palestinian people and received observer status.

Numerous Palestinian hard liners agreed not with this course and splitof the PLO off, among them the Fatah revolutionary council.

Africa

the process of the decolonization of Africa was not final 1974 long, numerous states was still colonies, about Namibia. Some of it were in the middle in the war of independence, among them Mozambique and Simbabwe. OneThrust for decolonization brought thereby the carnation revolution, which let the Portuguese colonial empire break down in this year.

Other African states were controlled by dictators, who had followed colonial powers and partial democratic governments from the office had geputscht, among them Uganda under Idi amine, Zaire under Mobutu Sese Seko and Equatorial Guinea under Francisco Macías Nguema.

Angola

in Angola became after the collapse of the Portuguese colonial empire in consequence of the carnation revolution power to a coalition from three liberations movement, the MPLA the FNLA and the UNITA delivered. These fall the country into a civil war, which should persist to 2002.

Ethiopia

after a dry disaster, the oil crisis, inflation, student protests and strike waves in the year 1973 revolt at the beginning of the yearly of 1974 parts of the äthiopischenArmy. Above all the lower ranks were to a large extent from rural areas and knew the state of distress of the Landbevölkerung. This brought the crucial shift of power. Emperor Haile Selassie became to 12. September 1974 fallen. The military seized fast the revolution, the studentMovement split into an ethnical and a socialist opposition, partly went into the underground and led an armed resistance. Within the military the moderate representatives, to a large extent higher ranks, could not succeed. A provisional military administration advice (amharisch: Derg), under guidance of major Mengistu Haile Mariam took over, power. 1975 were abolished the monarchy and the former Empire of a socialist People's Republic.

South Africa

the government of South Africa erlies in the context of the apartheid - politics Africa to the medium the Decree,all resuming schools in addition forced, instruction for black pupils in the subjects mathematics, social sciences, to hold geography and history ever to the half English and Africa to. This law became a trip for pupil demonstrations two years later,those bloodily ended.

Economics

economics
1. January the Federal Republic of Germany waives those application of fixed prices for branded articles .
19. January France withdraws from the European exchange rate system.
18. March oil crisis: Most OPEC - nations terminate the five-month oil embargo against the USA, Japan, the Federal Republic and other European states.
26. June the Herstatt bank Cologne is closed
5. July Germany closes investment protection and - promotion-get with Egypt
16. July in Hessen goes the nuclear power station Biblis, the then largest nuclear reactor of the world,to the net
17. July Iran acquires 25.04% of the capital stock of the Bochumer subsidiary Krupp of metallurgical plants AG.
14. September the state bank 9 of the GDR replaces its notes, the currency designation by „Marks of the German issuing bank “after „Marks of the GDR “is changed.
8. October US president Gerald Ford holds Whip inflation under the Slogan „now “a speech before the congress
20. November the US Ministry of Justice opens the trust procedure against AT&T.
2. December a larger block of shares of Stuttgart Daimler Benz AG becomes of the emirate Kuwait bought

oil crisis

coining/shaping for the restaurant happening 1974 was (first) the oil crisis, which already began in the autumn 1973, as the OPEC - States of Algeria, Iraq, Qatar, Kuwait, Libya, Saudi Arabia and the united Arab emirates the oil deliveryaround approximately 5% throttled, the prices increased and embargoes against western states imposed. The USA, Japan, which was dependent for its power supply too over 70% on oil from the Near East, were particularly concerned, and which the Netherlands, center of the oil processingin Europe.

With the embargo the oil boom of the preceding decades, with growth rates of the promotion over 7%, was abruptly terminated. To 16. October 1973 rose the oil price of approximately three dollar per barrel (159 litres) to over five dollar. Thiscorresponds to a rise over approx. 70 per cent. In the process of the yearly 1974 the world oil price rose to over twelve dollar.

These measures aimed to supporters in the Jom Kippur war with priority at Israel and its. Reservations of the oil-promoting countries, particularly against the USA,it already gave since 1971, when Richard Nixon waived the connection of the US Dollar to the gold standard. In addition, the following devaluation of the dollar led to a sinking oil price, and the raw material-rich countries saw the value of their resources in danger.

ThoseOil crisis of 1973/74 demonstrated the unpreparedness and susceptibility to interference of modern industrial nations in relation to a multiplicity of factors of influence as well as their dependence on fossil energy.

In the Federal Republic of Germany became as direct reaction to the crisis on four Sundays in November and December1973 a driving ban impose (Sundays driving ban) as well as new speed limitings introduced. This politics had hardly an economical effect, gave to the population however the feeling to be able to contribute actively something to the accomplishment of the crisis. Germany had 1974 for its oil imported goodsapproximately 17 billion DM more pay than in the year before (oil price shock), which introduced an economic situation crisis. However the inflation rate, differently than in other nations, could be kept quite small with seven per cent. The oil crisis marked thereby the end of the Wirtschaftswunders.In the consequence so far to a large extent unknown features arose, about to short-time work, unemployment, rising social expenditures, intensified inflation (better: Stagflation), rising national indebtedness, rationalization, strike, Unternehmenspleiten.

The oil crisis bore initiatives, one larger independencefrom the oil to the goal had. Thus alternative fuels moved such as vegetable oil and bio Diesel in the public interest. It increased in nuclear energy, regenerativ energy sources, which thermal insulation of buildings and into the efficiency increase of engines and heaters invests. Alsowith the fading away of the oil crisis a risen consciousness remained to the energy-saving behavior in the population. Besides the portion of the oil referred from OPEC - states was lowered by development of submarine oil fields in the North Sea as well as a diversification of the trade partners.

ToReconciliation of the price increases brought in some industrialized countries by the central banks increases money in circulation. This led however to be expected as according to the quantity theory to a increased inflation rate in the following years, those only by a rigidere financial and monetary policy while the 1980er could be terminated.

Culture

culture
Grammy Awards 1974
China: Discovery of the Terrakottaarmee in close proximity to Xi'an.
Opening of the circus museum in Preetz.
To the Berlinale for the first time a Soviet film is shown. That Golden bear the film Duddy wins wants highly outside from Ted Kotcheff (Canada).
5. January the first edition of the Fantasy game of roles Dungeon & Dragons appears.
13. February the Russian writer Alexander Solschenizyn is proven from the Soviet Union and to Frankfurt toMain gone on a trip.
16. February premiere of the opera Einstein of Paul Dessau at the German opera Berlin.
28. February in New Yorker museums the OF decaying kind is sprayed Pablo Picassos famous workGuernica “with a text.
4. March Opening of the Roman-Germanic museum in Cologne.

Premiere of the TV-opera La Cubana or a life for the art of Hans's Werner Henze in New York.

5. March premiere of the film „fear eat soul on “from Rainer Werner barrel bindersover the love between a 60jährigen charwoman and a young Maroccan, who fail because of the social surrounding field.
6. Waterloo the Grand Prix win April ABBA d'Eurovision de la chanson with the title.
10. October first people concert from Mikis Theodorakis afterthe fall that Greek military junta before several ten thousand inspired humans in the Karaiskakis - stadium in Athens.
29. November the volume Yes publishes the album Relayer.
Academy Awards
best film of the Clou of George Roy Hill
of best leading actors Jack Lemmon in Save the tigers
best Hauptdarstellerin Glenda Jackson in A Touch OF Class
best director George Roy Hill for the Clou

music

1974 was the Glam skirt on the high point, artist such as Gary Glitter and the Rubettes with Sugar baby LoveNummer-1-Hits had. In addition, exactly the same to Glam skirt history one of the largest flops of music history belonged. The second album of the American singer Jobriath, Creatures OF The Street, became despite Riesenhype a flop. The artist came to 1983 into oblivion and diedunconsidered at AIDS.

The reaction to the Glam skirt was the progressive skirt or kind skirt. The volume genesis ranked among this direction published the album The Lamb reads down on Broadway, before Peter Gabriel still in the same yearthe volume left.

The sound of these CO conquered 1974 the Mainstream. The first hits were skirt Your baby of George McCrae, 1974 the usually sold single in Germany, Kung Fu Fighting of Carl Douglas, and Waterloo of ABBA, alsothat d'Eurovision de la chanson won the Swedish group the Grand Prix and began its triumphant advance around the world.

Seasons into the Sun of Terry Jacks became meanwhile the Abgesang on the flow he power era, the Hippie time went to end.

Oneother youth movement, the Punk, was straight against it in developing. In January 1974 the Ramones was based in New York, and Patti Smith published its first single, Hey Joe, which is at all regarded as the first Punk skirt single.

Also thatGerman hits was still „in “, Michael cross-beam did not land with tears lie not a hit, which adhered four weeks long to the point of the Charts. As „the summer hit “of the yearly 1974 the West German music industry Vicky Leandros 'Song explained Theo,we fahr'n after Lodz, which represents the comment of the German hit in certain sense to Willy Brandts east politics.

film

fear eat soul on

fear eat soul on are a Melodrama of Rainer Werner barrel binder and are considered as one of the most important and best films in the extensive work of the director. In the film learnsEmmi Kurowski, a verwitwete charwoman beyond the 60, Ali, one about twenty years younger Maroccan with moderately good German knowledge know. The two will have a pair and with the refusal and will fight the prejudices of their fellow men.Fear eat soulon its Adaptionen of the Douglas Sirk continues to lead - films in barrel binder work, as they were already introduced two years before by the film dealer of the four seasons. The film won among other things critic prices on the Filmfestival of Cannes as well as that German film price in gold for Brigitte Mira as a best Hauptdarstellerin.

Murder in the Orient express

Sidney Lumet turned the filming of the Agatha Christie - novel murder in the Orient express (in the English original: Murder on the Orient express) around the master detective Hercule Poirot with oneimpressing quantity on star. Even in smaller roles actor from Hollywoods of first set arose, among them to Ingrid Bergman, Lauren Bacall, Sean Connery and many different. Lumets work was nominated in the following year for six Oscars and applies totoday as one of the most successful cinematic conversions of a Christian IE material.

television

in Paris begin ORTF and pool of broadcasting corporations with the production of the language course Les gamma! Les gamma!,as contribution of the television to final French-German culture agreements twenty years before is conceived. Due to its unorthodox design the series a surprise success is radiated later and in many countries of Europe, Africa and America.

The Second Channel of German Television radiates between 31. January and8. August for the first time the indication trick series of Wickie and the strong men out.

Mode

in the High Society one carried the models of Christian Dior, Ted Lapidus, Nina Ricci, Yves pc. for 1974. Laurent and the mode house Chanel in beige,caramel and lavendel, above all Dior played thereby also with colored furs in Pastell. The juvenile style replaced by ladyful, even young women wanted more ripely to work and expressed this in ondulierten hair-styles, tender make-up and appropriate Assecoires.Above all coats with dresses and trousers and most different kinds of fabrics were combined - partial to „bulb mode so mentioned “one combined, with the layer on layer one carried.

On the road against it the mini skirt was further much likes, in addition came the trendto the mini dress and the pair of overalls in most diverse forms. However also the longer skirt, whose seam lay underneath the knee throats, in far parts of the lady world became generally accepted again. Also cord mode was again much in coming. In the Popkultur and in „The shock colors “the lady mode reached colour television nearly the pain threshold of the eyes. Hit singers such as Rex Gildo and Jürgen Marcus made it however also for the gentlemen forwards: The impact of the trousers continued to become, the collars of the shirts grew true sails. Andthe ties of the gentlemen reminded more and more of the Kinderlätzchen. The gefönte Dauerwelle became nearly mandatory. Much in mode were also Koteletten handing into the cheeks.

The last HIPPI movement experimented with ethnical styles, like Kaftanswith African motives, Mao shirts or Zottelmänteln and - jackets in the sheep Design. In addition, the directions already pointed themselves out, in which the fashion to the coming music styles to adapt sought. On side of the Glam skirt with its Glitter andthe Discobewegung with Hotpants, plateau shoes, scarce and ever more transparent blouses, strike towards one-piece dresses (than forerunners of the later Leggins) and the daring Afrolook (for example Paul Breitner). On the other side those the hard skirt course-bent, with long hair, Cowboy boots, Jeans, T-Shirt and leather jackets.

Also the alternative scene coined/shaped slowly its own style with pair of overalls and Rollkragenpullover, in addition, that German Federal Armed Forces parka. As accessories Halstücher were carried in all colors and style directions, are it IndianHalstücher or the Palestinian cloth.

Literature

Carrie, which appears first novel of Stephen King.

The journalists Carl amber and Bob Woodward publish universe the President's Men, their book concerning the Watergate affair.

Science, technology and space travel

science
alsoAssistance of positron emission tomography metabolic procedures can be shown for the first time in the brain
Kodak introduce the Super-8-Film with clay pure.
General of engine develops autocatalysts for petrol engines.
Hewlett-Packard presents the first programmable pocket calculator with the HP-65 .
The processors Motorola 6800 and Intel 8080 are developed.
Building of the transmission mast of radio Warsaw, until today highest building.
Opening of the Sears Tower in Chicago.
8. February return of the Skylab-4 - crew to the earth
29. March the quantity production VOLKSWAGEN gulf I begins.
3. July start of Soyuz 14
of the 11. September Charles T. Kowal discovers the Jupitermond Leda (Jupiter XIII)
26. August start the Soyuz 15
16. November the Arecibo message is sent into the universe
24. November „Lucy “, the besterhaltene skeleton one Australopithecus afarensis, is found.
1. December establishment of the correspondence university Hagen
2. December

the space probe Pioneer 11 flies past start

the Soyuz 16 Nobelpreise physics

Martin
Ryle and Antony Hewish chemistry Paul
J. at Jupiter. Flory
medicine Albert Claude, Christian de Duve and George E. Palade
literature Eyvind Johnson and Harry Martinson and Alexander Issajewitsch Solschenizyn
peace Seán MacBride and Eisaku Sato
economics Gunnar Myrdal and Friedrich Hayek
further one of prices
falling DS medal Enrico Bombieri and David Bryant Mumford
Turing price Donald Knuth
VOLKSWAGEN gulf I
Skylab, taken up of Skylab 4

computer engineering

during the large Mainframes the computer engineering far dominated, showed up the beginnings of a miniaturization and Personalisierung. 1974 presented Intel , an advancement to the 80808008 and the first „adequate “8-bit microprocessor. At the same time competitor Motorola presented to the 6800 . On the Intel chip the old air 8800, the first commercially successful home computer was based. Gary keel-Kiel began with the development of CP/M, thatfirst platform-independent operating system for the employment on home computers.

Also the pocket calculators became with the ready for the market one of the first programmable model, the HP-65 von Hewlett-Packard, to small computers.

Automobile

Volkswagen brought the VOLKSWAGEN gulf to 1974 in the year on the market, thatSuccessor legendary VOLKSWAGEN beetle. The VOLKSWAGEN gulf, in the angular Design of Giorgetto Giugiaro, became the symbol for the new compact class, which met the nerve of the time (oil crisis). The VOLKSWAGEN gulf is meanwhile (2006) in the 5.Generation and with a number of items of over 22 million the usually-sold car of history.

Space travel

the space travel year 1974 began to 8. February with the return of the crew of the American space probe Skylab 4. The team from Gerald Carr, William Pogue and Edward Gibson represented at the same time the last crew of the Skylab , which moved only 1978/1979 by its putting out of operation by NASA again into the public interest.

The Soviet Union started three missions in this year directly. The Soyuz 14became at the 3. July started, and coupled 3 to the Salyuts - space station, where the Kosmonaten remained two weeks, before they turned to the earth back. The Soyuz 15 followed to 26. August, after two days was broken off the mission. Soyuz 16, started to 2. December, served the preparation of the first common Soviet-American space program, the Apollo Soyuz project (17. July 1975).

For the Europeans started to 19. December for the first time at all a rocket in the universe, which had the first French-German communications satellite Symphonie on board.The start took place from the American Cape Canaveral air Force station and the satellite at a value of 36,000 kilometers into its orbit was brought. The satellite should convey two color television and two at the same time broadcast programs as well as 600 telephone calls. Was allowedit however no competition for the American satellite INTELSAT make.

Architecture

of the 1974 Sears finished placed Tower in Chicago became the new highest Wolkenkratzer of the world and held this title up to completion of the Petronas Towers 1997.

Disasters

Natural catastrophes
3. April The super Outbreak, the longest Tornado series of American history, devastates 13 US states and a Canadian province. Balance of the 148 eddy towers: 315 dead ones and over 5.000 hurt.
11. May earthquake in itself SCN and. Yünnan/People's Republic of China, about 20.000Dead one.
8. September Hurricane Carmen meets the south coast of the USA.
18. September the eddy tower „Fifi “pulls over Honduras, approx. 10.000 dead ones.
3. October earthquake in Peru, 83 dead ones, 60,000 homeless people.
28. December earthquake of the strength 6.2 in Pakistan, approx. 5.300 dead ones.
Accidents
30. January crash Boeing 707 the PanAm.
3. March Paris, France after the start of the airport Orly has an accident briefly a McDonnell Douglas DC-10 Turkish Airlines. 346 dead ones.
22. April Tinga Tinga, Bali, Indonesia. A Boeing 707 the PanAm hit with the approach flight approx. 60 km northwest before the airport against a mountain. All persons died.
20. November Nairobi, Kenya, a jumbo jet of Lufthansa has an accidentwhen starting. 59 dead ones, of it 30 Germans.
1. December crash Boeing 727 the Northwest Orient airlines.
4. December Colombo, Sri Lanka. Crash Netherlands Douglas of a DC-8. On board were Indonesian Muslims on the Pilgerfahrt after Mekka. All 191 humans on board died.


Sport

sport
world sportsman of the yearly Eddie Merckx
balloon d'Or Johan Cruyff
large meetings
alpine ski world championship 1974
alpine Skiweltcup 1974
ice hockey world championship 1974
Formel-1-Saison 1974
football Africa championship 1974
soccer world championship 1974
athlete IC European championship 1974
Nordi ski world championship 1974
routede France 1974

football

sporty high point of the yearly from German view was the soccer world championship, in which the Federal Republic did not only function as a host, but also the world champion title achieved. Memorable plays were thereby the final against the Netherlands (2: 1), inthat several disputed arbitrator decisions fell, further the intermediate round play Federal Republic Germany Poland (1: as well as 0) entered, that as „rain battle from Frankfurt “history the clear victories of the Dutchmen over the crews from Argentina and Brazil. In the Vorrundethe national teams of the GDR and the Federal Republic met one another to the only mark. By a gate of Jürgen savings water won the GDR the play 1:0.

In the federal league further the fiber plastic Bavaria Munich, that dominated for the third time in consequenceGerman master became and thereby the first having trick of federal league history succeeded. In the same year the fiber plastic Bavaria won besides the European Cup of the national masters, and altogether seven players of the fiber plastic Bavaria belonged beyond that to the world champion cadre.

In that GDR upper league got the 1. Fiber plastic Magdeburg the title. In addition the 1.FC Magdeburg wins a title in the Soccer European Cup as a first and only crew of the GDR. To 8. May defeats the association in the stadium De Kuip in Rotterdam before 5000 spectators that AC Milan with a 2:0 and wins the European Cup of the Cup winners.

In Austria the sports club VÖEST Linz got the title in the national league. Swiss master became the fiber plastic Zurich.

Boxes

Muhammad Ali in Wachs bei Madame Tussaud's in London
Muhammad Ali in wax with madame Tussaud's in London

to 26. March won George Foreman its fight and world champion title in the heavyweight against Ken Norton in the El Poliedro, Caracas, Venezuela, by technical K.O. Already to 28. January fought the box legend Muhammad Ali against Joe Frazierand won this fight. The highlight of the yearly was however „the Rumble into the Jungle “, the heavyweight fight Muhammad Ali against George Foreman, to 30. October in the 20th OF May stage in Kinshasa, Zaire, in the MuhammadAli the world champion title by K.O won.

Also in the light heavyweight there was a change at the point. Here Bob Foster from Albuquerque got itself to 16. September 1973 the world champion title and fought for then to 17. June 1974 against Jorge AhumadaUndecided. By a victory over Ahumada at the 1. October got itself then the Englishman John Conteh the title. As further box world champions went to 7. September the Alexis Arguello originating from Nicaragua approximately the Mexican carrots of olive acre in feather/spring weight out.

Basketball

Nate Thurmond obtained to 8. October in Chicago, Illinois the first Quadruple double of history that national basketball League (the USA).

Cycle racing

cycle racing legend Eddy Merckx won both the route de France and the giro d'Italia, both to fifthTimes, and gold in the road wheel world championship got for the third time. He was selected for the third time to the world sportsman of the yearly.

Engine haven

of the Brazilians Emerson Fittipaldi became Formel-1 - world champions, by it three Grand Prix - running for itself to decide could. SecondSwiss Clay Regazzoni with three points distance followed. In the same year died on the Formel-1-Rennstrecke with Peter Revson and Helmut Koinigg of two running drivers. The American Revson had an accident to 28. March in Johannesburg (South Africa), the Austrian with itssecond Grand Prix running in Watkins Glen (the USA) to 6. October.

Jump-ride

hard TIG Steenken became on the Stute Simona in Hickstead world champion in the jumping riding.

Other

  • The Japanese intelligence collection officer Onoda Hirō became to 10. March on the Philippine island Lubang discovers. It had long refused 29 years recognizing the surrender of Japan.
  • The wine harvest of the yearly1974 failed badly. In many considerable Weinbaugebieten only thin one, briefly durable wines, was produced which might be undrinkable meanwhile. Only California wines are considered as if secrettap.
  • The probably most look up-exciting separation of the yearly was the divorce of Sonny Bono and Cherafter ten marriage years.

See also

Commons: 1974 - Pictures, videos and/or audio files

literature

  • The American Peoples Encyclopedia 1975 Yearbook - Events OF1974, Grolier Incorporated 1975, ISBN 0-7172-0406-5.
  • Britannica - Book OF the Year 1975, Encyclopaedia Britannica Ltd. 1975
  • world panorama 1974 - a chronicle of the Zeitgeschehens, Faunus publishing house AG, Basel.
  • Britta Kruse, Christiane puts: Chronicle 1974, Bertelsmann encyclopediaInstitut, Gütersloh 1991, ISBN 3577140747.
  • Archives of the present - 1974, Siegler & cost. Publishing house for time archives GmbH 1986, ISBN 3877480403.
  • Archives of the present - Germany 1945 to 1999, Directmedia Publishing, Berlin 2004, ISBN 3898531783 (CD-ROM).

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