3D-Foto

a 3D-Foto is a photographic admission, which makes a stereoskopische rendition possible, with which the viewer for each point of the picture also a Tiefeninformation notices. Differently than a Holografie a 3D-Foto can be regarded only from exactly one point of view, which is specified by the camera position with the admission.

The technical specification for a 3D-Bild is standardized in DIN 19040/Teil 8. It means there: “The 3D-Bild is obtained genuine depth perception and thus spatial effect the comprehensive term for a picture, with beidäugiger view “.

A 3D-Foto consists of two stereoskopischen half-images, which are regarded in such a way with a suitable technology or method, which is noticed everyone only by an eye. For the admission of 3D-Fotos therefore usually special Stereokameras are used.

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history

Stereo photography approx. from the year 1906
the same photo as Anaglyphe installs

to the turn of the century (around 1900) as well as into the 1950ern the Stereo photography experienced a boom, due to the higher technical expenditure it durably however never became generally accepted. Today she experiences again an easy Renaissance, which is to be owed to the introduction of the digital camera with her great learning and Übepotenzial.

Itself if the realization should that one can regard Stereobilder without helping means, further to spread, there could be a proper boom in the Stereo photography.

Contradiction between distance and Linsenkrümmung

the three-dimensional general impression when normal seeing consists of two information: The different point of view of both eyes produces two different pictures and the Linsenkrümmung of the eye adapts the distance of the seen object, in order to produce a sharp illustration on the retina. Only both impressions together let a genuine 3D-Eindruck develop. With the 3D-Foto however only the first information is offered to the eyes. The eye tried now to adapt the Linsenkrümmung to the alleged distance fails however first times with the attempt to reach thereby a sharp illustration on the retina. With a certain delay (within the millisecond range) it creates the eye then nevertheless still to illustrate the picture sharply. However a contradiction between the alleged distance of the seen object and the actual Linsenkrümmung remains. The result is a somewhat unreal impression of the picture. In consequence its complain some humans during longer effect also about feeling of dizziness or even physical indisposition.

Technology

admission

with the admission of a 3D-Fotos with a genuine Stereokamera with two objectives, can be completely normally photographed. During the motive organization should be respected a graduated front/background arrangement by articles. This promotes the spatial depth effect with the later reputation of the photo. Landscape photographs with normal Stereobasis (viewing distance) work also with a 3D-Foto rarely spatially. With landscape photographs therefore an extended Stereobasis must be created with other means. Here for example with a camera two photographs are successively taken and between both photographs the Stereobasis on approx. 50cm widens. Disadvantage this procedure is it that between both photographs something can move. The movement prevents a spatial same allocation of the object in the Stereobild. Therefore it recommends, photographs with broader Stereobasis with two festmontierten itself cameras to make, which are released at the same time with suitable means, z. B. by means of cable trips. One for a Stereo layman simple recording technology with Sucherkameras: first object photo with the body weight on the left leg, second object photo with body weight on the right leg.

„Emperor panorama “

around 1900 for the reputation of a 3D-Fotos regarding in paper picture with two individual photos

, the projection is possible for rendition/reputation a Stereoskop for public demonstration in the former Viennese Praterkino as slide or the exposure of several pictures, which together a 3D-Foto results in, in photo paper with a special procedure. In the computer era however additionally also the reputation on a normal monitor is possible.

  • If the picture is to be regarded as slide on a canvas in “3D”, both pictures on the canvas must be projected one above the other, but be supplied to each eye separately with the projection, otherwise the brain cannot “calculate” a spatial impression. In addition either a special 3D-Projektor with two objectives can be used, or two individual projectors, which must be aligned exactly.
    For the picture separation one uses polarisation filters. Polarisation filters let light through only in a wave direction. The two projector objectives with the left and right picture gotten around 90° turned polarisation filter before-hung, the viewer carries in the same way equipped polarization eyeglasses. Thus each eye sees only its picture and the brain is able the spatial impression to be calculated. A metallized canvas must be used, so that the polarized light is reflected.
Nimslo-Kamera
In
  • normal photo paper be spatially regarded, must the assistance special laboratories can be taken up to Nimslo camera target the 3D-Bild, from several single photographs to be built up. The frames are exposed in narrow strips on the image carrier and laid on over the overall view a “lens raster foil “, which makes the reputation possible from different points of view. The more pictures for this raster foil are available, the less “jumps” the point of view when moving the picture. For this procedure became among other things from the company “Nimslo “a special 3D-Kamera (left on English) develops, which can take up even 4 photos at the same time on 35mm-Film. Since the 1970er-Jahren there is postcard series (and isolates also large sized pictures), which use this procedure.
  • To the reputation on a computer monitor the two separate pictures must be converted before into a 3D-Bild. For this there is special software, for example “3D photo Studio”. The picture can be computed in red/green (blue/green) for one black-and-white opinion, or as red/green color picture, i.e., in the Farbbild those are red/green outlines of the right and left picture to see (there there are then however problems, if in the color photo red or green motives occur). Owners of a “debris hereditary groove “can also let themselves be computed pictures for it. The reputation with debris hereditary grooves functions however only on a monitor with picture tube, not on TFT monitors.
Diabetrachter für 3D-Hochformat-Aufnahmen
Dia. viewers for 3D-Hochformat-Aufnahmen
  • for the reputation of two slides, which together a 3D-Foto results in, of an individual person, are sufficient also two simple dia. “Guckis”, in which the left and right picture without further technical expenditure can be regarded.
  • For the reputation of two paper photos, which together a 3D-Foto results in, there are likewise special table viewers, “Stereoskope so mentioned “(picture). Such photos are nowadays still used in aerial photointerpretation. In old times (starting from 1860) such 3D-Papierbilder was the “voyage round the world of the small man” and it could whole series by 3D-Fotos from all areas of the world is acquired (picture).

View without technical aids

who without special 3D-Umwandlungssoftware on a monitor spatial pictures to regard wants, should well squint or its eyes parallel to align be able. With a normal diagram program (e.g. PaintShop pro) are built up next to each other both pictures to a photo. If the new picture is then regarded squinting, a “virtual” third picture in the center between the two photos, which contains the desired spatial impression, develops. If it does not fold, are probable the left and right picture exchanges - build up again again thus. “Squinting” needs however something exercise…

3D-Foto-Galerie

see also

literature

  • Leo. H. Bridegroom: Stereofotografie with the 35mm camera. A practice-oriented introduction. Wittig technical book publishing house, 1996, 89 sides, ISBN 3-93-035931-6
  • Gerhard bold: Stereofotografie and spatial image projection, ISBN 3-88955-119-X

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