Abchasien

flag of Abchasien
map of Abchasien
Lage Abchasiens in Georgien
situation of Abchasiens in Georgien

the Abchasi autonomous republic bordering in the south of the Caucasus on the black sea (Georgian აფხაზეთისავტონომიურირესპუბლიკა/Apchasetis Awtonomiuri Respublika, abchasisch АҧсныАҳәынҭқарра, Aṗsny Aḥwənṭḳarra; National name v. Georgian Abschasi - “humans”) belonged to Georgien, explained themselves however for independent. Capital is Sochumi. The number of inhabitants amounts to according to official estimation 320,000 (according to UN 200,000), the surface covers 8,600 km ².

Table of contents

geography

Abchasien is located south the Caucasus at the north coast of the black sea west the river Enguri in Georgien. Up to narrow, agriculturally used coastal strip gebirgige country reaches heights of over 4,000 meters. In the Arabika massif the Voronya cave lies. It is with 2,164 meters the deepest well-known cave of the world.

Protected by the mountain courses, the coastal strip exhibits a subtropical climate, which led to the fact that Abchasien in the Soviet time develops to a popular holidays area (Georgian Riviera). The warm climate favours also the cultivation of tobacco, dte, wine and fruit, so that agriculture and food and food industry to the most important industries of the country belong.

inhabitant

the last Soviet census of 1989 had determined still another number of inhabitants of 500.000, of it 48% Georgier and 17% Abchasier. In the process of the war of secession however approximately 250,000 Georgier were then driven out. According to census 2005 are 125,000 (45%) of the population ABC hare, 60,000 (18.2%) Armenians, 40,000 (12.9%) Georgier, 22,000 Russians and 6,000 (0.2%) Esten.

history

see also: List of the rulers of Abchasien

early history

the earliest archaeological finds leave themselves on 4. Millenium v. Chr. date. For instance since that 9. Century v. Chr. belonged the region to the realm of Kolchis, which carried on intensive trade with the Greeks. In the context of the Greek Kolonisation thereby also the port was put on by Dioskurias, the today's Suchumi. Since the year 63 v. Chr. belonged Kolchis to the Kingdom of Egrisi, in the 1. Century n. Chr. became dependent on the Roman realm and/or. with its division of east Rome and/or. Byzanz. In the time emperor Justinians I. in 6. Century the ABC hares were bekehrt to the Christianity. Since that 7. Century was the country independent principality of the Byzantine realm and kept this status to in 8. Century, when Leon explained itself II as the king Abchasien, and in such a way of Byzanz loose-said itself. In the further process it could expand its requirement for rule over Mengrelien and Imeretien. 1578 came the area between the main comb of the Caucasus and the river Aras, i.e. Azerbaijan and Georgien and concomitantly Abchasien to the Osmani realm, which lost 1639 Azerbaijan and the eastern Georgien again, that western Georgien with Abchasien however far controlled. In the future then the majority of the abchasischen population crossed to the Islam , the Georgier held by the majority to the Christianity. Islamizing of the ABC hares was however quite superficial, then there was never a mosque in Abchasien. Also the fact that in 19. Jahrhunder into Turkey ABC hare at the beginning of Schweinefleisch verzehrten, moved, might give information on how far islamizing had progressed.

Numerous medieval Georgian churches and monasteries, which were built after the Vereigung Abchasiens with Georgien, testify the political and above all cultural solidarity of the abchasischen aristocracy layer of the Middle Ages to Georgien.

Russian and Soviet rule

since end 18. Century advanced Russian Zarenreich direction Caucasus. The old Kingdom of Georgien became 1801 Russian, those areas following directly west followed in the years after: Mingrelien 1803, Imeretien and Gurien 1804, the southern Abchasien in the year 1810, the port potentiometer and the northern Abchasien finally 1829. However it came in that the consequence again and again to rebellions against the Russians, particularly the mountain regions Swanetien and Tscherkessien only 1858 and/or. 1864 the Zarenreich were incorporated. Already 1857 had to be struck down in Sugdidi a rebellion and again 1866 in Suchumi. The part-autonomous principality was eliminated by Russia 1864 finally. The anti-Muslim policy of the next years led then to the fact that many Muslim Abchasier emigrated into the Osmani realm. The exact operational sequence of the migration movements in the second half 19. Jhs. is clarified until today not exactly, but at the same time a point at issue between Georgiern and Abchasiern and their respective historiography contributed by national interests. It stands firmly only that the ABC hares at the beginning 20. Jhs. a minority in the own country had become. So it is to be read in a contemporary encyclopedia of the yearly 1911 that the city Suchumi, at that time 43,000 inhabitants is inhabited by ABC hares, to two thirds by mingrelischen Georgiern and to a third.

After occupation Georgiens by the Red Army 1921 pushed the Caucasian office of the communist party of Russia under Sergo Ordschonikidse on a smashing of the Georgian state. To 28. March 1921 was created the Abchasi socialist Soviet republic (Abchasi CSSR) on a common meeting of the Caucasian office and the kp central committees by Abchasien and Georgien. Abchasien and Georgien agreed upon 1921 special relations, a so-called contract status (Russian Dogowornaja) in December, which was considered until 1931, when Abchasien became an autonomous republic within Georgiens.

Abchasien came increasingly under pressure of the government in low-reads, on a stronger binding the Abchasiens worked. Georgier were encouraged for settlement in Abchasien. The Georgian language became the office language, which became use Abchasi forbidden. Cultural rights were cut and punished efforts after national identity as counter revolutionary. The stalinschen cleanings fell also in Abchasien of thousands humans to the victim.

After Stalins death the Repressionen left opposite the ABC hares. More far-reaching cultural liberties were granted to the minorities in the Soviet Union and also the ABC hares. In the administration by ratio regulations it was guaranteed that also the minorities were represented there. Partially led to annoying on Georgian side, which saw therein an unfair preference of the ABC hares within the common Soviet republic.

post office-Soviet time

the abchasische parliament, the highest Soviet, explained in July 1992 Abchasien for to sovereigns a state, whose relations with Georgien would have to be still clarified, after before Georgien all contracts, which were signed in the Soviet time for futile explained. After Georgien adopted arbitrarily the condition of 1921 again as basis for the establishment of state, the abchasische government saw itself reacting in a forced manner. The condition of 1921 mentioned the union with Abchasien, this was however illegitim, apart from the fact the kind of the autonomy was not Abchasiens clarified.

At this time the trailers of the fallen Georgian president Swiad Gamsachurdia were active and provided there for unrest in Abchasien. When several Russian goods trains, which transported goods to Armenia, in Abchasien were stopped and geplündert, Russia requested the Georgian government at that time, security and order on Georgian territory, to which also Abchasien counts, of ensuring. Georgien explains the invasion of Georgian troops in Abchasien as follows: “For this purpose in arrangement with the parliament chairman at that time Abchasiens Wladislaw Ardsinba units of the Georgian army was sent after Abchasien to secure around the vital ways (course and road).” Wladislaw Ardsinba indicates until today, by these plans to have been never informed, and there are actually no vouchers for a such notification.

To 14. Georgian units under the instruction of the Secretary of Defense at that time Tengis Kitowani engaged August 1992 in Abchasien. When these units entered Abchasien, freed prisoners caught on too plündern by a general amnesty and above all Abchasier had to suffer from their Repressalien. The ABC hares opened the Gegenfeuer, at the same time spoke W. Ardsinba on the public television over an aggression Georgiens against „the independent abchasischen state “and called the Abchaser to fight the Georgier with all means the available. The abchasischen combat troops supported militarily by Russia did not withstand, them won the war. Neutral military observers assume however by far less the support of Russia for the victory of the ABC hares responsible were, when the uncoordinatedness of the Georgian troops, which often made the impression, as if wanted it not to triumph, but enrich itself. Dschaba Iosseliani explained in this connection to rape he, if he could not check its troops to them not the liberties left, too plündern and. The majority of the Georgian population withdrew itself panically together with the Georgian troops, before the abchasischen units reached it.

The war lasted something over one year, led to war crime, many thousand dead ones and to driving out of approx. 250,000 Georgiern, which had lived in Abchasien. The international committee of the red cross estimated 1995 that in the autonomous republic approximately 80,000 ABC hares, about 60,000 Armenians, 40,000 Russians and still 12,000 ethnical Georgier lived. Most Georgian refugees stranded in low-read. 50,000 refugees returned again to their homeland. 40.000 of them fled 1998, after Georgian combat units tried Abchasien to conquer. Today more than 80,000 Georgier in Abchasien, preferentially in the province Gal, live where they form the majority of the population.

In May 1994 after three futile approaches under switching of the United Nations an armistice were agreed upon. So far 1,500 Russian soldiers ensure as a peacekeeping force of the community of independent States of (GUS) for the adherence to 1994 the closed armistice between Georgiern and ABC hares. The adherence to the agreement by a 136-köpfige VN-observer mission (United nation Observer mission in Georgia UNOMIG) is supervised. Germany places the largest contingent of the mission with eleven soldiers.

Repeated under the patronage of the United Nations about a completion of the conflict one negotiated in vain. It of a feedback of the refugees and a political solution were a matter on the basis of the territorial integrity Georgiens. That failed however because of that in fact to government Abchasiens, which always persisted in a complete independence.

In October 2001 the armed conflict between Georgian partisans and abchasischen safety forces in the Georgian abchasischen border region was inflamed again. On sides thereby also Chechnian militias fought to Georgian partisans for the first time.

Germany ranks beside the USA, Great Britain, France and Russia among the five friends of the abchasischen peace process. In July 2002 of the VN-security council adopted Abchasien resolution, which plans whereabouts as autonomous republic in the State of Georgien, bases on suggestions of the German diplomat Dieter soil, which led from 1999 to 2002 UNOMIG. Although regular negotiations take place for the settlement of the conflict between the five friends, Abchasien and Georgien, they brought so far no break-through. Kofi Annan, the Secretary-General of the United Nations, called Abchasien to use the samtene revolution in Georgien for a new negotiation start.

politics

president Abchasiens are Sergei Bagapsch. It became to 12. January 2005 in the office selected and solved to 12. February 2005 the historian Wladislaw Ardsinba off. Bagapsch received 91.54% of the voices, his rival candidate Jakob Lakoba 4.5%. The ballot was a falsified choice at the 3. October 2004 preceding, with which the former prime minister Raul Chadschimba had been explained as the winner. After lengthy arguments the highest Court of Justice arranged a repetition of the choice in January. Completely duly was not also the January choice. In the ostabchasischen province Gali living Georgier were prevented from the casting of votes.

Prime minister is Alexander Ankwab, which already was from 1992 to 1993 Ministers of the Interior of the country. It was at that time responsible for ethnical cleanings and driving the Georgier out from the country.

The abchasische parliament appealed in the years 2002 , 2003 and always 2004 again unsuccessfully to the Russian legislation to manufacture associated relations with Abchasien the autonomous republic contractually in the Russian tariff and monetary system to include as well as military protection grant.

The human right situation in Abchasien is precarious according to data of the United Nations. There is no functioning prosecution, the country by criminal groups is infiltrated and it is missing the possibility complaints to submit. 2004 were extracted from the groups of peoples ( see Urumer) the right to learn at schools in its native language.

Georgian abchasische relations

the government in low-read intended to integrate Abchasien according to the model of the change of power in Adscharien again in Georgien. President me-hurry Saakaschwili has to 22. September 2004 before the UN-general assembly a three-level plan for the settlement of the conflicts in Abchasien and Südossetien submitted. A first stage plans confidence-building measures between government-independent organizations, students, journalists, physicians, sportsmen and mothers. On the second stage the conflict zones under international supervision are to be demilitarisiert. On third finally Georgien Abchasien and Südossetien wants to grant a greatest possible autonomy.

The governments of Abchasien and Südossetien rejected the Georgian plan. A return after Georgien will not give it. Also Russia rejects an integration Abchasiens in Georgien. Russia and Abchasien strive together to tie up Abchasien at Russia. To 10. September 2004 was resumed the interrupted railway connection between Sochumi and Moscow. Saakaschwili was over it much hereditary east because he was not consulted before.

literature

  • Mariam Lortkipanidse: Georgien and its autonomies: Short outline of history Abchasiens, Atscharas and Südossetiens. In: Georgica. Bd. 15 (1992), S. 34-37
  • Lewan Toidse, Awtandil Menteschaschwili: The formation of the autonomies in Georgien - part of 1: Abchasien. In: Georgica. Bd. 15 (1992), S. 38-49
  • Ulrike Gruska: Separatism in Georgien: Possibilities and borders of peaceful conflict regulation by the example Abchasien. University of hamburg IPW, Hamburg 2005
  • Alexander Kokeev: The fight for the golden fleece. To the conflict between Georgien and Abchasien. Hessian donation peace and conflict research, Frankfurt/Main 1993, ISBN 3-928965-31-X
  • George Hewitt (Hrsg.): The Abkhazians. A Handbook. Curzon press, London 1998, ISBN 0700706437
  • Bruno Coppieters: Western security politics and the conflict between Georgien and Abchasien. Bundesinstitut for eastscientific and international studies, Cologne 1999, ISSN 04357183
  • Edward W. Walker: NO peace, NO was into the Caucasus: Secessionist conflicts in Chechnya, Abkhazia and Nagorno Karabakh. Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School OF Government, Cambridge, measure. 1998
  • Tim Potier: Conflict in Nagorno Karabakh, Abkhazia and South Ossetia: A legally appraisal. Kluwer Law international, The Hague 2001, ISBN 90-411-1477-7

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