|of these articles marks the waste, which (materially) results. Further meanings see waste (term clarifying).|
under waste (Swiss also: Kehricht, Austrian also: Muck) one does not understand any more necessary remnants insolid state, which includes liquids and gases in containers. Chemical arrears are called also waste materials.
Presses itself that, which produces the waste differently out than that, which takes it in receipt and disposes or processes. First calls waste garbage, because it itdisposed, even if it operates garbage separation. For the latters garbage is only that waste, which it disposes for his part, is it on the dump or in the incineration plant, while it for the recycling planned, again usable wastes not as garbage, but designates when valuable material. One can Waste also as wrong material at the wrong time at the wrong place designate.
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general principle is: “Avoidance forwardsUtilization before removal ". Altogether however the environmentalmore compatible possibility has priority.
The legal classification of the waste is in particular important regarding the further ranges of application and safety and transportation regulations. Waste is defined in Germany by the cycle economic and waste law (KrW /AbfG). Into this law and the associatedRegulations stand for detailed regulations to avoidance, utilization and removal of waste.
Waste must fulfill the following 3 criteria in accordance with KrW /AbfG, in order to be waste:
- mobile thing (thus not flowing waste water, but probably liquid waste in tons)
- denomination in appendix 1 KrW /AbfG
- getting rid of (actual getting rid of, getting rid of willor obligation getting rid of)
an actual getting rid of is present, if the waste really used or one eliminates, or if any special rule is given up over a thing. A getting rid of will is legally subordinated, if the original purpose of a thing is given up, and no directly new purpose is present. Directlymeant here “without further change” of the thing. Furthermore there is this getting rid of will with production processes, if a material does not result purposefully. Typical example are the sawdust with the carpenter. An obligation getting rid of is present, if the original purpose of a thing were given up and a hazard potential is present.
ThoseDefinition “waste” is particularly important for the demarcation to the term “product”. Products are i.d.R. freely tradable and etc. are not subject to the regulations of the refuse law, certain conditions for transport. plans. A thing possesses the product property, if it were purposefully manufactured, in accordance with opinion of traffic onepositive market value possesses and quality standards fulfilled. An example of the difficult demarcation is in pellets pressed and pre-sorted domestic refuse for burn. At first sight it may fulfill the conditions of a product. However the point “purposeful production” is not fulfilled, there it after current iurisdictionsurely not particularly one manufactured, if there were no domestic refuse.
A further important distinction is the difference waste to the “utilization” or “removal”. During the utilization the utilization of the material or thermal potential stands in the foreground, with the removal is the destruction or Deponierung of the pollutantsconsiderably. The utilization must take place duly and without loss. “KO” - criteria are general for the thermal utilization a sufficient high heat value and the requirements from the regulations to KrW /AbfG to the normal utilization. If there limit values are not kept, the waste is to be arranged as such for removal andstricter regulations are subject regarding transport and disposal possibilities.
waste treatment and Deponierung
dumps serve only for the storage from wastes to the removal. The allocation of the wastes takes place after the dump regulation and the refuse dumping regulation, i.e. after the refuse law. For simple (building debris and soil) dumps (dump class DC 0)only a build-legal permission is necessary. With Untertagedeponien (DC 4) a mountain-legal permission is necessary. With all other dumps a plan statement procedure is necessary after refuse law.
domestic refuse dumps (today dump class DC1 and 2)
historical seen were the first dumps wild heaps of garbage at best orfor this dug earth holes. Due to the mainly organic load in earlier centuries this was to a large extent unproblematic. Erst mit der Industrialisierung setzten massive Probleme ein, so dass Deponien ab 1950 immerhin gegen Grundwasser und später auch gegen Regenwasser und seitlich abgedichtet wurde. Into the 1970ern dumps becameas large biological treatment plants outstandingly. Due to the long response times up to fading away the organic processes and the considerable volumes at these dumps a reorientation began into the 1980ern. Modern domestic refuse dumps may take up only pre-treated wastes since in the middle of 2005, with those organic components almostany longer are missing.
Waste treatment can in the material or thermal utilization (z. B. Dressing, assortment, etc.) or in the removal of wastes exist. That is called waste treatment plants is z. B. Scrap iron places (pre-sorting of Eisenschrott), incineration plants (MVA), mechanical-biological pretreatment plants (MBA) and composting plants. Permission andMonitoring of these plants is subject to the pollution protection law after Bundesimmissonsschutzgesetz (BImSchG).
Today's incineration plants have a very high environmental standard and to place z. B. concerning dioxin a in such a way specified pollutant-lowers. That is called a clearly higher quantity dioxin in the arriving waste is present, than the MVA leaves. Dioxinas organic molecule to a large extent and represents nowadays no more problem is destroyed. The limit values are significantly fallen below. Remarkably are in accordance with the 13. and 17. Federal immission control regulation the requirements concerning. a multiplicity of non-organic pollutants for a MVA smaller than for power stations, with those traditional fossil fuelsare used. This possibly explains itself from the more difficult management, which is more susceptible to disturbances.
of examples of waste are
in the effort to deal with waste appropiately industries, branches of industry and fields of activity developed, which oneunder the term refuse economy summarizes. The Basler convention regulates thereby “control of the transnational placing of dangerous wastes and their disposal “. So far to the 160 states - not however the USA - on these guidelines committed themselves.
- type of refuse catalog
- refuse exchange
- Waste in road construction
- waste ratio
- refuse law
- waste (right)
- waste avoidance
- waste technology
- waste product
- electronics scrap iron
- scrap iron
- special refuse dump