the exhaust standard (euro-standard, pollutant class) prescribes for new motor vehicles the adherence to fixed limit values for Carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO x), hydrocarbons altogether (HC) and for particle (PM). The limit values differ thereby both after motor type (petrol or diesel engine) and after type of motor vehicle (passenger car, truck and buses, two-wheelers and moped) and are subject to an increasing aggravation. Since that 1. January 2005 applies European-wide to new passenger cars the Euro-4-Norm.
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the fast development of the traffic and the associated increase of the exhaust gases and the pollutants contained in it already led 1973 to the call after limit values for motor vehicle exhaust gases. In the first environmental scheme of the European community (EEC), to 22. November 1973 was approved of by the advice, is called to carry for the newest scientific progress with the fight of the air pollution by exhaust gases from motor vehicles calculation and adapt appropriate guidelines.
Already 1970 had the advice of the European community (EEC) with the guideline No. 70/220/EWG the limit values fixed for emissions by Carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons from motorcar engines. An aggravation of these limit values took place 1974 via the guideline No. 74/290/EWG of the advice. 1977 became (n) with the guideline No. 77/102/EWG of the commission the nitrogen oxides as (r) exhaust contents contents of (e), additionally which can be limited, imported. Limit values for particle (soot) from diesel engines became 1988 with the guideline No. 88/436/EWG of the advice imported.
For new truck and penalty limit values were for the first time European-wide specified to 1988 with the guideline 88/77/EWG for exhaust contents materials. For motorcycles and mopeds there are specified exhaust limit values (guideline No. since 1997 European-wide. 97/24/EG). However there were exhaust limit values for motorcycles and mopeds in Germany already starting from 1994.
The euro-exhaust limit values led to substantial reductions of the pollutant output in the traffic. From 1990 to 2002 the emissions of Carbon monoxide became by 71 per cent, which reduces from sulfur dioxide by 97 per cent.
during for passenger car as well as for motorcycles and moped the exhaust limit values are stretch-referred (unit: g pollutant per driven km), are referred with truck and penalties the exhaust limit values to engine performance (unit: g pollutant per kilowatt-hour (a KW/H)). With passenger car the limit values with a role test stand test are determined, whereas with truck and penalties a stationary 13-Stufentest application finds, to which however by a dynamic test procedure is to be replaced.
With KFZ with petrol engine before year of construction 1996 often the entry “low-pollution is to pollutant class E2 after E2” or „“in the vehicle registration. This corresponds not „to the EURO 2-Norm “, but „the EURO 1-Norm “.
Passenger car with petrol engine (g/km)
|Euro 1||euro 2||euro 3||euro 4||euro 5|
|starting from 1. July. 1992||starting from 1. January. 1996||starting from 1. January. 2000||starting from 1. January. 2005||probably 2010|
|HC + NO x||1.13||0.5||(0,35)||(0,18)||(0,135)|
passenger cars with diesel engine (g/km)
|Euro 1||euro 2||euro 3||euro 4||euro 5|
|starting from 1. July. 1992||starting from 1. January. 1996||starting from 1. January. 2000||starting from 1. January. 2010||CO 3.16|
|NO x 1.13 0.7||/||0.9 * 0.56 0.3||0.25||NO||x|
|0.08||/||0.1 * 0.05 0.025||0.005||*||for|
diesel engines with Direkteinspritzung the values 0.9 probably apply for 2005 g/km (HC+NO) and/or 0.1 g/km (PM). To diesel engines without Direkteinspritzung the stricter values 0.7 g/km /HC apply·NO) and/or 0.08 g/km (PM)
the limit values of the Euro-5-Norm are not final. They correspond to the suggestion of the European Union commission according to message of the German Federal Ministry of Environment of 21. December 2005. The German Federal Minister Gabriel demands up-to-date an aggravation of the NOx Emissionsgrenzwerte in particular for Diesel passenger car.
euro 5 standard
to the emission control is necessary larger expenditure. Trucks will clean the exhaust gases by urea solution. In the aqueous urea solution ammonia is solved, which is set free by heating up. In the catalyst ammonia steams and the nitrogen oxides of the exhaust gas become innocuous nitrogen and water vapour. Similarly also the emission control takes place in power stations; there however with pure ammonia. Euro-5-LKW must be equipped therefore with a separate urea tank, the one Gewichtszunahme of the chassis (and thus with equal lasting permissible total mass a reduced pay load) meant. A further disadvantage is that with changes the permission expires to the original exhaust system by the KBA and thus a new acceptance becomes necessary. Some truck manufacturer tries the new guidelines by improved motor controls and improved particle filters/catalyst combinations to keep not yet successfully ran.
influence on the motor vehicle tax
the exhaust standard has a direct influence on the height of motor vehicle tax in Germany. Diesel - passenger cars are clearly more highly taxed with same pollutant class here than cars with petrol engine. Since still a great many passenger cars with euro are more badly certified 1-Abgasnorm or, the industry of this target group took care of and offers up and reequipping possibilities, in order to classify cars under a better and cheaper pollutant class. As particularly liked and inexpensive here the cold run automatic controller proved.
- General German Automobile Association document - re-tooling systems for the improvement of the pollutant classification
of pollutant-reduced motor vehicles in Germany
according to data of the force travel federal office (KBA) of January 2005 have 49.1% all passenger car the pollutant-reduced euro 3 or euro 4 and/or. D3 or D4-Norm. Altogether there is 22.26 million vehicles in relation to total stocks of 45.38 million passenger car.
Web on the left of
www.dradio.de - to Deutschlandfunk: “Clean air owing to urea”