the Abitur (from Latin abire = away-go; from this again-Latin Abitur Irish =, abituriens = high school graduate, abiturium = Abitur) are in Germany highest attainable graduation and at the same time university access authorization will go off. The Abitur means the university-level graduation and/or. the acquired ripe one andCapability (school leaving certificate, Abitur certification) to a study at a university. Higher education goes to the Abitur ahead, at their end the maturity examination (speak Matura, v. lat. maturitas = the ripe one) stands. From therefore it the highest attainable becomesGraduation in large parts of the remaining German linguistic area (Austria, Liechtenstein, Switzerland, South Tyrol) also alone as Matura designates.
To differentiate the Abitur is as general university-level graduation (unrestricted study authorization) of the specializedbound university-level graduation (reduced study authorization for certainFan).
Apart from the general and the specializedbound university-level graduation there is still the specialized university-level graduation for a study at a professional school or the appropriate course of studies at a comprehensive university.
The maturity examinations are regulated due to the culture sovereignty of the Lands of the Federal Republic by federal state law, become howevercountry widely as university access authorizations recognition (see also conference of Secretary of cultural affairs).
Table of contents
ways to the Abitur
general screen end schools
High School and comprehensive school prepares with their two or three years continuing upper stage to thatAbitur forwards. Usually the school takes 13 years: Primary stage class 1-4, secondary school I Kl. 5-10 and secondary school II Kl. 11-13 (see conclusion of the gymnasialen upper stage); in some countries in addition, only 12 years.
Professional training schools
the Abitur knows also on certain professional training schools and/or. Berufskollegs with gymnasialer upper stage (higher Technical High School and class stage 13 of a specialized high school) to be acquired; in some school forms also in connection with an final professional training. Without a second foreign languagethe education leads to a specializedbound Abitur.
second Bildungsweg and Abitur (on-line)
a further way to the Abitur lead across national and private schools of the second Bildungsweges.
Adult with an final professional training or activities and times which can be equatedcan at evening High Schools or at Kollegs, in some regions also at people's highschools, their Abitur retrieve and there also directly the national examination placings.
In this connection in some Lands of the Federal Republic at select schools the so-called Abitur (on-line) is offered.With this kind of the subjects switching the pupil visits only in two evenings the school and in the remaining evenings by Internet (on-line) is informed. During the day it attends to its usual vocational activities.
Rudolf Steiner Schools lead in 12School years to an own conclusion, whale village graduation, with strong weight on artistic technical and social authority. The whale village conclusion can be recognized as equivalent with a national main graduation or material graduation. On the Abitur the Rudolf Steiner Schools in additional 13 prepare.School year before, on which specialized Abitur (specialized university-level graduation) prepared in the 12 class, whereby the artistic conclusion is then omitted; at some Rudolf Steiner Schools this can be connected with a conclusion in a recognized teaching profession.
Private schools with a branch of upper stage prepare likewise -in daily or evening form - on the Abitur forwards, which is then only awarded however after an external national examination („Nichtschülerabiturprüfung so mentioned “, „school stranger maturity examination “or also „school stranger examination “).
One can announce oneself even after preparation for a “Nichtschülerreifeprüfung”, even organized, overto acquire the certification of the general university-level graduation.
remote training courses
also remote schools (like for example ILS, SGD or HAF) prepare in approx. 30 to 42 months - depending upon previous knowledge - on the national external examination to the Abitur forwards.This way is used particularly by adults, who would like to retrieve their Abitur parallel to their occupation everyday life.
with a university conclusion at a universitären university (University of, TH, GH, etc.) or a general professional school (FH, GH) - withoutprevious acquisition of the general university-level graduation - the general university-level graduation is likewise acquired.
with a Nichtschülerprüfung, also Nichtschülerabitur mentioned, one can acquire its Abitur outside of the school (external). One must prepare auto+didactically and onlyto the examinations appear.
Since the Abitur examination is externally examined, this examination, more difficult compared with a normal Abitur, is substantially. In North-Rhine/Westphalia z. B, are examined the “Nichtschüler” in 8 subjects: 4 of it in writing and 4 of it verbally. According to experiencethe Nichtschülerabiturienten is not able to compete with normal high school graduates with numerical control procedures.
in the suctions. Abitur or maturity examinations the obtained school knowledge of the upper stage is examined only in certain subjects. The test notes flow into thoseConclusion notes of the school leaving certificate also. Into nine of 16 Lands of the Federal Republic a so-called central Abitur is put down, into further five is already decided the introduction.
The examinations are held in written and verbal form. The termination work becomes from a first and a oneZweitkorrektor evaluates. In the case of minimum deviations the rounded average value is determined as final note. With strongly deviating Benotungen a Drittkorrektor accomplishes a further correction and specifies then the note.
A verbal examination becomes from a nationally used test commission, consisting ofthree teachers, removed. The achievements of the test specimen are evaluated in the consent.
Special learning achievements, for example the participation to a federal competition, seminar course or a skilled work (yearly work) are mostly included into the respective specialized conclusion note also. In Baden-Wuerttemberg such achievements can depending uponSchool type the fourth or fifth test subject replace; in Hessen excluding the fifth.
in 18. The universities determined century still alone over the admission of students. As the first German state Prussia regulated the university access authorization with the Abitur regulation of 1788. Johann William Süvern tried the standardization of the generally binding maturity examination, this could in Prussia however still until 1834 by receiving inspections of the universities be gone around.
the Abitur (short Abi) accompanies for decades with various Customs, which are partially regionally differently strongly pronounced. Often for instance the delivery of the certifications takes place in the context of a festive Abi ball.
- See Abitur customs
to high school graduate number rises
2005 acquired scarcely 400,000 pupils in Germany the university orSpecialized university-level graduation, compared to 2000 nearly 15 per cent more. (3.2 plus since 2004). (Federal Statistical Office, Wiesbaden).
there are differences in the Abitur in
the Lands of the Federal Republic from Land of the Federal Republic to Land of the Federal Republic differences in the Abitur.
- French-German Abitur
- European Abitur
- international Abitur
- emergency Abitur
- school, school report, performance review (school), to qualification paradox
- asterisk topic
- the maturity examination (film)
to the Abitur as motive in the literature, see also Mobbing at school.
Web on the left of
|Wiktionary: Abitur -Word origin, synonyms and translations|
- tasks of Abitur from different Lands of the Federal Republic
- Abi forum tasks and general questions to the Abitur.