Paragraph (shoe)

the paragraph of a shoe is the thickened part of the shoe soil, which is underneath the heel of the foot. Not all shoes have paragraphs (Mokassins for example are paragraphless).

Table of contents

to history

the origin of the paragraph is uncertain. There are different theories. Into Europe the paragraph dipped for the first time into 16. Century up. And revolution, which abolished the paragraphs again, was an indication of prosperity and aristocracy up to the French. That hung among other things with the possession of a riding horse together (already of prosperity witnessed), which let itself be ridden with paragraph-reinforced boots in the stirrups better.

sales level

the height of a paragraph will already planned during the model organization of the shoe and given by the heel breakup of carrying out and can afterwards be only marginally changed, without changing the overall construction and the conditions of the shoe (see below) negatively.

The sales level (based either on the back as so-called. Construction height or in the center, as middle height so mentioned ) of usual gentleman shoes amounts to laterally regarded between 2,5 and 3 centimeter, most lady shoes has a sales level between approximately 3 and 8 centimeters. But there are also extreme forms with paragraphs of 14 and more centimeters (with from it resulting strong negative Beinflussung the course and stability, as well as a high load of the foot).

material, models, designations


Paragraphs show various heights, sizes and forms, and are manufactured from the most different materials (cork, wood, rubber, PVC, leather, straw etc.). Sometimes certain paragraphs accompany with certain shoe models (z. B. the Cuba paragraph with Westernstiefeln, or the Shimmyabsatz with dance shoes). Accordingly there are many different paragraph models: Of Louis XV-paragraph, Stilettoabsatz, funnel paragraph, Diaboloabsatz, block paragraph, wedge paragraph, Cuba paragraph, Ballerinabsatz, Trotteurabsatz etc.) a paragraph does not have to be fastened always as separate element underneath the sole (normally with nails or screws of the inside of the shoe ago): Long wedge paragraphs are for example an optically integrated component of the sole and not recognizable as own bodies.

The sides and back surface of the paragraph paragraph coat is called, the front surface paragraph chest or - front. The surface of the paragraph, which comes with the soil into contact, one calls paragraph upper mark and is exchangeably and as resistant to friction as possible for repair purposes.


the function of the paragraph is primarily a Erleicherung of unreeling during the footstep completion, a discharge of the Längsgewölbes and with higher paragraphs of lady's-slippers a erotisierende change of the body attitude and the course. Furthermore the paragraph offers an increase of the shoe shank within the range of the point of appearance, whereby the shoe sinks not so easily into soft undergrounds and remains cleaner.


the correct adjustment of the paragraph (the specialist speaks of the paragraph conditions) is important for the straight conditions of the foot and a normal course completion. The correct paragraph conditions are recognizable with lateral view of the unloaded, empty shoe standing on an even surface. with correct conditions the paragraph upper mark should rest upon laminar and rest upon the shoe within the bundle range. Also the front shoe should from the inside not change its position with korretem conditions with light pressure on the heel range in the shoe.

Web on the left of

see also

Mokassin, shoe, shoe model, sole


  > German to English > (Machine translated into English)