an abbott (v. spätlat.: abbas, out hebr.: abba father) was originally a general honour name and is since that 5. /6. Century the chiefs of a monastery reserve; female correspondence is the Äbtissin.
Since that the 10. Century createdMedals selected usually different titles, like Propst, Prior, Guardian, Superior or rector. The abbotts like the other monastery chiefs become usually from the monks of the monastery concerned, with some newer medals of the Provinzialkapitel, on lifetime or (the begging medals) on some years selected. Since newer can also with the medals, which select the abbott usually on lifetime - for instance the Benediktiner, the office period on 12 years are limited. Regardless of its abbott has also thosePossibility of the resignation, he is then an old abbott. Correspondence in the Russian-orthodox church is Igumen and/or. Archimandrit.
The abbott is selected by all Professen of the monastery. The choice requires the confirmation by the bishop or in exceptional cases throughthe Pope. The abbott keeps the Benediktion and the office badges subsequently, from the bishop:
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after in the Middle Ages many monasteries were independent, stand they - and thus the abbott - since the Tridentini council (1545-1563) fundamental under supervision of the bishop. The abbotts exercise partly paternal force (potestas domestica), partly jurisdiction force. Thiscovers the administration of the monastery ability, the line of the monastery and the discipline of the members. In important questions they must catch up the advice, during the sale of monastery goods the agreement of the remaining monks of the monastery. They belong to the Prälaten andare located to the bishops in rank directly. However they are not geweihten bishops, but further priests. The Abtweihe does not designate stage or a special stage in the surgery (Diakonweihe, Priesterweihe, Bischofsweihe), but a kind agency by the responsible local bishop. An abbott is thatBishop obligated to the obedience and is not authorized to weihen its monks to priests and/or. to participate actively at a Bischofsweihe.
Are from the real (regular) abbotts to differentiate the Säkular, Kommendatar and layman abbotts.
Gefürstete of abbotts
before the secularization gave it in Germany to Benediktineräbte (prince abbott), also gefürstete, so the abbotts of z. B. Fulda, Kempten, Corvey and Murbach in the Elsass as well as pc. Emmeram in Regensburg. Gave likewise gefürstete abbottsit in Switzerland with a settling, pc. Gallen and Muri. Such abbeys became therefore in the realm deputation main conclusion of 1803, as far as they were seized by it, when regards principalities.
- general abbott: General or ore abbott the abbott of the main monastery of a Kongregation of the Benediktinerordens is called.
- Abtprimas: Abbott Primas is called the abbott by Leo of the XIII. geeinten entire Benediktinerorden.
- Abbé:The French designationAbbé is apart from the office designation also a title for low catholic of world clergyman in France.
Due to one between Pope Leo X. and king Franz I. from France of locked contract (between 1515 and 1521) that stood for the kings of FranceQuite too, 225 Abbés of commendataires (S. To appoint Kommendatarabt) for nearly all French abbeys. These referred an income from a monastery, without having to carry for it service out.
Since center 6. Century led the title Abbé generally young of clergymanwith or without religious consecrations. Their clothes existed in a black or dark-violet garb with small collar, and their hair was arranged into a round hair curl.
Since from this Abbés only few could arrive at the possession of an abbey, operatedsome for example as house teachers or conscience advice in outstanding families, others dedicated themselves the Schriftstellerei.
- Wiech, Martina: The office of the abbott in the conflict: Studies to the arguments around abbotts early and high-medieval monasteries with special consideration of the Bodensee area, victory castle: Schmitt 1999, 512 S. (= Bonn one historical research;Bd. 59) (Diss. To Bonn, 1999) ISBN 3-87710-206-9
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Wiktionary: Abbott - Word origin, synonyms and translations