Abbey Maria Laach

Klosterkirche Maria Laach
monastic church Maria Laach

the medieval monastery plant Maria Laach was built between 1093 and 1216. It is in the Eifel on the west side of the Laacher of lake with Mendig on the Markung the municipality Glees (district Ahrweiler). Maria Laach is considered as outstandingExample of the Roman building method in the Salierzeit. The building appears very harmonious despite its long construction period.

The abbey belonged to the medal of the Benediktiner and should be one of the richest goods of this kind in Germany: To their property belong the Laacher to lake with itsMechanisms for routistic use (camping site, boat rental business, fishing), a renowned hotel, a large and well sorted market garden, a book shop, different crafts enterprises (z. B. a bronze foundry) as well as large land surfaces in the periphery with fruit plan days, aminal husbandry and the appropriate agricultural enterprises.

Those outstanding received sechstürmige church (curved Pfeilerbasilika) alsotheir splendourful entrance, the so-called Paradies and that 1859 restored cloister (from at the beginning 13. Century) is considered as one of the most beautiful monuments Roman architecture in Germany.

1920 lent Pope Benedikt XV. the church the honour title of a Basilica minor.

Table of contents

history

landscape map

1093 became the Benediktinerabtei by the Pfalzgrafen Heinrich II. donated by Laach ( 1095) and its wife Adelheid of Orlamünde Weimar ( 1100), however not finished. 1112 renewed Pfalzgraf Siegfried ofBallenstedt the donation and gave the abbey to the abbey Affligem. Around 1100 the foundations of the nave and Vierungsturms were established. The first abbott became Gilbert from the abbey Affligem in Brabant, to which Maria Laach belonged at first as Priorat. 1138 became MariaLaach then independent abbey;1152 died Gilbert. Under his successor, abbott Fulbert (1152-1177), crypt, nave and west choir 1156 by Hillin of Fallernanien, archbishop by Trier were geweiht. At the latest 1177 was east choir, which completed flanking towers of the east dome and the west loft. Of 1220 - 1230the Vorhalle in the west, a Paradies in such a way specified, was added, in order to take to the west front the rejecting severity.

1802 were waived the abbey in the secularization and transformed into a large dairy-farm. 1820 acquired the Prussian head of the provincial government von Trier, Daniel Heinrich Delius, ehem.Monastery constructions, the lake and some Ländereien, not however the abbey church, which remained in state property. The manor here furnished by it remained until 1862 in the possession of the family Delius, after a heavy fire 1855 the east wing of Cologne master of building of cathedrals let which rebuild Ernst Friedrich Zwirner again-gothical. 1862 acquired the German Jesuitenprovinz the former abbey buildings and established here its Collegium maximum. Since this time the plant carries „Maria Laach “and no more for the new names the names usual since the Middle Ages „Laach “.

1892 settled Benediktinermönche from the ore abbey Beuron the abbey again,after it with emperor Wilhelm II.. in an audience to 30. August 1892 permission had caused. The use of the church, which the Prussian state conveyed only to 1924 to the abbey, the Benediktinern was granted, after it the sharing by the Evangelist church (Simultaneum)had accepted, which became relevant practically never however. As a Hausherr of the church William donated II. 1898 a new high altar after drafts well-known citizens of Berlin of the architect max of Spitta (removed after 1945) and participated substantially in the mosaic equipment of the inside starting from 1905. It determined that inone represented to the Kalotte of the Hauptapsis Christ Pantokrator after the model of the Apsis of the church in the Sicilian Monreale. The monastery buildings sketched between 1901 and 1913 P. Ludger Rincklage. 1928/29 established the Frankfurt architect Martin weber several extension buildings.

the building

the abbey churchby Maria Laach is one of the best received and outstanding Roman buildings of Germany. That is above all because of the fact that the abbey church remained nearly completely exempted from later changes. The Basilika is in its shape a doppelchörige dreischiffige Pfeilerbasilika with two transverse houses, those in each casewith a tower are bekrönt, which is flanked in each case by two small towers. The building stands in such a way in the tradition of the large rheinischen emperor cathedrals in Speyer, Mainz and Worms. The exterior embodies the idea of the Roman God castle, which still strengthens by the relatively short navebecomes. Clear and simple lines prevail with the arrangement of the external's building forwards.

On the inside the Basilika is likewise quite simply held, without many complex dazzling elbows and arcades. In the west choir is the high grave of the abbey founder Pfalzgraf Heinrich II. of Laach. In the east choir, where the fairsare celebrated and the Chorgestühl of the convention is, as high altar a singular Ziboriumaltar kept. This Ziborium is a canopy supported by columns and spanned at that time the high grave of the founder. It was acquired 1256 and in 17. Century increases.

Of the old monastery buildingsonly the Nikolauskapelle of 1230 has itself (in 18. Century) keep extended.

1937 was removed with a restoration of lategothical and baroque elements, 1956 were restored also the interior in approximation to the original organization.

abbotts

  • of abbotts and their Gesta from 1177 to1554
    see to Catalogus abbatum Lacensium with Wikisource Latina
  • of abbotts and its Gesta from 1554 to 1646
    see to Gesta abbatum Lacensium with Wikisource Latina
  • of abbotts since new settlement:
    • 1893-1901 Willibrod Benzler
    • 1901-1913 Fidelis of Stotzingen
    • 1913-1946 Ildefons Herwegen
    • 1946-1966 Basilius Ebel
    • 1966-1977 Urbanus Bomm (1964-1966 Koadjutor)
    • 1977-1990 Adalbert Kurzeja
    • 1990-2002 anno beautiful one
    • since 2002 Benedikt Müntnich

literature

  • Albert, Marcel, the Benediktinerabtei Maria Laach and the national socialism (Schöningh publishing house, 2004)
  • annals of Maria Laach (between 1170-1177): see Annales Lacensis with Wikisource Latina.
  • Beda rainfrom, Hafflighemum Illustratum. Part IV-V: Defiliationibus ejusdem abbatiae (Manuscript archives abbey Affligem, 1773-1775); into anastatische expenditure, OD. Verleyen, W., Reprint 264, Algemeen Rijksarchief (Brussels 2002).
  • Van Droogenbroeck, F.J., “Paltsgraaf Herman II († 1085) EN de stichting van de abdij van Affligem (28 June 1062)”, Jaarboek voor Middeleeuwse Geschiedenis 2 (Hilversum 1999)38-95.
  • Van Droogenbroeck, F.J., “De betekenis van paltsgraaf Herman II (1064-1085) voor het graafschap Brabant”, own Schoon EN De Brabander 87 (Brussels 2004) 1-166.
  • Hoffmann, G., emperors Wilhelm II. and the Benediktinerorden. In: Magazine for church history, 106. Volume (1995), S. 363-384
  • Resmini, B., the ore dioceseTrier. 7. The Benediktinerabtei Laach. Germania Sacra. New consequence 31. The dioceses of the church province Trier (Berlin 1993).
  • People, P., “the founder by Maria Laach (Pfalzgraf Heinrich II.) from the house Luxembourg Salm”, revue Bénédictine 36 (Maredsous 1924) 255-267.
  • People, P., “Laach and Affligem”, Benediktini month writing toCare of religious and mental life 9 (1927) 69-70.
  • Of Severus, E., Ecclesia Lacensis. Contributions from cause of the resettlement of the abbey Maria Laach by Benediktiner from Beuron before 100 years to 25. November 1892 and the establishment of the monastery by Pfalzgraf Heinrich II. of Laach forwards900 years in 1093. Contributions for the history of the old Mönchtums and the Benediktinerordens. Supplementband 6 (Münster 1993).
  • of winter field, December hard, the abbey church Maria Laach (2004). ISBN 3-7954-1681-7

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