waste water is contaminated by use (and/or. in its characteristics or its composition changed) water, in addition, the precipitation water collected flowing off from fastened surfaces and. Waste water is collected and transported by drains, in Germany practically always in purification plantstreated and according to it into waters serving as receiving streams introduced.
The waste water can be cleaned with the help of the water treatment.
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The definition of waste water is not uniform and leads again and again to confusion. The water conservation law (WHG) (Germany) at all, in the sewage duty law “ waste water ” does not define the term defined as
- … by domestic, commercial, agricultural or other use in itsCharacteristics changed and together the water flowing off in drying weather thereby, as well as the water (precipitation water), collected flowing off, from precipitation from the range from cultivated or fastened surfaces and. As waste water are considered also from plants for treating, camps and depositingWastes withdrawing and collected liquids.
In Austria become the waste water-legal interests in the water law law, which treats emission regulations and the duct connection laws of the Lands of the Federal Republic. Österr. Laws are callable under http://www.ris.bka.gv.at/.
Waste water is the generic term for several kinds of water: into the drying weather discharge and thatPrecipitation discharge. The drying weather discharge again consists of waste water and Fremdwasser.
- Drying weather discharge
- waste water
is domestic waste water from toilets (Fäkal or black water), sanitary appliances, kitchens and washing machines (wash or grey water (in English. Greywater)) and waste water from enterprises, those into public drainsderive (commercial or industrial waste water).
- Industrial waste water
exhibits usually special and strong contamination, why it is often treated in industrialown plants, before it is derived either in public drains (indirect introduction, mixture) or a waters (direct introduction). Also heatedWater from cooling systems counts as waste water and must be treated accordingly.
is together with the waste water in drying weather flowing off unverschmutzte water, that actually not into drains to arrive is (groundwater, Dränwasser).
- waste water
- Rain weather discharge
- in rain weather flows exceptthe drying weather discharge also rain water (
- precipitation water ), specified above, off, which is introduced into drains. Since rain from the atmosphere loosens dust, soot , Pollen and gases and fastened on roofs, and existing dust and pollutants along-wash agricultural surfaces, can Niederschlagsabflüsse manchmal sehr schadstoffhaltig sein und müssen behandelt werden. One therefore differentiates between rain water in need of treatment which must be derived in rain tiltings basin or in purification plants and not rain water in need of treatment, which can be introduced localnear into a waters or seeped locally.
- living materials
as for instance urine acid, glucose are biologically degradableand lead with anaerobic dismantling processes to smelling nuisances. The oxygen living released by these materials can beyond that lead to reduced oxygen contents in waters and thus for example to fishing inheriting.
as for instance nitrogen - and phosphorus connections, those to the Eutrophierung in particular standing waters lead and also for intensified alga growth in seas e.g. frame. in north and Baltic Sea are responsible.
as for instance poisons, heavy metals, synthetic organic substances, bacteria, mushrooms, or viruses, which can lead to illnesses.
waste water treatment
a goal of the waste water treatment is a removal of the waste water constituents and a re-establishment of the natural water quality. After §7a of the water conservation law waste water must after the state of the artare treated. The minimum requirements are called concretely for certain industrial industries in the waste water regulation. The waste water treatment happens in waste water treatment units.
One differentiates thereby mechanical/physical, biological and chemical cleaning methods, which are usually used in purification plants in appropriate cleaning stages.
Beside thatTreatment in technical purification plants can seep waste water under certain circumstances also on sewage farms, set off into hollows, or introduce into oxidation ponds as well as plant purification plants.
The treatment of waste water outside of the channel catchment area takes place in small sewage treatment plants. Differences becomes here between outdatedSystems without waste water ventilation (DIN 4261 part of 1) and the small sewage treatment plants with ventilated cleaning stage (DIN 4261 part of 2), demanded today.
If the waste water is not treated in the accumulation place, it becomes by means of waste water pumping plant and pressure pipes (the Topografie following) into the nearest channel,another waste water pumping plant or a purification plant promoted, where it is supplied to the cleaning.
organization of the waste water disposal
for Germany applies:
The disposal obligation is not regulated in Federals law. In §18a of the water conservation law the countries are obligated, bodies of the publicTo determine right as sewage disposal-requiring. In the national water laws the municipalities are made responsible, in their area the waste water usually result. Smaller local regional administrative bodies (cities and municipalities) are frequent to so-called. Waste water purpose federations (see Zweckverband) in summary.
The establishment and preservation in the enterprise of waste water treatment units take place via individuals, enterprises and enterprises, water cooperatives, municipalities as well as water federations.
do not see also
private people to drains are attached, must the resulting waste water either drive offlet clean or over a small sewage treatment plant and derive then verrieseln or by waste water pumping plant. In this case the responsible water authority transfers the obligation for sewage disposal to the property owner. Which small sewage treatment plants are certified as state of the art, the water authorities or waste water outline plans putfirmly - in any case correspond to this default all plants, which exhibit a so-called “building-on-obvious permission”. Such small sewage treatment plants were tested on an official test field and can the legal requirements to the expiration of purification plant (mostly CSB under 140, BSB5 under 40 mg/l)guarantee reliably. Worked satisfactorily e.g. Plants in the SBR (Sequencing batch Reactor) or fixed bed procedure.
- Theo man: The development of the sewage engineering and the water keeping clean. Chemistry in our time 25 (2), S. 87 -95 (1991), ISSN 0009-2851
- Dieter pointing man: Local waste water pumping plants. Volcanic publishing house meal, ISBN 3-8027-2834-3, 2. dt. extended edition
Web on the left of
- Dt. Waste water law
- IWA - Internationally Water Association
- EWA - European Water Association
- Federal Ministry for environment, nature protection and reactor safety (Germany)
- Laws in the Internet (Germany)
- DWA - German combination for water management, waste water and waste registered association.
- ÖWAV - Austrian water and refuse economy federation
- VSA - federation Swiss of waste water and water protection specialists
- information about energy recovery from waste water
- information about the technology of the waste water purification
- community of interests decentralized one Waste water treatment (IDA)
- pointing peat environmental technology GmbH - among other things Information about the production from filters and Filterpressem to the waste water purification
- cleaning method in purification plants