Eighty-year old war

in the eighty-year old war from 1568 to 1648 the Netherlands fought for their independence from the Spanish king. With its end they separated at the same time from the federation of the holy Roman realm of German nation .

The war developed originally from internal unrests and became between thatSpanish army and insurgent Dutchmen struck. In the reason it did not concern a durable war, it consisted itself of many individual rebellions and fights, which extended over this long period. So some years without fights could offense quite again and again.

After itself the SpanishOccupation troops to a large extent to intersperse could do, 1609 first for 12 years a fixed armistice were negotiated.

By large unrests in entire Central Europe in consequence 1618 of the broken out dreissigjährigen war inflamed actually fast new fights at expiration of the armistice however. This mark were however clear the Dutchmenmore successfully, since they captured and with the money new troops finance could the Spanish silver fleet. An alliance with France was less successful, since it led to the loss of some larger cities.

1648 finally terminated the Westfäli peace both large wars with the result that those“Republic of the united Netherlands” (with exception that France of awarded areas) independence attained.

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before the war belonged the Netherlands, an area, that today bothof the Netherlands and of Belgium, Luxembourg and a part of north France consists, due to left rule to Spain and consisted of 17 provinces. Around the center 16. Century disintegrated the Netherlands in the course of the reformation into two different konfessionelle camp to thatThe south remained catholic, on the other hand the north became calvinistisch. The Netherlands represented an important economic power at the time at that time. Antwerp was a center of the European capital market. Were by their ports Antwerp and Rotterdam in addition important envelope places for the trade with goods from overseas andthe new colonies in South America. Because of this clenched economic power and because of the important strategic situation Spain was not determined to give the Netherlands from their possession.

King Philipp II. the rule took over over the Netherlands 1555 of his father Karl V.It setthe Ketzerverfolgungen, which had already caused unrests in the Netherlands, with still larger consequence, already begun under its father, away. In the year 1559 he appointed new bishops, who also in the general conditions of the provinces in the course of a church reorganization, which general states so mentioned represent,to be and made smaller the dioceses should. With this measure Philipp wanted the Gegenreformation on the one hand to intensify, on the other hand in addition, the ständischen liberties, which had been entitled to the provinces in the large privilege 1477, to cancel again. As Statthalterin in the Netherlands it set its half sister Margarethefrom Parma and you placed the bishop von Mechelen, Kardinal Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle as a first Minister, to the side. Philipp decreased/went back 1560 again to Spain, 1561 withdrew it then also its troops from the Netherlands.

thatNetherlands independence fight

some members of the Netherlands Council of State under the guidance of William I. from Oranien and the count von Egmont protested to vehement against these changes and forced 1564 Granvelles resignation. In the aristocracy compromise so mentioned of Breda asked the Gueux Margarethe of Parma for the completionthe Inquisition and the pursuit of the Protestanten as well as around the re-establishment of their ständischen liberties. The protest against the Spanish rule reached a first high point in the same year with the picture storms of the Calvinisten. Philipp main header thereupon the Inquisition up, sent however 1567 the duke ofAlba, Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, as a new governor with Spanish troops to a punitive expedition into the Netherlands. Alba succeeded it also first, the regional rebellions by special courts, to the so-called blood advice of Brussels to suppress. With these actions more than 6.000 becameInsurgent one executed, among them the count von Egmont. In the same year Alba defeated also the Netherlands troops under guidance of William I. of Oranien.

Die Schlacht von Heiligerlee (1568) in einer zeitgenössischen Darstellung
The battle of Heiligerlee (1568) in a contemporary representation

with its inconsiderate and arbitrary actions provoked Alba however newRebellions of the Dutchmen. If unrests were up to then usually regionally limited and still to a large extent uncoordinated, then the rebellion seized now the whole country. With the battle of Heiligerlee 1568, first military meeting one another of both sides the eighty-year old war begins. Above all as the water Gueuxscoffed Dutchmen made in the consequence for the Spaniards by their continual attacks on transportation by sea and bases to create with difficulty. 1572 succeeded to them largest success, when they conquered the provinces Zeeland and Holland. As a governor of the released provinces William became I. of Oranien selected, with whatit one transferred actually the guidance of the resistance against Spain.

1573 were replaced Alba by Don Luís de Zúñiga y Requensens. Even if the new governor were more successful first than its predecessor, a large victory succeeded to the insurgent ones again: They flooded the country, segelten after Suffer and released the city from the Spanish Belagerern. All 17 provinces formulated their demands common after departure of the Spanish troops and religious tolerance in the Genter Pazifikation (1576). She was ratified by the general states in Antwerp. The new Spanish governor Don Juan de Austria, a half brother of Philipp II., accepted the demands formally, nevertheless continued unrests. The Genter Pazifikation should be the last common action of the 17 Netherlands provinces.

the long way to the peace

in the year 1579 broke in the Genter Pazifikationdocumented unit of the Netherlands provinces at konfessionellen contrasts. Some southern, predominantly französischsprachige provinces closed to 6. January to the union of Arras (Atrecht) together. The northern provinces with predominantly calvinistischer population against it closed to 25. January to the Utrechter union together. Also the states of Flandersand Brabants were member of the Utrechter union. They continued to oppose against Spain and required the right to free worship. To 24. The provinces of the Utrechter union the republic of the united Netherlands formed, explained July 1581 in the document van Afzwering or Plakkaat van Verlatingheand William I. appointed their independence from the king. from Oranien to the governor in the different states. As driving Kraft behind the Utrechter union and the declaration of independence the province Holland is considered. The separation of the Netherlands in the general states and Spanish the Netherlands was now sealed. Outthe rebellion of the Netherlands against the Spanish Besatzer, which took its beginning in the south, now a fight for independence of the general states became.

Those the “union of Arras” of joined parts of the southern provinces did not become between 1581 and 1585, partly after difficult FE storages, by the Spaniardsunder the new governor Alexander Farnese, the son Margaretes subjected of Parma. Also large parts of the northeast Netherlands were conquered in these years by the Spaniards, but these conquests were cancelled after 1589 by the rebels. Only the war of independence successfully ran at the endin the north. William was murdered 1584 by a catholic, the general states could agree however relatively fast on William son Moritz of Nassau as successors. When Alexander Farnese conquered 1585 Antwerp, the provinces of the Utrechter union were endangered on the highest. It succeeded however to that Advice pensioner of the province Holland, Johan van Oldenbarnevelt to negotiate 1596 a pact of the general states with England. With its financial and military support the war was resumed against Spain. At the same time reformed Moritz of Nassau the Netherlands army (Orani army reform), which so already soon thatmilitary supremacy of the Spaniards Paroli to offer knew.

In the year 1598 Philipp II. died. of Spain. Thus the southern, of D went. h. Spanish the Netherlands into the hands of his daughter Isabella and its married man, ore duke the Albrecht of Austria over. In the year 1601 the Spanish beganTroops with the involving heavy losses FE storage of east end, which was successfully terminated under Ambrosio Spinola 1604. The Dutchmen lost thus their last base in Flanders. 1609 - two years after the sea-battle with Gibraltar - both sides could on a twelve-year-old boy armistice agree.

The battle with Gibraltar in a representation of Hendrick Cornelisz Vroom

1621 broke out the war in the context of the dreissigjährigen war again. It ran first without result, until it succeeded to the Dutchmen to capture the entire Spanish silver fleet . With a part of the booty financed Friedrich Heinrich, brother and successor of Moritz of Nassau, and. A. the conquest of 's-Hertogenbosch (1629) and of Maastricht (1632). An alliance with France in the year 1635 for the conquest of the Spanish the Netherlands was a little successful. On the contrary, it led to the loss of Venlo, Roermond and other cities to the Spaniards.

Spain was weakened at this time however by the loss of its entire war fleet,the Armada “, with a battle with English federations militarily strongly and wanted the peace with the Netherlands, there it its remaining forces upthe dreissigjährigen war to concentrate had. After death Friedrich Heinrichs 1647 set the province Holland as well as three further provinces the negotiations with Spain against the resistance of Friedrich Heinrichs son William II. away. These negotiations flowed 1648 into the Westfäli peace, that at the same timealso the end of the dreissigjährigen war and the eighty-year old war meant, as well as the international acknowledgment to the republic of the united Netherlands brought.

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List of wars


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