|office language||Paschtu, Persian (Dari)|
|system of government||Islamic Republic of|
|head of state and head of the government||Hamid Karzai|
|surface||647,500 km ²|
|number of inhabitants||28.513.677 (July 2004)|
|population density||of 44.0 inhabitants per km ²|
|life expectancy||44.5 years|
|time belt||UTC +4.5|
|national anthem||Soroud e Melli|
detailed map (conditions 2002)
Table of contents
the centralasiatic country bordersto Iran, Pakistan, China, Tadschikistan, Turkmenistan and Usbekistan; three quarters are inaccessible.
Afghanistan was in the cold war 20. Century long time by the world view of the USA and the communist world view of the USSR split into opposing camps. Thus sweptpermanently wars by the country. In the 80's-years used defeated and Mudschaheddin the communist regime financed by the USA and Saudi Arabia by Pakistan. The allocation of the spheres of influence failed however because of rivalries; the fundamentalist Islamic aligned Taliban - militias came to thoseAnd a radical interpretation Islam and in particular the Scharia implemented power with all hardness. The Taliban regime, which had granted Unterschlupf to members of terror organizations, fell end in considerably „the war led from the USA against the terrorism “, that2001 began.
Afghanistan is an inland with strategic meaning in the region.
The country is to a large extent mountain country. Less than 10% of the national surface are appropriate below 600 M. The mountains of the Hindukusch (to 7,500 m height)and the Sefid 652,090 km extend cow ² of the large country over far parts.
See also: List of the cities in Afghanistan
in the southwest is a dischargeless level with the Hilmendsee at the border to Iran. Its most important supply is the Hilmend, that in the east of the country close of the capital Kabulrises. Afghanistan possesses a continental climate with hot summers and very cold winters.
Afghanistan is above all a mountain country in the eastern high country of Iran. Only in the north levels lie at the Amudarja and in the southwest smaller wild-like basins. ThatNortheast becomes from the Hindukusch pulled through. Between the basin of Kabul and the northern region a winterproof road connection exists nearly 3 km over the mountain comb with one is enough for tunnel since 1964 (Salangpass - road).
The southern Hindukusch falls steeply into thoseLandscape Nuristan off, who is covered by coniferous forests partly still. The landscapes between the capital Kabul and the Khaiberpass at the border to Pakistan are the political and economical core area of the country. Settlement core in the western Afghanistan is the city Herat. The southern and southwest Afghanistan consists of deserts and half deserts. It is flowed through only by the Hilmend, which is the longest Afghan river. The Hilmend ends in the salt lakes of Sistan at the border to Iran. East of theHilmend lies the desert Rigestan („sand country “) and western the Hilmend predominantly the Dascht e Margoh consisting of crushed stone and loam surfaces.
The highest point of the country is the summit 7,485 m of the high Nowschak in the Hindukusch. In the river plain of the Amudarjaat the border to Turkmenistan the tiefstgelegene place of Afghanistan is with 285 m over NN.
Climatically the south of the country already belongs to the warmer subtropics, in which the cultivation of Dattelpalmen is possible. Beyond that Afghanistan beside Myanmar is the country with the largest Opiumanbau of the earth.
The temperature spectrum is the highest of the world: It is enough from -50 to +53 °C. In the year 2000 half of the population under one of the frequently arising heavy Dürren had to suffer.
Afghanistan is a many people state and a minority mosaic, whereby however for historical reasons the Paschtunen feels frequent as a state people. The country had 2004 about 28.5 million inhabitant (it gavein Afghanistan never a census. A number of inhabitants of 25-30 million is considered as very probable). The organization on the basis of ethnical criteria is not always clearly, so that linguistic, religious and criteria which are based on outside body characteristics overlap, as for instance with „the Turkish-Mongolian “Hazara. The following percentage figures are only a rough estimation and show only the probable allocation of population.
- Paschtunen, the ethnical Afghans, are the founders and name givers of the country. They make approx. 40% of the population out.
- The Paschtunen assignedare among other things several Nomadenstämme, everything in front the Kuchi with approximately 5 million representatives. These were particularly protected by article 14 of the Afghan condition and equipped with say.
- Tadschiken are Persian descent and make approx. 30% of the population out.
- Hazara, which are called descendants of the army Cengiz Kagan again and again ` s Dschingis Khans, are today persischsprachig and place approx. 20% of the population. Their descent is scientifically not occupied and therefore among historians disputed.
- Usbeken, one of the many Turkvölker central Asia, place approx. 5% of the population.
- besides exist still several smaller groups ofamong other thingsAimaken, Turkmenen, Nuristani and Belut.
After 1992 ethnical conflicts coined/shaped the arguments between the Mudschaheddin. The traditional rulers of Afghanistan were, them were clay-indicating the Paschtunen also with the Taliban. The fall of the Taliban regime in the year2001 gave the opportunity to an alliance from Tadschiken, Hazara and Usbeken to implement an agreement over the allocation of power. The Paschtunen sees itself since then to retaliation attacks suspended. Under the Taliban it had come beyond that to arguments between Sunniten and Shiites.In the continuing conflict after the invasion of Soviet troops 1979 as well as in the civil war using after 1992 there were ten years about 2 millions Dead one and evenly so many injured ones. Further 6 millions had to flee in neighbouring Pakistan and Iran. Manyreturned, but by the fights in the year 2001 a new refugee wave developed; Hundredthousands were sold within the country. Under the Islamic Taliban regime the women had hardly rights. The interim government permitted women again to the working life and permitted girlsthe school attendance. Social restrictions for women exist however further.
(see also Ethnic groups)
78% of the population to live on the country and only 22% in the cities.
in Afghanistan become roughlymore than 57 different languages and spoken about 200 different dialects. By the large meeting of the council Loja Dschirga were confirmed of these Persian and to Paschto as official land and government languages (office languages).
NewPersian, in Afghanistan predominantly Dari mentioned (derivedfrom far they Darbâri, “Persian the royal yard”), is the majority language  and, since the establishment of Afghanistan by Ahmad Shah Durrani, also office language of the country. More than half of the population of Afghanistan (main Tadschiken, Hazara, Aimaken,in addition, a great many Paschtunen) speaks Persian as native language, which can be regarded altogether as lingua franca the country. Dari is besides the language of the population of the capital Kabul. It serves not only as government and restaurant economics, butalso as communication language between those groups of peoples, which do not speak one of the two national languages as native language.
Paschto (Afghan), the language of the Paschtunen, is since 1964 office language. Thus traditionally the national anthem of Afghanistan becomes since beginning 20. Century onlyin Paschto sung. Also military titles are taken from the language of the Paschtunen. Nevertheless Paschto could not become generally accepted so far as state language and has this status only in the paschtunischen master areas. Paschto is secondarily regarded of other subpopulations usually than, andalso the question of the national anthem again and again caused provokante discussions. Any attempts of the government to increase the status of Paschto in the population failed on the whole so far.
Besides also five minority languages are in those regions asOffice language recognition, in which these of the majority are spoken; the most important language is thereby the Turkish languages Uzbekisch, Turkmenisch, in addition, Belutschisch, Paschai and Nuristani (Kati) experienced a revaluation under Karzai. Becomes momentary among other things withGerman assistance worked for providing dictionaries and teaching materials for the school teaching in these languages.
The illiterate rate is with approx. 70% in the international comparison very highly. Invasion, civil war and the culture hostileness of the Taliban have whole generations without each entrance tooEducation to grow up leave. Of this exclusion from the education system women were particularly concerned, so that this very day approx. 90% all Afghaninnen illiterate inside are. The illiteratism is one of the largest obstacles in the reconstruction of the country. With the end of the Taliban regime developedwith foreign assistance generally speaking country new schools, so that in the meantime a large part of the children and young people can visit again a school.
over 99% of the population are Muslims, of it aboutfour fifth usually hanafitische Sunniten and a fifth imamitische Shiites. Besides there is still about 20,000 Hindus, some few hundred Sikhs and a last Jew (see Buchari Jews) named Zablon Simintov in Kabul.
The Islam becomes everafter ethnical group, after region and/or after education conditions differently understood and interprets. An important role play to today the before-Islamic customs of the population, like e.g. the old-Iranian New Year (Nowroz) after the Iranian calendar or the faith in benediction-bringing Weihrauch (Espand); both zoroastrische customs.
Islam in Afghanistan
the Islam in Afghanistan was very conservatively laid out over the centuries by the Afghans, whereby the tribal law of the Paschtunen a roleplayed. Particularly in cities and larger places women go usually only with complete veil (Burka) from the house. However it became only in larger cities generally usually. On the country was the Burqa not generally usually, thereit for instance with the farm work is hinderlich.
The Taliban obligated in the middle of the 1990er years all women to carrying a Burka. At the Tadschiken and the other groups of peoples this tradition was not far common up to then. The Burka obligation became 2001 officiallyagain waived, but the Burqa remains further the usual clothes for women. Only in Kabul there are places, at which Mrs. unverschleiert itself show may (e.g. a woman park in Kabul).
Only it is permitted to few women, itself without male companyto move in the public. Encroachments against women are in Kabul and other larger cities pretty often - although the situation is to some extent stable by foreign troop operational readiness level at least here.
Under the Taliban Mrs. the professional activity were forbidden. There it throughthis gave, was completely posed on itself alone the war alone in Kabul to about 30,000 widows. Nothing else remained for many to beg as.
major item: History of Afghanistan
from the antique one to the modern times
In the antique one belonged the area today's Afghanistan, which corresponds to the east of the antique “Aryānām Xšaθra “, to the Perserreich. Later a Greek Baktri Kingdom of , that developed from the descendants of the troops Alexanders of the large one in Baktrien one governed.
After the case of the Sassaniden and the invasion of the Muslim Arabs dominated up to the Middle Ages Persian restaurant dynasties, those the Muslim Kalifat been subordinate. The Islam became generally accepted nevertheless in this region relatively slowly. Only toward end of the10. Century, i.e. after the large people migration of the Turks in the Persian high country, most inhabitants are to have been in the area Ghur (between Herat and Kabul) Muslims after an Islamic chronicle.
establishment of state and naming
of the Paschtune[[Qasimi|]] an independent kingdom in the east of Persia, in the area justified Khorasan Wa Mawar aluminum-feeds in the year 1747. Thus it generally applies as the founders of Afghanistan. The realm created by Qasimi broke already soon internal disputes andInterferences from the outside. Afghanistan came a little later into the sphere of influence of the expanding British.
The name Afghanistan (originally introduced as Afghanland of the Englishmen; later than Afghanistan of the Afghans ) meant literally country of the Afghans was taken over and developed at the beginning19. Century.1801 he was for the first time mentioned in the Anglo Persian peace treaty.
the British colonial power
around the country to conquer and as part of the British Imperiums in India integrate, fought 1839 - 1842 a large Anglo Indian armyin the first Anglo Afghan war against a relatively badly equipped Afghan resistance. The British could occupy the country, not implement however their goals. 1842 were agreed upon an armistice, with which the British explained itself ready to withdraw their troops. However became shortwhereupon at the Khyber passport the withdrawing British attacked and all 15,000 British soldiers and their family members killed. This military loss in Afghanistan frustrated the British colonial government and made its efforts more difficult, like e.g. control of the trade routes into central Asia and thatfrom there tried attack on the Chinese Qing dynasty. The disaster in Afghanistan excited also many Indian, because the British army consisted to a large part of Indian. Propelled by the grind of preceding humiliating 1878 explained the British governmentagain the war against Afghanistan. Despite small military successes of the Afghans, like with the battle of May wall 1880, the resistance was struck down, which installs capital Kabul from revenge down-burned, and a puppet as a king. At the same time took over the British forthe following 40 years the Afghan foreign policy. Aufgrund vieler Aufstände in Afghanistan wurde 1893 das Land durch die Durand-Linie von den Briten geteilt und das süd-östliche Gebiet (die heutigen pakistanischen Provinzen NWFP, FATA und ein kleiner Teil Belutschistans) incorporates the Indian crowning colony.
the third Anglo Afghan war in May 1919 - a last attempt of Afghanistan to free itself from the British yoke to - led finally by skillful negotiating of the Afghan diplomats(the Afghans threatened the Englishmen to approximate far Russia) to the contract of Rawalpindi and to 8. August 1919 for the acknowledgment of Afghanistan as sovereigns and independent state by Great Britain. Thus Afghanistan had its after more than 60 years of British supremacyfull independence attains, while a large part of the areas to the British were lost and were awarded to the state later to Pakistan.
Afghanistan after independence
since 1933 existed with Mohammed Sahir Schah (Baraksai) at thatSharpens a constitutional kingdom; it had to yield 1973 of a republic, in which 1978 the communists power transferred. In December 1979 taken place Soviet invasion fell Afghanistan into a ten-year „deputy war “(see Afghan civil war and Soviet invasion), that the Islamic forces of Afghanistan (Mujaheddin, as much as „holy warriors “) won, with support from Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and the USA. After the departure of the Soviets 1989 and the resignation of the last communist president Najibullah 1992the Mujaheddin groups began to fight each other mutually and it was inflamed a brutal civil war, which lasted until approximately 1995. In that year the radical-Islamic Taliban began from Pakistan (as many as Koran pupils; a group of fragments ehem. To conquer Mujaheddin) the country- they controlled until 2001 approx. 90% of the country and established a strictly Islamic regime. Thus music, sport, pictures and television were forced forbidden, nearly all schools and universities closed, men, to carry beards and women were allowed only alsomale company and wrapped into a complete body masking (Burka) leave the house. Besides women and girls school attendance and professional activity were forbidden.
Afghanistan after the cold war
after the terrorist attacks of the11. September 2001, which is the US Government the ex Saudi Arab Osama shop attributed, and after the UN security council awarded the right to self-defense to the USA, an alliance led under guidance of the USA to the fall of the dominant Talibansystems. Here those placed North alliance the majority of the ground troops. Osama is shop thereby was however not found.
The paschtunische master leader Hamid Karsai, which in December 2001 to the conference of Afghanistan on the Peter mountain with Bonn as a chairman was authorized, became 2002 of the country-wide Loja Dschirga („large meeting of the council “) selected to the president.
The Zerstrittenheit within the north alliance increased it until 2002, country-wide came to ethnical and linguistic pursuits. Despite the Zerstrittenheit members of the north alliance occupy increase key functions. The rivalries between the trunks and peoplescontinued to take to and continue to endanger the peace.
Many of humans fled in the war abroad returned in the meantime.
The security situation of the country is still critical. In the south and the east of Afghanistanexist areas, into which no occupation troops in-dare. Since March 2005 over 1000 humans with notices were killed. To 14. Septembers 2005 murdered the Taliban in the southAfghan province Uruzgan sieved Afghan, because these voter documents of identification carried with itself.
Since the condition of 2004 Afghanistan has a präsidiales system of government with a president at the point of the executive. The president is selected directly by the people for one duration of five years. After two terms of office it is refused the presidentto stand as a candidate again. A presidency candidate must be old at least 40 years, a Muslim and an Afghan citizen. The applicant nominates two vice-presidency applicants. The president is state and government head and commander in chief of the military armed forces. In addition to its powers belong the determination of itsCabinet, as well as the occupation of positions in the military, the police and province governments with the agreement of the parliament.
The national assembly is the legislation of Afghanistan and consists of two houses: the Wolesi Dschirga (house of the people) and that Meschrano Dschirga (house of the older ones).
the parliament (Wolesi Dschirga) consists of 249 seats, whereby 68 for women and ten for the Nomaden minority of the Kuchis is reserved. The delegates become by directChoice determines, whereby the number of seats in relation to the number of inhabitants of the respective province stand. At least two women per province must be selected. A legislative period takes five years. To the choice no parties are certified. On the voting card that appearsName, the photo and the symbol of the applicant, no connection to armed organizations are permitted to who. The political representatives do not receive an immunity before the law. The Meschrano Dschirga exists to one third each of delegated ones, from the province and/or. District advicefor four years to be intended, as well as to a third from delegates, who are determined by the president, whereby half must consist of women.
The Judikative sits down from the Stera Mahkama (highest Court of Justice), the industrial tribunal and low courtsfor certain competencies together. The Stera Mahkama consists of nine judges, who are nominated by the president for one term of office of ten years and confirmed by the parliament. Judges must have at least reached the age of 40 years, may no political partybelong and must a conclusion in law or Islamic iurisdiction have. The Stera Mahkama has also the powers of a constitutional court yard.
In practice the influence of the government is however almost exclusively limited to the capital Kabul - in the remainingCountry lies power further in the hands of Afghan being lords. In addition a wide-spread distrust of the population comes opposite state and head of the government Hamid Karsai, to which one due to its proximity for US Government frequently accuses it acts more in the sensethe USA as the Afghan people.
transformation process at the end of of 2003 to at the beginning of January 2004 met the large meeting of the council (Loja Dschirga) and agreed finally to the draft of a condition . As system of government one has itself on one Islamic republic united, which will make democratic parliamentary elections possible; also the president is to be selected by the people and these receives and. A. the right to appoint the highest prosecutor. It will give two vices-president. The Scharia became actual with the conditionagain imported, there according to kind. 3 of the condition no law the bases Islam to contradict may do.
The last presidency elections found to 9. October 2004 instead of, the parliamentary elections to 18. September 2005. Originally they should in June 2004take place, had to be shifted however due to delays during the choice registration several times. In November 2004 officially as the president of Afghanistan one explained to the office holder Hamid Karsai.
parliamentary election to 18. September 2005
to 18. Septembers 2005 found in Afghanistanthe elections for the Wolesi Dschirga, the “house of the people”, and the 34 province advice instead of. For the 249 seats parliament (68 by ratio for women) gave it to 2,800 candidates (330 women), for the province advice over 3.000. Despite notice threats12.7 of the 28 million Afghan could be registered. To the choice went finally 6.8 million, what corresponds to an election turnout of approximately 54%.
Since parties are forbidden according to condition, little can be experienced from the results without exact background knowledge. Worth mentioning is however,that former war princes and admitting Taliban were selected.
The reliability of the choice is questioned by the fear before choice manipulation. In Masar e Scharif provides not the ISAF colonial force for the security of the voters, but the there war prince Mohammed Atta.Besides seven candidates were shot by the Taliban.
The choice was rated internationally as success and forms thereby the conclusion of the so-called. “Bonn process “.
foreign troop operational readiness level and structure of troop
to 28. June 2004 decided NATOto increase the Truppenstärke in Afghanistan of 6.500 soldiers of the ISAF to altogether 10,000 soldiers. By the mechanism of additional regional reconstruction teams PRT in the north and the west of the country thereby the employment beyond Kabul is expanded.Great Britain, Norway, Finland and Sweden take part in the program. Germany stationed among other things in Kabul and Kundus troops, with which the German Federal Armed Forces their operational readiness level in the north will continue to remove extended Bundestag mandate and will develop in Mazar e Sharif a field camp with an airfield.Germany is and. A. also responsibly for the training of a police.
Afghan security forceses
since the fall of the Taliban have taken part the interest , large at the ISAF nations to be able to guarantee to the Afghans also in the area of the security politics again full sovereignty. Therefore they underpinGuidance of the USA police and military up.
The Afghan armed forces with the name Afghan national Army have at present 27.000 men, from which 14,500 combat units are. They remain first limited to tasks of army, a navy seem not necessary. There thatStructure and maintenance of an operational Air Force is expensive, takes over the USA the safety device of the Afghan air space. The necessity for an Afghan Air Force is debated at present, due to the geographical conditions is considered these however as available. The command structure orients itself at thatthe USA. So Afghanistan under militarily meaningful regional commands is to be divided, see.US armed forces. A priority goal remains however first the improvement of moral and equipment as well as the clearing of the military of feeler gauges and Saboteuren.
In co-operation with the Federal Republic of Germanytrain the USA at present Afghan policemen, those it to 57,000 to give are. The structure orients itself also here at the USA, z. B. with a kind Highway policy. At present the Afghan police is central organized, what however in view ofthe condition giving process and the not yet locked evaluation of all factors represents an interim solution.
Further information for the status of the Afghan security forceses is to be seen here.
for Afghanistan exists a travel warning of the Foreign Office of the Federal Republic of Germany (conditions: 17.December 2005). Journeys are considered as dangerous and from them urgently advised against, there a rescue (particularly from the provinces) in the accident only under heaviest conditions are possible and will not be guaranteed can.
major items: Provinces of Afghanistan
since that 13. April 2004 is divided Afghanistan into 34 provinces (velayat). The provinces are again into 329 districts (woluswali) partitioned. The provinces of a governor are governed (waali), which is appointed or confirmed by the centre government in Kabul. At present some governor posts are vakant.
the Afghan railway system is limited to 24,6 km. The roads (21,000 km of it 13.3 fastened) are in the reconstruction, ithowever a high mine danger exists. Afghanistan is considered as one to most mined areas of the world. In addition the roads are often strongly under-rinsed depending upon season. Possibilities for the navigation insist on the border rivers Amudarja and Pjandsch. By Kabula river of same name direction the east flows.
In May 2005 the construction work at a first bridge began over the river Pjandsch after Tadschikistan with financial support of the USA, which are to be locked in April 2007. The bridge is afterthe present dragging punt replace, with which on the day only maximally 60 cars can be transported to their completion and which precipitates many months in the year due to to strong current of the river completely.
The airfields (44 at the number) of the country becamein the air raids since October 2001 strongly damages. 16 km from Kabul is the important airport Kabul. It becomes of the societies Ariana Afghan airlines, came air, Azerbaijan airlines, Mahan air, Pakistan international and Qatar Airways approached. Its IATA - Code reads KBL. Kandahar possesses likewise an airport with the IATA code KDH.
With Bahglan is a former Russian air base. At present it is used by the USA. Except these airports there is still AfghanistanIslam Qala OAEQ (I.C.A.O.), Afghanistan Jabul Saraj OAJS (I.C.A.O.), Afghanistan Jalalabad OAJL (I.C.A.O.) JAA (IATA), AfghanistanJawand OAJW (I.C.A.O.), Afghanistan Kajaki OAKJ (I.C.A.O.), Afghanistan Kalat OAKT (I.C.A.O.) KBH (IATA), Afghanistan Kaldar OAKR (I.C.A.O.), Afghanistan Kamdesh OAKD (I.C.A.O.), Afghanistan Karez i me OAKZ (I.C.A.O.), AfghanistanKeshim OAEK (I.C.A.O.), Afghanistan Khost OAKS (I.C.A.O.) kHz (IATA), Afghanistan Khost OF ring OAFG (I.C.A.O.) and Afghanistan Khwahan OAHN a KW/H Afghanistan Koban OAKA (I.C.A.O.). Those national like internationally active airline is called Ariana Afghan airlines.
after two decades waran uncertain situation in the country followed. The economy of the country was destroyed so to a large extent, likewise a majority of the livestocks. Afghanistan ranks now among the poorest states. The population suffers from hunger emergencies.
The gross domestic product is with estimated 20 billion US-$ (conditions 2003). With the emergence GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT is involved the agriculture sector with estimated 60%, the industry with estimated 15% and services with estimated 25%.
Of Afghanistan external relations by smuggling are controlled. About half of the gross domestic product are based on the traffic of Opium (conditions 2002). Three quarters of the sleep poppy harvests world-wide originate from Afghanistan. In the year 2004 the sleep poppy cultivated area grew againaround 64%. It is feared that the country develops gradually to a drug state.
Afghanistan imported 2000 goods in the value of 600 millions in the year US Dollar, in particular the following goods: Food, oil products and consumer goods, those usually from Singapore, Japan and the European Union come. Food and fruits in the value of 150 millions were exported US Dollar. These went particularly to Pakistan, into the European Union and into the USA.
Although only about 6% of the state surface agriculturallyare usable and this use usually of artificial irrigation depend, are active 67% of the population in the agriculture (conditions 2001). Harvests are regularly threatened by Dürren.
Afghanistan had a rich cultural inheritance. When the Taliban conquered 1996 Kabul, they destroyed many works of art (among other things Painting and figures from buddhistischer time), above all those, which represented humans. Unite coworkers of the local institute for art succeeded it however,to save some pictures from the Taliban.
One of the largest objects of interest were the Buddha-Statuen of Bamiyan. Destroyed in the year 2001 these in rock gehauenen works of art by the then dominant Taliban for religious reasons. A Swiss team triesfor this time to finance and operate a reconstruction, until today however it remained with the plans.
In Afghanistan there is to four universities, of it two in Kabul and ever one in Dschalalaba and Herat.
The rider play Buzkashi appliesas Afghan national sport.
legal one and/or. national and agricultural holidays and celebrations such as Nauroz, independence celebration as well as national anniversaries are celebrated after the Iranian sun calendar. Religious celebrations becomeafter the Islamic moon calendar celebrated.
The calendar after the sun year is state calendar, even if it in the course of history on the soil of the today's country, in addition, since the naming “Afghanistan” in 19. Century repeated repealed set is.The solar calendar was explained last in the year 1996 by the Taliban for invalid. The Islamic lunar calendar was the calendar of the “Islamic emirate Afghanistan”.
Since the Loya Jirga from 2004 on the sun year the which is based calendar is again in the conditionembodied. Therefore the calendar beginning is based on the time of the Pilgerfahrt (Hidschra) of the prophet Mohammad. The work basis of the commonwealth is the sun calendar which is based on that Pilgerfahrt. 22 sun years correspond 23 moon year. The 12 names of the month of the sun calendar correspond to the Tierkreiszeichen in Afghanistan.
it will still for a long time last, until Afghanistan von Jahrzehnten of the civil war recovered. In Kabul only few hotels are opened; Journeys is extremely dangerously, particularly in the interior, which is contaminated by land mines. For lack ofarranged restaurant conditions come only rarely businessmen. Most culture treasures like e.g. the famous Buddhastatuen of Bamiyan were destroyed or geplündert. The national Afghan airline air Ariana lost 2001 six of its eight airplanes during US bombardment. Afghanistan does not publish officialNumbers to the tourism.
Web on the left of
|Wiktionary: Afghanistan - word origin, synonyms and translations|
- Afghanistan portal
- afghan aid
- Afghan government
- Afghan message Berlin
- information of the Foreign Office to Afghanistan
- Afghan German on-line one (with panels and messages on German/English/Persian/ Paschto)
- Hindujugend // Afghan Hindu Community auf Deutsch
- KabulPress.com (die neusten Nachrichten aus Afghanistan, Analysen, Fakten, Meinungen, Diskussionsforen Sprache: German | Far simmering air)
- Afghanistan mazar i sharif
- Country Studies: Afghanistan (much information about Afghanistan on English)
- south Asia on-line
- information overAfghanistan
- a tourist in Afghanistan - in March 2003
- Britain of steam turbine and gas turbine system UN summit in ton of speed UP attempt reconstruction OF Afghanistan („The Guardian “, 19. January 2006 - Preliminary report over the UN-summit „Bonn two “end January 2006 in London)
- George Schöfbänker, springat the Hindukusch (Telepolis, 27. March 2006 - Analysis of the situation in Afghanistan at the beginning of of 2006 with resuming references; the author operates the Austrian information office for security politics and arms control in Linz)
- Afghan culture association registered association. (informative glossary and useful left)
- Afghanistan project institute for Max-Planck for foreign public right and international law (German translation of the condition)
- child assistance for Afghanistan
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coordinates: 33° 56 ' N, 66° 11 ' O