Afrikaaner

as Afrikaaner (also Buren or Africa other) call themselves for instance since end 18. Century Africa to speaking inhabitant of South Africa and Namibia. The designation Buren deduces itself from the Netherlands word more boer for farmer. Black ones designate occasionally allWhite one in South Africa, also English-language, as Buren. Approximately two thirds of all South African white ones are Afrikaaner. Of it to differentiate the African, a Unterstamm in the cape province of the resident of half-breed people of the Orlam , are designated after their chieftain hunter African.On Africa to however “African” is used with an A as designation in the sense of “Bure”.

The Afrikaaner descends itself from the mostly Netherlands, in addition, German and französischsprachigen settlers , since 1652 in the colony of the Netherlands east India company established at the cape of good hope. Since the Annexion the cape colony by the British they continued to pull ever in the interior and created there the Burenrepubliken Natal, Transvaal and Oranje Free State. During Natal already in the middle 19. Century BritishColony, lost both latter their independence in the second Burenkrieg the 1899 - 1902. Parts of the burischen population were interned at that time in camps, for whom the term Concentration Camps ( concentration camp) was used for the first time. Others fled direction northwestby Botswana and Namibia until Angola up (so-called. Dorslandtrekker).

Their language, Africa to, actual as branch at the branch of the Netherlands one - the historically youngest westGermanic language and today one of the office languages of South Africa.

The Afrikaaner was to1945 above all Farmer and cattle breeder. Many of them are Calvinisten.


history of the Afrikaaner

1647 suffered the Dutch ship Nieuw Haarlem at the board bay shipwreck and in the consequence developed for one year a provisional settlement. 1652 created January van Riebeeck Capetown as fastened provisions station for the Netherlands east India company (VOC). Some former employees of the VOC established themselves 1657 as settlers. In the future particularly immigrated Dutchmen, Germans and Frenchmen to the country. 1659 came it to first arguments between the white settlers (the term Buren was not coined/shaped yet) and the San (shrub men). 1668 reached a ship with Huguenot Capetown, those due to the pursuit of its religion under Ludwig XIV. France the backhad turned. They introduced also the viticulture to the region. To adjust Dutch women 1679 after Capetown brought around the Männerüberschuss.

1743 lived already 4,000 Buren into and around Capetown. Many of them continued to push as halbnomadische cattle breeders alwaysin the interior forwards.1779 came it to first collisions between Buren and Xhosa (Bantu) at the Groot Visrivier (fish river, today's east cape). With it first that began altogether the eight Kaffernkriege, which lasted over one century. 1795 revolted the Burenagainst the VOC and a first Burenrepublik proclaimed in Graaff Reinet. After a short term French occupation the British the cape colony (Capetown and Umgebung) annektierten, in that approx. 20.000 white ones and 26,000 colored ones and slaves lived. The first settlers left thoseColony.1803 were returned the cape colony to the Netherlands (Batavi republic). 1806 again occupied the British the cape colony. 1814 annektierten it Capetown officially; the city became British crowning colony.

1834 created the British the slavery off. 59,000 slavesattained the liberty. As consequence moved away ever more Buren, which robbed to its economic basis, from the colony saw themselves. From 1836 to 1844 the large Treck led about 6,000 to 10,000 Buren into the areas beyond the rivers Oranje and Vaal. Reasons were, apart from the abolishment of the slavery, the refusal of the English office language and the British Rechtssytems. The Voortrekker, that Buren, which had participated in the large Treck, made approx. 20% of the europäischstämmigen population of the cape colony out.

To 16. Decembers 1838 created the Buren after the battle at the Bloodriver against the Zulu the first Burenrepublik Natalia, 1842 followed Oranje Free State. To 1844 the Burenrepubliken poet chief stream, Zoutpansberg, Utrecht and Lydenburg developed. Under president Marthinus Pretorius closeditself these four republics until 1860 to the South African republic with the capital Pretoria together. In its condition laws of the racial segregation were fixed for the first time. 1852 recognized England the republic officially on.

1853 received the British cape colony a condition and limited autonomy:the right to vote was attached at incomes and thus indirectly to ethnical origin. 1877 came it to the Annexion Transvaals by the British. This released 1880/81 the Burenaufstand, which is called also first Burenkrieg. It ended 1881 alsothe peace of Pretoria and the independence of the South African republic. From 1883 to 1902 Paulus was “ohm” of Krüger president of the Transvaals. In the British cape colony governed from 1890 to 1896 Cecil Rhodes as an Prime Minister. It prepared the conquest of the Burenstaatenforwards.

To the second Burenkrieg Great Britain against the South African republic and the Oranje Free State it came 1899 to 1902. After initial successes of the burischen generals Smuts, Botha and Hertzog the Buren lost the war against the militarily superior British. Their inconsiderateProceeds (among other things the internment of the relatives in concentration camps) forced the Buren to the task. In peacetime of Vereeniging (1902) the Burenrepubliken lost its independence, was allowed however Africa to as office language to keep. 1907 confessed the former Burenrepubliken the autonomy to Great Britaintoo and 1910 formed the cape colony, Natal, Transvaal and the Oranje Free State the South African union as Dominion in the British Empire; only white ones and wealthy black ones were entitled to vote. 1925 became Africa to apart from English second official office language in the South African union.After the choice victory of Buren national party realized these 1948 their program of the strict racial segregation dominated and - discrimination (apartheid). 1994 ended the apartheid regime and the rule to that national party.

see also

 

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