Afroamerikaner

as Afroamerikaner become Americans (especially. American) of Black African origin designates.

Table of contents

overview

even if in the process of the centuries mixtures resulting in, is the majority among them however still by far predominantly African origin. At times of slavery and segregation appliedall humans with “a drop of black blood” as black. (at that time still called Negro or Colored, whereby with Colored originally however only half-breeds were meant and were then expanded the term “varnishing”). In the last years the racistic writing up of the so-called “One drop Rule” became however increasinganalyzed and exposed by political movements of the half-breeds.

Also the designation Afro American was in the meantime replaced. African American is the socially konsensuale, common conceptualness. This concept proceeds from the affiliation to an African Diaspora . In the US-American socio-political discussion the designation in similar context becomes how black , the term Negro uses no more as racistic writing up used.

demarcation

the descendants of former slaves from Latin America and the Karibik, although likewise Black African origin, become against it often as latin Americans arranged. Also is not generally recognition off like many ancestors humansas “European”/“white”, “colored” or “afroamerikanisch”/“black” to be regarded.

Groups of descendants of escaped Black African slaves, who likewise often not when afroamerikanisch apply, are

history of the Afroamerikaner

major items: Historythe Afroamerikaner

since 1619 African were bought and brought by ship into the American south. 1807 were formally forbidden the import by slaves, but the prohibition was hardly considered. 1860 lived enslaved Afroamerikaner in the southern Federal States and 500,000 free in the USA 3.5 millionAfroamerikaner generally speaking country. The slavery was very disputed. Increasing the Abolitionismus kulminierte in the choice of Abraham Lincoln to the president of the USA and was one of the reasons for the secession of the Konföderierten states of America, which released the American civil war (1861-1865).

Those Emancipation Proclamation of 1862 explains all slaves in the Konföderation for free; it contained exceptions for all slaves in the territories, which had not loose-said themselves. In this way no slave was freed directly, there the US right over the konförderierten states at this time actuallyno effect had. The Thirteenth Amendment ton the United States Constitution (1865) freed all slaves, also in the states, which did not abgespalten themselves had. During the Reconstruction Afroamerikaner in the south received the right to select and public offices to have, as well as a rowother rights, which had been refused to them before. After the end of the Reconstruction 1877 the white land owners extracted again the right to vote from the black ones with a multiplicity of measures, where they were supported also by decisions of the highest Court of Justice. They established a system of segregation to thatRaces and terrorized the black ones by force including Lynchjustiz. The black agricultural workers and tenants were hardly better than before the civil war.

The desperate situation of the Afroamerikaner in the south solved the Great migration, the large migration movement in early 20. Century out. It ledtogether with increasing the intellectual and cultural elite in the north to a Erstarken of the fight against the force and discrimination against Afroamerikaner. One of the most important again developing groups was national those Association for the Advancement OF Colored People. It led oneare enough for legal fight, in order to terminate segregation, for that in the decision of the highest Court of Justice Brown vs. Board OF Education (1954) kulminierte. Afterwards the racial segregation was unconstitutional in schools.

The case Brown vs. Board OF Education was a milestone in the history of the civil rights movement.It was part of a long-term strategy around the Jim Crow - segregation in the public educating nature, in hotels, to secure in public means of transport to terminate in the working sphere and with housebuilding and Afroamerikanern the possibility of being able to exercise the right to vote guaranteed in the condition also actually.The movement reached into the 1960ern among leaders such as Dr. Martin Luther King, jr., Whitney Young and Roy Wilkins, SR their high point. At the same time the speaker of the nation OF Islam Malcolm X and late Stokely Carmichael spoke itself of the Black PantherParty for black power out. The ideas of the black nationalism and the Panafrikanismus found broad support under a part of the Afroamerikaner. The civil rights movement leads the Lebensbedingungnen of the poor majority to increasing the black central layer during itself at the latest since end of the 70's rapidly againworsened. Afroamerikaner placed a superproportionally high portion of the rapidly growing number of the prisoners in the prisons and were particularly strongly affected by the decrease of the real income in the lower income brackets.

statistics

distribution of the afroamerikanische population after a collection of the United StatesCensus office in the year 2000

region Absolute number Distribution of afroamerikanischen population of US
Southern States 19.528.231 53.6%
the middle west 6.838.669 18,8%
northeast 6.556.909 18.0%
the west 3.495.625 9.6%


Development of the afroamerikanischen population in the USA

year Number Portion of the US-American population
1790 757,208 19,3%
1800 1,002,037 18,9%
1810 1,377,808 19,0%
1820 1,771,656 18,4%
1830 2,328,642 18,1%
1840 2,873,648 16,8%
1850 3,638,808 15,7%
1860 4,441,830 14,1%
1870 4,880,009 12,7%
1880 6,580,793 13,1%
1890 7,488,788 11,9%
1900 8,833,994 11,6%
1910 9,827,763 10,7%
1920 10.5 Millions 9,9%
1930 11.9 Millions 9,7%
1940 12.9 Millions 9,8%
1950 15.0 Millions 10,0%
1960 18.9 Millions 10,5%
1970 22.6 Millions 11,1%
1980 26.5 Millions 11,7%
1990 30.0 Millions 12,1%
2000 34.6 Millions 12,3%

acquaintance Afroamerikaner

Abolitionisten

screen end artist

  • Bill Traylor, naive painter and draughtsman
  • Jean Michel Basquiat, Graffiti artist

citizen right activists

tool NIST inside

of film directors

  • spike Lee
  • OSCAR Micheaux
  • Mario van Peebles
  • John single clay/tone
  • Julie Dash
  • all and Albert Hughes
  • Bill Duke
  • Charles Burnett
  • Carl Franklin
  • F. Gary Gray
  • Antoine Fuqua
  • William Greaves
  • Gordon park sen.
  • Gordon park June.
  • Kasi Lemmons
  • Marlon Troy Riggs

musicians

politician

actor

writer

sportsman

entrepreneur

other

literature

John HopeFranklin, Alfred A. Moss, Jr. , From the slavery to the liberty. The history of the black ones in the USA, Propyläen paperback, Berlin, 1999

see also

Web on the left of

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