Akbar

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Akbar crosses course, Ikhlas, 1600

Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar (* 15. October 1542 in Umarkot, Madhya Pradesh, † 15. October 1605 in Agra) followed its father Nasir ud DIN Muhammad Humayun as Grossmogul of India in the years 1556 - 1605, and is considered, beside Ashoka, as one of the most important rulers in the history of the country.

In his youth was subordinateAkbar first the regency of its guardian, bay RAM Khan. Both triumphed in the second battle of Panipat 1556 against Hemu, a Minister of the Suri, which had occupied in October 1556 Delhi and had made themselves independent. 1560 it entmachtete the regents bay RAM Khan and 1561the other party, by letting its milk brother Adham Khan fall to death. From now on governed it.

Akbar undertook a multiplicity of smaller conquest courses as a field gentleman. In these campaigns it used war elephants and fast, easy Reiterei, exactly the same as cannons, Musketiere and pioneer corps. Its troopsalso in times of peace by Treibjagden in exercise were held. Every now and then Akbar under employment of its life fought, it gives many examples of large personal courage.

On the side of the Rajputen was the Ranas Udai Singh (move 1537-1572) and Pratap Singh (move 1572-1597) of Mewar the Gallionsfigurenits opponent. When Akbar attacked 1567/ 68 Chitor, Udai Singh left the city and created Udaipur. When Akbar Chitor finally conquered, he let a senseless massacre arrange (1568). Although the hard core of the Rajputen never capitulated, it succeeded to Akbar nevertheless a part (e.g.to pull the Raja of Amber) from them on its side.

Akbar created the religious taxes (Dschisja 1564 and 1580) for non--Muslims off, permitted parts of the Hindu rites (celebrations, clothes) with yards and married Hindu princesses (1562). Hindus did not only become as small officials,separate every now and then also as highest dignitaries assigned. If e.g. a Hindu named one Singh of the governors from Kabul became, then also the risk of a detachment of this province reduced. The administrative and Steuerreformer Todar Mall e.g. were. Hindu from simplest conditions. In the last threeSo a hindu mohammedanische Mischkultur developed for decades Akbars, in which also Hindu works translated (the orthodox Muslim Badauni had here e.g. the Mahabharata translate) and with yards were celebrated. The yard language was Persian.

Another threat of the realm two larger rebellions of the mohammedanischen aristocracy were Afghan andturkomongol. Origin, the Akbars half brother Hakim, which princes from Kabul should make to the ruler. One of it took place 1580/81 , in Bengalen proclaimed the Afghan aristocracy Hakim to the ruler and Akbar had thereupon 1581 personally Kabul to conquer. It seems that here influence shifts inInterest of the centre government not only under religious, but also under ethnical criteria and the disadvantaged ones took place themselves raised.

Akbar, Zeichnung von ca. 1605
Akbar, design of approx. 1605

Akbar was also a philosopher and a philosopher, who “protected themselves” its life long with the search for faith busy, even ifit the orthodox Muslims (e.g. Badauni) finally the waste of the Islam accused. Its Freidenkertum became by liberal currents among Muslims (Sufismus) and Hindus (Bhakti, Sikhismus) favours. He loaded representatives of different religions to his yard, under it also Christian Portuguese from Goa (among other things Rodolfo Acquaviva). Akbar reserved itself the crucial word in religious affairs and entered 1579 even the pulpit of the mosque in Fatehpur Sikri. Its lecture closed - still - with “Allahu Akbar “, the general Islamic Glaubensbekenntnis.

Later it defined some yearsits own faith, which remained however its private faith. Regardless of its earnings/services of religious tolerance and approximate equal rights of Muslims and Hindus adhere to it, which contributed also to the stabilization of the Mogulreiches.

Akbar was a Verwaltungsreformer, that with the help of its Ministers (Abu Fasl, Todar Mall among other things)a central administration organized, which was quite effective in view of the size of the realm, particularly if one it with that its successor compares. In practice z had. B. four officials and a Minister a pay requirement for an officer mark, before for it at all an account furnishedbecame. Then it still the agreement of the ruler, that needed from three Ministers and six officials, before the pay was disbursed.

Its administration created the overall taxation from villages and left the taxes instead after the yield to compute; one in India before neverpracticed proceeding. The taxes were demanded the farmers increasingly in money form, which organizes tax collection. Turned around farmers were compensated for harvest losses, which were caused by the passage of the army.

The state strove further around an enlargement of the cultivation areas, the safety device of the roads and for thoseImprovement of the postal service. Under Akbar a new monetary system was established. Of shear Shah Suri introduced Rupie became the main silver coin of the realm, in addition Akbar introduced the golden Mohur. They replaced older Münzeinheiten in the value purge. Also mass and weights should be standardized. In additiona rationalisation of the administration of justice came, whereby however, after today's yardsticks, cruel judgements were further imposed up to the death penalty.

Measures there were many of Akbars already among former rulers, but its long, relatively calm reign strengthened it in particular and/or. provided for them at all onlyValidity. In social area it proceeded against child marrying, widow burns and gambling and limited the prostitution. He was a large promoter of the science, painting and literature, in particular the Persian language - the yard language of the Mogulen. Despite everything it remained an illiterate.

Diwan i Khas, the private audience-resounds in Fatehpur Sikri

Akbar was a large owner, who itself 1569 - 1576 with Fatehpur Sikri a new capital to build left, it in view of constant local changes however hardly inhabited. 1585 it left the city and reproached themselves from concerna Usbeken - idea thirteen years in Lahore up, apart from three excursions in loved Kashmir. Today only a small part of the city is inhabited. In addition came further fortresses and palaces, which mark it as owners.

Before its death it came to rivalries under thatPrince, and/or. between Akbar and its oldest son Selim, an alcoholic.Selim (Jahangir) killed the Minister Abu Fasl and pulled already against Agra, when the women brought a reconciliation (1602/1603). Akbar would have kept Selim away gladly from the succession to the throne,but last only the choice between Selim and its son remained for it Khusrau, since its both other sons (also alcohol ill) had already deceased.

At its yard busy it Mian Tansen (Hindu, 1562 appointed), a legendary musician, that miracle things, like e.g. the rain charm, were after-said.



 

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