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|English: Accordion, ital.: Fisarmonica, frz.: Accordéon|
the accordion, also Ziehharmonika, Pulling organ, hand organ, belt organ, Handharmonika, squeezing bureau or also boat operator piano mentioned, is a pull knob instrument. 1829 of Cyrill Demian in Vienna the first time was designated as such in its patent as „Accordion “. This instrument was wechseltönig (i.e. on course and pressuresound diatonisch different tones) and (i.e. only the tones of certain scales can be played, per row). An accordion is an instrument, which can produce mehrstimmig tones. We count today all pull knob instruments, those on the right side - the these Kant - the keyboard ina bent form attached, to the various kinds of accordion. This arrangement of the keyboard decreases/goes back to the first Viennese or the first French instruments. In principle in addition, all other special forms of the pull knob instruments would rank among since all instruments exhibit hardly substantial differences in the sound production.The fact that some special forms are rather separately treated is to be derived more from the history of the respective instrument. The English Concertina and the Bandoneon hold therefore a certain privileged position.
The variety of the accordions in groups to divide is difficult. With practically all classification systems show up pre andDisadvantages as well as more or less numerous exceptions. A classification according to kind of the toner generation is not possible, because all pull knob instruments use piercing tongues for the toner generation.
classification developments further according to kind of the key allocation
- the these Kant
- Viennese model
- Steiri Harmonika
- Schwyzerörgeli these Kant diatonisch, bass chromatically
- Scottish accordion Viennese with Stradella bass
- Irish accordion these Kantchromatically and wechseltönig
- Trikitixa eskusoinu (“hand sound”) Baski Harmonika, these Kant diatonisch, bass
- French accordion
- further developments
- Piano keys
- additional information onlyaccordion orchestra compositions concerns
of bass systems
- Stradella bass (MII)
- melody bass (MIII)
- converter bass (combination of Stradella and melody bass)
- special forms of the bass allocation
usual keyboard systems
classification after the useby the player for typical music
- after geographical-cultural use
- according to regulation (concert, practicing, child, toy instruments, harmony instrument)
- after music direction (classical music instruments, Popmusikmusikinstrumente, popular musical instruments)
structure of a chromatic accordion
on the right as on the left side gives it the possibility, the tone qualities by connecting up to five choirs by so-called. To vary register strongly.
For the left hand there are different constructions. Under manual II(also called MII, standard bass or Stradella bass) one understands the arrangement of the bass notes in Quinten in vertical direction with at the most frequent used Dur, Moll, Sept and decreased September TAC cords in horizontal arrangement. The Tonumfang is here limited to a Oktave, whereby however, depending uponDesign and register, with which bass notes up to 5 Oktaven at the same time and with the chords up to 3 Oktaven sound at the same time.
in contrast to it does not have the manual iii-bass (also MIII or melody bass) chord buttons, has for it however a Tonumfang up to 5 Oktavenand thereby the pitch-correct melody play makes possible. The manual III (3-4 rows) is either that MII pre or stored, can by switching the rear 4 numbers of the MII to MIII on the same buttons to play be alternative (converter so mentioned) or is as so-called. Freebass(in particular with pupil instruments) in place of standard bass available.
structure of of a diatonischen accordion
a Handharmonika (Ziehharmonika) actual contrary to the chromatic accordion, butsimilarly the diatonischen Mundharmonikas - wechseltönig and diatonisch developed. With course and pressure a different clay/tone develops with most keys of the Harmonika. Can do besides not all scales directly are simply played, but preferentially only for the respective row the planned. In addition it givesappropriate grasp writing systems (tabulators) in different developments, with a notation co-ordinated with the instrument. Concerning history and you check further details please under Diatoni accordion . The diatonischen instruments are in various form today on the market. Far spreading finds the so-called „Steiri Harmonika “or the Czech Heligonka - instruments. They exhibit only slight building differences. Also the original Viennese of models without equal clay/tone are world-wide very common. The Italian diatonischen models essentially correspond to the original Viennese models. Very common single-row instruments are also still, so-called Cajuninstrumente.Double-row instruments are likewise in far parts of the earth much like. A special form represents the double-row one in Ireland. With this Irish Harmonika the two diatonische rows are not a Quint from each other distant, but only one half-tone. Thereby develops an instrument which is actually chromatic,in the structure remains nevertheless wechseltönig. Also further variants of the key allocations are in use. The Russian Garmoshka (which means translated also again Harmonika) looks similar, is however chromatic. The German Konzertina and the Anglo Concertina are outwardly strongly in its design deviating however likewisediatonische instruments.
the accordion literature could do itself according to the still recent age of the instrument only in 20. Century develop. In the meantime a large pallet of contemporary works of all categories and degrees of difficulty in different occupations from the solo one to the integration exists into sinfonische ochestras.Additionally it is possible to play works from the piano literature on the accordion with MIII - with careful selection -. Here particularly works of the baroque time are suitable (z. B.J. S. Brook, D. Scarlatti). Also those became simultaneous by an abundance of Transkriptionenbefore the invention of the instrument opened dating musical epochs.
the instrument could be established universities at the universities particularly in the contemporary chamber music. Several institutes in Germany - among other things in Bremen, Trossingen, Freiburg in mash gau, Berlin, Peppering castle, Hanover, meal, Wuppertal and Nuremberg - specialized courses of studies (KA, kp, composition, teaching profession) offer according to. An interesting privileged position takes certainly the high he conservatoire Trossingen (not to confound with the college of music at the same place), where among other things conductors at from the Mitstudierendencompound accordion orchestras to be trained. Also the diatonischen instruments found entrance to the universities. At the salt citizen Konservatorim is the study of the Steiri Harmonika practice.
of one the accordion manufacturer most meaning world-wide is the Matthias Hohner AG in Trossingen. Their top models of the series „Morino “and „Gola “are desired and estimated in the whole world. End of the 1990er years was sold the Matthias Hohner AG to asiatic investors, so that today a part of the instruments and in particular the components in China are manufactured. In Trossingen is only smallerRemain to trunk of coworkers. A further German manufacturing firm is in Klingenthal the company Harmona with the label name world champion; also crafts enterprises in Germany manufacture a considerable number at instruments: Öllerer, snow mountain,…
In Italy it gives approx. 50 accordion farmer alone in Castelfidardo - well-known names are hereBorsini, Pigini, nose air, Guerrini, Victoria, Beltuna, Fisitalia and Dallapé. In Finland: Leave Pihlajamaa (Pigini) and other one, and in some Eastern European states: Jupiter, Tula, and. A. In Austria become approx. in the year produces 20000 diatonische Harmonikas (Mueller, Strasser, Schmidt, Novak, Jamnik, Zernig,…).
So variouslylike the musicians also the opinions are over quality and advantages of the individual marks. The multiplicity of the technical components at the accordion brings it with itself that the instruments are completely manufactured only rarely by the manufacturers. Also large marks seize for individual components on suppliersback. Like that it is not only decisive for the popularity of the instruments, which mark and which model it concerns, but for example also, in which time it was built.
Many cheap instruments come today from China, even if more well-known or Italian more soundingLabel name at the instrument something else gives. As is the case for many other products also the Chinese instruments at quality won, so that today particularly with pupil instruments the purchase of a Chinese accordion must be no longer absolutely advised against.
the German Harmonikaverbandregistered association.one of the largest German layman music federations is with 120,000 active ones. Most members are organized in over 1150 the member associations, which maintain an orchestra enterprise and regular meetings apart from the out and further training of the players also. The DHV was created 1931, the head office is inTrossingen. President is a minister of economics of Baden-Wuerttemberg Ernst Pfister. Outstanding orchestras, which again and again successfully cut off also with international competitions, are for example Swabian with the member associations in Baltmannsweiler, Bruchsal Untergrombach, Nuremberg, Cologne, Trossingen and Gmünd as well as in Holzgerlingen.
the accordion orchestra
By the term orchestra one understands first of all an ochestra, which combines caper instruments, blowing and percussion instruments. We summarize the individual groups of instruments within such an orchestra as voices. At the accordion orchestra it acts mainly only around an instrument kind with completely same toner generation and with more uniformTonfarbe. Therefore one can never equate an accordion orchestra with a Sinfonieorchester, since this has its own sounds and laws. A better comparison would be with a pure caper orchestra - here we find also congruent correspondences of the five different voices. Thus also pure strike ago compositions leave themselvesbest for accordion orchestras transliterate and also play.
At the beginning of the development the exclusive use of diatonischen instruments stood in the so-called Harmonikaorchester. The first orchestras of this kind became after that 1. World war approximately after 1925 based. Progress in the instrument making brought it with itself that thatAccordion with its adjustable tone qualities ever more entrance into the orchestra found. Thus changed preferring the piano and also the button grasp accordion in the accordion orchestra its internal structure. That became finally intending for the literature. Thereby the conditions had been created that itself an own accordion orchestra styleto develop could.
Today we know three kinds of the orchestra play, which cannot be defined however strictly:
- (large) the accordion orchestra (20 - 30 players),
- the accordion ensemble (for each voice of at the most 2 players)
- the group of accordion plays (mostly as Quintett).
As auxiliary instruments come bass, Elektronium /Keyboards, Schlagzeug, Percussion and Paukento the use. Occasionally also a retort bass is used, which exhibits many klangliche advantages opposite the bass accordion.
- Slavko Avsenik
- kind Van Damme
- smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Galliano
- Luiz Gonzaga
- wants Glahé
- stroke ore by Goisern
- Otto Lechner
- Jean Louis Matinier
- Matti Rantanen
- Mie Miki
- dock Schmitt
- Mika Väyrynen
- Dietmar roll ago
- Albert Vossen
- Rudolf Würthner
in addition: Teodoro Anzellotti, Lydie Auvray, Freddy Balta, Michel Besson, Heinrich bending tooth, Claudia Buder, Klaus brother, Jo Ann Castle, Gianni Coscia, Krzysztof Dobrek, liking Elegaard, Jean-Marc Fabiano, Alexander Flory, walter rough, Hans Hassler, Stefan was called, Stefan Hussong,Helmut C. Yak-generic terms, Margit core, Karin Küstner, Friedrich Lips, Mikko Luoma, Joseph Marcerollo, Tobias morning star, Elsbeth Moser, Martin Nauer, Hugo Noth, Klaus Paier, leave Pihlajamaa, Peter Ralchev, Viktor Romanko, Hermann Schittenhelm, Alexander Skljarov, Willi Valotti, René Wicky
composer, those for accordionwrote or to still write:
- Babette Koblenz
- Hans Boell
- Hans Brehme
- stroke ore Deuringer
- George Espitalier
- wants Glahé
- David Graham
- walter roughly
- Sofia Gubaidulina
- Wolfgang Jehn
- Maurizio Kagel
- Andrzej Krzanowski
- Curt Mahr
- Brent McCall
- Milan Novotny
- Rolf Riehm
- Willi Valotti
- Dietmar roll ago
- Vladimir Zubitzkiy
in addition:Lydie Auvray, kind of hitting a corner Beinke, Heinrich bending tooth, Renato Bui, kind van Damme, Fritz Dobler, Jindrich field, Adolf Götz, Ali Gorji, Hugo gentleman Mr., Stefan Hippe, Alfons Holzschuh, Klaus Huber, Alexander Jekic, Wolfgang bald, Sebastian small, Sven Ingo cook, Hans Günther Kölz, Torbjörn Lundquist, Tobias morning star, Tapio Nevanlinna, Younghi Pagh Paan,Ruta Paidere, Bernfried Pröve, Helmut Quakernack, Wolfgang soot, Charlotte since that time, Vladislav Solotarjov, Norbert Sprave, Manfred Stahnke, Jukka Tiensuu, Heikki Valpola, Albert Vossen, Rudolf Würthner
Web on the left of
|Commons: Accordion - pictures, videos and/or audio files|
|Wiktionary: Accordion - word origin, synonyms and translations|
- www.akkordeon.de an accordion portal
- www.dhv-ev.de of German Harmonikaverband e. V.
- www.dalv-online.de German accordion teacher federation
- www.akkiline.de accordion literature
- www.das-akkordeon.com information about the structure of an accordion
- www.akkordeon-online.de composer and compositions
- www.schifferklavier.de service offers, CDs, films and
- www.austria-harmonika.at Austrian web page for accordions and Harmonikas (courses, dates, using market)
information to the accordion