Alban mountain

Alban mountain (* 9. February 1885 in Vienna; † 23. December 1935 ebd.) - at the 1. March 1885 in the parish church pc. Peter on the name Albano Maria Johannes mountain baptized (‚the o `in Albano stood only on the baptismal certificate and dippedafterwards never) - a Austrian composer of the second Viennese in such a way specified was school.

Its work unites influences of the Mahler late romance with Arnold of beautiful mountain of free Atonalität and later the twelve-audio engineering. Although mountain itself ever as „natural Fortsetzer correctly understand, better, olderTradition “understood, belongs it to the large Neuerern of the music 20. Century. Its work, once violently disputed, ranks today long among the classical modern trend and fascinates invariably by a characteristic connection of constructional severity and personal klangsinnlichen expression.

Table of contents

lives and work

mountain in Vienna and lived there most time of its life was born. Versatile talented, he seemed to be literature than interested in music as a child more in. Withit began to compose fifteen as an autodidact, without largely formal musical training to have enjoyed. When the 10 years older Arnold announced beautiful mountain, already at the time a relevant representative of the musical modern trend, composition courses for October 1904, became him from mountain olderBrother secretly some songs Albans submitted. Beautiful mountain noticed immediately the extraordinary musical gift of the young man, in whose songs it recognized „a rushing over warmth of feeling “- a characteristic, which should distinguish also all further compositions Alban of mountain. Mountain became together with that two yearsolder Anton webers than private pupils taken up and studied altogether six years with beautiful mountain. The influence of the older one was immense. Mountain did not only admire beautiful mountain as composer and a teacher. Some bio graphs mean to know that he found a spare father, who he over those in it alsoStudy time outside its life long in close friendship connected remained. (Its own father had died, when mountain was fifteen.) during its first two years with beautiful mountain mountain still worked as a civil servant (calculation trainee), but from 1906 on could it to the music completely dedicate itself. 1907 becameits first works publicly specified: Three that filters of early songs were specified with a concert with music by beautiful mountain pupils in Vienna.

At the 3. May 1911 married mountain Helene Nahowski, against the desire of its family. The first meeting between the composer and the singer outwealthy house already took place 1906.

1913 had the five orchestra songs after picture postcard texts of Peter Altenberg (OI. 4) in Vienna their premiere. This piece led to a scandal, and the performance had to be broken off. Only 1952 were completely specified the piece.

From 1915 to 1918mountain in the Austrian army served. 1915 he already began to work on its first opera Wozzeck, their text version he, in close support on George Büchners drama Woyzeck, 1917 locked. To the First World War it returned to Vienna and gave music instruction. In addition supportedit beautiful mountain in the line of the association for musical private performances.


the work on the opera Wozzeck had already terminated mountain 1921. A performance of three cutouts in the year 1924 brought it first public success. Long time was not Opera house, which wanted to bring the whole opera because of the immense difficulties for orchestras and singers to the performance. Only Erich nuthatch, the freshbaked young head conductor of the citizens of Berlin state opera, recognized the Genialität of the score and brought the Wozzeck after legendary 34 orchestra samples become to 14. December 1925 for premiere. The Wozzeck is considered today as boundary stone in the history of the opera and as one of the most important works 20. Century.

orchestra works

further one important works are the three orchestral compositions (OI. 6) of 1914, a expressionistische fright vision the previous eveningthe world war and at the same time one of the most difficult scores of music history, the lyric Suite for caper quartet (1927), those the 3. Quartet Béla Bartóks to have strongly affected is, and the chamber concert for piano, violin and 13 wind instruments.


the most well-known work of mountain besidethe Wozzeck might be Violinkonzert (1935) to be. It is at the same time its latter: „a swan singing “, in which the sum of a kompositorischen work is drawn. In February 1935 the American violonist had given Louis Krasner a Violinkonzert in order. Mountain remained first dormant, to it at the end of of Aprildeeply shaking message Manon Gropius by the death of the 18jährigen, Alma meal he who rock from the marriage with the architect walter Gropius received it to the daughter.

Mountain set with the Violinkonzert a musical monument without-same, composed for it intending, „nature courses of the young girl inmusical characters to convert “. The work is zweisätzig, in each case by different speeds again partitioned and so topic tables the intention of a Requiems following. The 1. Sentence (Andante - Allegro) seems to after-draw short life for Manons, an inserted simple Kärntner people way refers to the childhood, as mountainManon in Kärnten the first time met. The 2. Sentence (Allegro, mA sempre rubato, freely like a cadence - Adagio) is a music of dying and the sea protest by the locking quotation brook - Chorals it is enough from the Kantate O eternity, you thunder word(BWV 60). The unit of the work results to D major, A-moll from the constant use of only one twelve-clay/tone row, which sounds extremely melodisch in their third courses like an interlinking of g-moll, and E major chords. It is the first time that the twelve-audio engineering was applied consistently to a solo concert. Mountainit succeeded to merge the constructional element with the expressiven in such a manner intimately that from this concert a directly experiencable, moving impression proceeds, also without one knows around the circumstances of the emergence or connoisseur of the twelve-audio engineering is. Mountain gave the probably most beautiful dedication to the Violinkonzertfor a music piece:The memory of an angel. It completed the composition already seriously ill and in Vorahnung of own death. In the holy evening 1935 it succumbed to a blood poisoning - similar as its large model Gustav of meals and at the same age of scarcely 51 years. ThosePremiere of the Violinkonzerts found to 19. April 1936 with Louis Krasner under the direction of Hermann Scherchen on the music celebration in Barcelona instead of.

A composition pupil of Alban mountain was the blood-young philosopher and music theoretician Theodor W. Adorno. The acquaintance between the two turned intoa usual teacher pupil relationship outside. Adorno took over the task of a Postillon D' amour, by bringing love letters of mountain at its loved Hanna fox in Prague. This dear relationship reflects itself in the lyric Suite , in which in the last sentence the Tristan chord rings out.


  • Filters early songs for a Singstimme with piano after poems of Johannes sleep, Theodor Storm, Otto Erich hard life, Rainer Maria Rilke, Paul Hohenberg, Carl captain and Nikolaus Lenau (1905-1908, revise and instrument 1928)
  • OI. 1 Klaviersonate (1907/1908, revise 1920)
  • OI. 2 four songs for oneSingstimme with piano out „the pain its right “of Friedrich Hebbel and out “the glowing” of Alfred Mombert (1908/1909, revise 1920)
  • OI. 3 caper quartet (1910, revise 1924)
  • OI. 4 orchestra songs after picture postcards of Peter Altenberg (5 songs) (1912)
  • OI. 5 four pieces for clarinet andPiano (1913)
  • OI. 6 three orchestral compositions (1914)
  • OI. 7 Wozzeck, opera in 3 documents (15 scenes) after George Büchners Woyzeck (1917-1922, premiere to 14. December 1925 in Berlin), Konzertante version: Three fragments out „Wozzek “(1924)
  • chamber concert for piano, violin with thirteen Bläsern (1923-1925), treatment of the2. Sentence as Trio for violin, clarinet and piano (1935)
  • „latch me the eyes both “two vertonungen of a poem of Theodor Storm for a Singstimme and a piano (1907 and 1925)
  • lyric Suite for caper quartet (1925-1926), treatment of the sets of 2, 3 and 4 for caper orchestras (1928)
  • „The wine “concert air with orchestra after the poem of Baudelaire in the German transmission of Stefan George (1929)
  • Lulu opera in 3 documents after the tragedies „earth spirit “and „the can of the Pandora “of franc Wedekind (1929-1935 of mountain not completed), Konzertante version: Symphoni pieces outthe opera „Lulu “(Rondo, Ostinato, song of the Lulu, variations, Adagio) (1934)
  • Violinkonzert (the memory of an angel) (1935)


  • Soma morning star: Alban mountain and its Idole, ISBN 3-7466-1455-4
  • Theodor W. Adorno: Mountain. The master of the smallest transition, ISBN 3-5180-1575-3
  • Erich AlbanMountain: Alban mountain - lives and work in data and fig., ISBN 3-458-01894-8
  • Werner king: Tonality structures in Alban of mountain opera „Wozzeck “. Tutzing, 1974.
  • Werner king: The first set of the lyric Suite of Alban mountain and its nearly inconsequential tendency: an interpretation attempt. Tutzing, 1999.
  • WernerKing: Alban of mountain twelve-clay/tone rows and their harmonious primary meaning. In: Music time, Austrian music newspaper, number 6, 2000.
  • Werner king: Lulu and the death clay/tone of their victims. Reinhold hammer stone to 85. Geburtstag.In: Archives for music science, 58. Jg, 2001, number 1.
  • Werner king: Alban of mountain Unsterbliche loving. In: Werner king: Review.Nemeter publishing house, Speyer, 2004.

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| | * Literature of and over Alban mountain in the catalog of the DDB



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