Albania

Republika e Shqipërisë
Republic of Albania
Flagge Albaniens: Schwarzer Doppeladler auf rotem Grund Wappen Albaniens
(detail) (detail)

Wahlspruch: Feja e Shqiptarit është Shqiptaria
(For „ the religion of the Albanian the Albanertum “) office language is

Albanian Albanian
capital Tirana
system of government parliamentary Republic of
president Alfred Moisiu
head of the government Sali Berisha
surface 28,748 km ²
number of inhabitants 3.563.112 (July 2005)
population density of 124 inhabitants per km ²
gros domestic product/inhabitant 2,504 US-$ (2005)
independence to 28. November 1912 of the Osmani realm
currency Lek 1 € = approx. 125 Lek
time belt MEZ (UTC +1)
national anthem Hymni i Flamurit
Kfz Nationalitätszeichen aluminium
Internet TLD .al
preselection +355
Lage von Albanien
Karte von Albanien

Albania (Albanian: Shqipëria) is a state in South-east Europe. It borders in the north on the state State of Serbia and Montenegro (Kosovo), in the east on Macedonia and inThe south at Greece. The natural west border is formed by the coasts of the Adria and the Ioni sea, whereby the country ranks among the neighboring states of the Mediterranean. National holidays are to 28. and 29. November (independence day and day of release 1944).

Table of contents

geography

more than two thirds of the surface is mountain country

with its surface of 28,748 square kilometers is Albania somethingsmaller than the German Land of the Federal Republic Brandenburg and has with approximately 3.5 million inhabitants somewhat more population than Berlin.

Albania possesses 362 kilometers of coastal line to the Adria and at the Ioni sea. In the south (road of Otranto) is thoseAlbanian coast of only 71 kilometers of Italy removes.

More than two thirds of the Albanian national territory are taken of mountain country and partially of high mountain regions. From the Shkodrasee in the north until Vlora in the south extends partially only fewKilometer broad washing land level along the coast, which itself in central Albania to the large Myzeqe - level expands. At the coast are numerous lagoons and humid areas. There only the valleys, the hill country and parts of the coastal plain for a closer human settlement suitablyare, the population density is relatively high in these regions, while other parts of the country are nearly uninhabited. Highest mountain of Albania is direct with 2764 m of the Korab (Mali i Korabit), northeast from Peshkopi at the border to Macedonia lain.

Klimadiagramm Tirana
Climatic diagram Tirana
in Albania prevails subtropically - a mediterranes winter rain climate (Mediterranean climate) with an annual average temperature of 16° C and a yearly precipitation sum of scarcely 1200 mm. In Tirana two summer months are arid. The northern and eastern mountain regions point hardWinter up. In Saranda annually nearly 300 sunny days are registered.

All important rivers of Albania flow into the Adria. The black one in it rises from the Ohridsee. With the northAlbanian city Kukës it unites with from the Kosovo coming white ones in it. In it flows then westward by several large artificial lakes and flows after a run of 282 kilometers with Lezha into the Adria. The other larger Albanian rivers Mat, Shkumbin, Seman with Devoll and Vjosa (in their denomination from north to south) flow more or less directly westward the Adria, whereby they break through all mountain ranges. The short Buna drains the Shkodrasee into the Adria and forms thereby by sections the borderto Montenegro.

Population

70 per cent of the Albanian population live in the country. Albania the by far homogeneous state on the Balkans is ethnical. Over 95 per cent of the population are Albanians. In the south of the country there is a larger Greek minority, smaller groups are Slawi Mazedonier and Vlachen (Aromunen).

The Albanians were divided into the two large groups against and Tosken, which differ not only linguistically but also culturally. While the Tosken in thatSouth half of the country much more strongly by the eastern-urban culture of the Osmani realm, dominated in the gegischen north to in 20 was affected. Century inside a archaische master culture the life of humans. (An exception forms the important northAlbanian city Shkodra, thoseto in 15. Century inside longer time was venezianisch controlled; here the catholicism and the connections coined/shaped the mentality of the inhabitants to Italy still.) although in communist time a process of industrialization and urbanisation began also later, then nevertheless those livedlarge majority of the Albanians 1990 ago still on the country. That coins/shapes the mentality of many humans until today also in the cities, because if they did not only pull into the city, then there was their parents and ineach case have they relatives close, which live still on the small agriculture. A traditional middle class was in Albania always very much RSR. Modern civil culture gave it to at the beginning 20. Century only in Shkodra, Korça and Gjirokastra. (Inthe twenties was added Tirana because of its capital function). The communists rejected that civil self-confident its of these cities naturally and destroyed the civil culture achievements to a large extent after 1945.

Population trend x1000
70% of the population live in the country

the time after thatTurn of 1990 brought large demographic shifts. On the one hand hundredthousands of Albanians emigrierten legally or illegaly to Italy, Greece, into other states of the European Union and to North America, on the other hand registered the capital Tirana and the port Durrës enormous increasefrom the internal migration. (Tirana of 1990 250,000 inhabitants on today well over 600.000). The country and also not few towns desert against it proper. In the next years hundred villages will become wild. The Albanians before 1990 had the highest birth rateEurope (Verhütungsmittel were forbidden), then it sank now on the European average of somewhat less than two children per woman. That and the continuous drift cause a rapid aging of the Albanian population, however in view of the strongly represented generationthe 15 - until 30-Jährigen is to be felt not yet in such a way.

Religion

the communists from 1968 to 1990 Albania as the atheistischen state had explained. Any worship was forbidden in this time. Still the majority of the Albanians does not have officialConfession put down. They remember however whether the own family comes of to the Muslim, the orthodox or catholic tradition. Thus pay themselves extra approximately 40 per cent of the Albanians to the Sunniten, 20 per cent to the Bektaschi, further 20 per centthe orthodox Christians and about 10 per cent to the catholics. The remaining 10 per cent on as Atheisten other religions - in particular Christian free churches - call themselves or belong (source: Population-geographical Atlas of Albania [1]).

Before that 2. World war professed themselves about 70 per cent of the population to the Sunni Islam. 20 per cent were practical orthodox Christians, under it all members of the ethnical minorities. Belonged to about ten per cent to the Roman-catholic church. Orthodox Albanians lived particularly inThe south, catholic in the northwest, the Islam was everywhere common, apart from some mountain regions.

If one ignores to confession lots, conditions have themselves to favour of the Christians and particularly the western churches shifted. On the one hand straight among the catholics have relativemany also held in the time of communist pursuit to their faith, so that it fell the catholic church after 1990 with Italian assistance more easily to reorganize itself. On the other hand many selected consciously or unconsciously the Christianity, because it culturallyis connected with the west. So the catholic church does not only have increase, but also the Protestant churches active in the country and sparkling wines register numerous entrances. On the other hand also the orthodox church has since 1991 by the work of archbishop Anastasios Yannoulatos a undreamt-of upswing taken. Was less dynamic the development Islam. Much support came from Arabia, and countless mosques were established, the strict wahabitische adjustment of the Arab aids discovered with the Albanians however fewResonance, same applies to the mission attempts of Shiite Mullahs from Iran.

Like already in the times before the religion prohibition the mutual acceptance and tolerance under the trailers of the old-established religions are very high. Partially religious celebrations become togethercelebrated and also religious places of other communities visited. Even marriages between Christians and Muslims are not since communism for both sides a problem and in Albania at the agenda. Certain fundamentalist tendencies can be determined if necessary with the Protestant sparkling wines.

To the religion in Albania see also:

the ethnical minorities and their settlement areas

the Greeks live in the southAlbanian districts Saranda, Delvina, Gjirokastra and Vlora. To this minority today about 66,000 humans despite a large emigration movement to Greece (Atlas of the Albanian population, Tirana 2003) belong. The Greeks were already recognized at communist times as ethnical group officially and them have in the today'sTo suffer Albania of no direct disadvantages. They have own schools (so far sufficient pupil is present for griechischsprachige classes), at the university of Gjirokastra instruction courses on Greek are offered, it give Greek radio transmissions and also with the local authoritieses can communicated to Greekbecome. Like that their drift is motivated particularly by bad economical conditions. For the 1990er years it is to be observed that ever more humans in the south of Albania than Greeks admit themselves and even to their Muslim name against a Christianexchange. That has to do with the fact that ethnical Greeks receive importantly more easily an entry visa for the European Union neighboring country.

The Albanian Mazedonier settles compactly in the municipality Liqenas at the Prespasee, which partial belongs to Macedonia and Greece. Somewhat over4,000 inhabitants of the municipality are nearly all Slawen. They have own schools, then among other things the only mazedonischsprachige High School of Albania exists in the principal place of the municipality. In the close convenient district town Korça originally realize all this over 1.000 Mazedonier,Liqenas come. Smaller slawische groups there are in the environment of Korça, with Pogradec, in the centralAlbanian city Elbasan, in Tirana as well as in some villages between Peshkopia and Maqellare near three-landhits a corner with Kosovo and Macedonia. Altogetherthe number of the Mazedonier in Albania will not exceed 20,000.

The Vlachen or Aromunen predominantly lives in Korça (where they have their own large orthodox church) and that close convenient Voskopoja. They are in smaller groups over completelySouth Albania scatters. Some of them lives also in Tirana and Elbasan. Over their total number no safe data are present.

History

major item: History of Albania

short overview of history

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< /timeline>


National hero Skanderbeg
Bunker aus kommunistischer Zeit
shelter from communist time

Origin and history of the name

thosefirst written mention of the name Albania is in a work of Ptolemäus from the year 130, which called a illyrischen trunk in the today's central and north Albania Albanoi. On the map of the Ptolemäus the place Albanopolis is drawn in(3,12,20), which is mentioned with Scupi also in an old grave inscription. This place was identified as the fastened hill Zgërdhesh in close proximity to Kruja.

In the 11. Some Byzantine authors the words Albanon and Arbanon use century for the designation thatRegion of Kruja (the level of the Mat suggested). Place name between Shkumbin and Mat (with a concentration between Elbasan and Kruja), which up - esh end (probably of latin - ensis or - esis descends), point to early settling in höhreren situations.

Under the Anjou in 13. The names Albania and Albanenses the whole country and its entire population designate century. This is evident at the works of many in former times Albanian authors such as Budi, Blanco and Bogdano. For the first time the Albanians become intheir homeland as Arbanites of Arbanon in the narration of Anna Komnena (Alexiade 4) over unrests in the region under the government of its father Alexios I., caused of the Normannen. Komnenos mentions. In the work history, between 1079 and 1080 were written by the Byzantine historian Michael Attaliates, for the first time purchase taken on the Albanoi, which had revolted themselves 1043 against Konstantinopel, and on the Arbanitai as subjects of the duke of Dyrrachium (the today's Durrës). Those Italo Albanians and the Albanian minorities (today still in Greece) are in run the time differently designated: Arbënuer, Arbënor, Arbëneshë, Arbreshë. There is itself no doubt that the root is older alb or work than shqip, of thatthe modern name of the country Shqipëria derives. This appears for the first time in the time of the Turkish invasions.

Politics

the Albanian state are a parliamentary republic. Legislator is its delegates every four years selected the Albanian parliament ( Kuvendi i Shqipërisë),become. The right to vote for the Albanian parliament exhibits thereby large similarities with the German right to vote for the German Bundestag . 100 constituency mandates will assign by majority choice, the remaining 40 mandates been void in accordance with the Proporz on of the parties set upLists.

Head of state of Albania is a president selected by the parliament on five years. Those the parliament responsible person government is led by the Prime Minister. This appoints the Ministers, who must be confirmed by the president. Then the government of the confidence tuning in the parliament has itselfto place. Albania furnished a constitutional court some years ago after German sample, which in the political crises of the recent time as stabilizing factor proved.

At present valid condition became to 28. November 1998 by a popular vote accepted.

With the parliamentary elections at the 3. July 2005 won those up to then oppositional a democratic party of former president Sali Berisha, without achieving an absolute majority in the parliament. Due to numerous a languages and necessary repetition of the urn course in three constituencies that could official result only at the beginning of of Septembers to be published. Berisha became in the consequence of new prime ministers.


The most important parties
(arranged according to number of their delegates)
  • a democratic party (PD)
  • a socialist party (HP)
  • a republican party (PR)
  • a social-democratic party (PSD)
  • socialist integration movement (LSI)
  • new one a democratic party (PDR)
  • Agrarian and environmental party (PAA)
  • democratic alliance (AD)
  • union for human rights (PBDNJ)
  • a party for social democracy (Party of Democratic Socialism)
the most important public offices:
list of the presidents
since the fall of communism:
List of the prime ministers
since the fall of communism:

see also: List of the prime ministers of Albania, list of the heads of state of Albania

administrative arrangement

the new condition from thatYear 1998 plans two levels of the local administration: The municipalities and cities form the lower stage of the administrative units, from which there are 351 (2001). Albania is into 36 circles (rrethe) arranged, those today however noneFunctions of the administration more have. Two to four circles form in each case a Qark, the upper stage of the restaurant administration. Altogether there are twelve Qarqe.

The Qark advice consist of the mayors of all municipalities and cities in this area. Certain are incumbent on themTasks of the local administration, which are described in the law over the organization and function of the restaurant administration from the year 2000. The local administrations depend however financially strongly on the centre government. This appoints besides the Präfekten, in everyoneTo Qark as a supervisory body of the government officiate and to the non-delegated tasks of local business do not procure.

Infrastructure

in the heart of the country: Main place of Tirana, the center of the economic and political life

the traffic geography of Albania is particularly by the reliefthe country determines. The roads essentially follow the river valleys, have however in different places also high passports to overcome. The paramount meaning of the capital reflects itself also in the road system. Nearly all freeways lead after Tirana.

Firstmodern roads were built 1939 - for 1942 by the Italian Besatzern. In addition for example the distance Tirana belongs - to Elbasan. Under the communist rule the transportation network was hardly developed. However also the need was kept artificially low, because Motor vehicles in private property were not permitted until 1990 and the weak economics of the country needed likewise only relatively small transportation capacities. Road conditions are generally still bad, but with means of the Balkans stability pact some important freeways could be reorganized. In addition belongsthe important centralAlbanian route by the Shkumbintal, which connects Elbasan with Pogradec , Korça and Macedonia. Also the distance from Korça to the Greek border was removed. The first motorway-similar distance (Tirana - Durrës) became only in the year 2000finished and now already shows several impact holes. A motorway kilometer cost more than one in Germany. A branch of this motorway connects recently also the Laç lain more north with the capital. A further section leads from Durrës to the southto Lushnja.

All Albanian railway lines were built for the population and student after the Second World War, often in “employmentemployment employments”. The course company Hekurudha e Shqiperise operates today the lines Durrës - Tirana, Durrës - Elbasan - Pogradec, Durrës - Shkodra andDurrës - Vlora. Only for the goods traffic the distance of Shkodra is again-open into the neighbouring Montenegro. One intends - as soon as the financing regulated actual the purchase of modern Diesel impulse courses.

The most important Albanian port is onthe Adria in Durrës, further in Shëngjin and Vlora. From Durrës or Vlora regular driving connections exist after Brindisi, Bari, Ancona and Triest in Italy as well as after Igoumenitsa and Patras in Greece. Is from the southAlbanian Saranda Korfu alsothe ferry to reach

Tiranas airport the only civilian used airport of Albania is designated, after nut/mother Teresa. It lies approx. 30 km north of Tirana removes. The national airline Albanian airlines flies to the neighboring countries and to Germany.Airlines from South-east Europe and unite few Western European countries have Tirana as Destination.

The privatisation and

the development

of the legal framework further progress makes economics mine in the east structural problems, nevertheless continues to exist serious structural problems: The economic growth is basedto a large extent on transfers of the international givers and abroad living Albanian as well as on building activity for money laundering from illegal incomes. For 2004 the IWF prognosticates a growth of 6% with an inflation rate between 2% and 4%. Also that Tourism is still hardly developed. Still are approximately a third of the population in the agriculture, which contributes a quarter approximately to the gross inland product, active and lives on Subsistenzwirtschaft. Nearly half of the population must with less than two US Dollar per day get along and applies therefore in accordance with World Bank as poor.

Albanische Kursmünzen
Albanian course coins

economic growth

the growth of the gross national product 2002 4.7% , in the year 2003 6.0% amounted to. Unemployment sank from 15,8% in the year 2002 on 15,2% inSubsequent year and continues to be thereby on high level. Besides the official numbers do not show approximately the high degree of the underemployment on the Albanian job market. Thus for example the members of small farmer families are not considered as unemployed, even ifhalf dozen adult relative together hardly two to three hectares country cultivate.

Environmental pollution

after a report of the Guardian Weekly from April 2004 is Albania the country with the highest environmental pollution in Europe. There is a strong water, soil and an air pollutionby the refuse dumps of the industry. The rise of the air pollution in the last years has its cause however in the increase in automobiles, which are usually introduced as used cars from the west. Here often old becomes because of the bad condition of the road surfacingdurable diesel engined vehicles of the mark Mercedes Benz prefers. Furthermore, the sales of no longer fuels certified in the European Union as well as active building activity with the associated dust load contribute the everywhere usual burning of garbage of any kind to the air pollution. According to ecological reportseach inhabitant Tiranas inhales about 44 mg dust per year.

Between 1992 and 2000 the portion

of the public expenditures for the health service was to public expenditures for health, education

culture

Literature

of one of the most well-known modern Albanian writers is Ismail Kadare.

further:

see also:

photography

Of great importance one is the work of the Marubis, which documented the northAlbanian society between 1858 and 1944.

Literature

  • PeterJordan/Karl Kaser among other things (Hrsg.):Albania. Geography - historical anthropology - history - culture - post office-communist transformation, (= Austrian east booklets, special volume 17) Peter long publishing house: Frankfurt/a. M. among other things 2003, 416 S., zahlr. Fig. and. Tab. ISBN 3-631-39416-0
  • Peter Bartl: AlbaniaPustet, Regensburg 1995 ISBN 3-7917-1451-1 (new Albanian research and history)

further topics

Web on the left of

Wiktionary: Albania - word origin, synonyms and translations
Wikiquote: Albanian proverbs - quotations




coordinates: 41° 21 ' N, 19° 59 ' O

 

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