of the Albigenserkreuzzug (1209 - 1229) was part of the church fight of the Katharer and besides the successful attempt of the French crown to implement their power in the southern part of the kingdom. Because the katharische faith teachings were common particularly in the area of the city Albi,this community was called also Albigenser.

causes of the Albigenserkreuzzuges

at the beginning 13. Century differed the French south culturally and with Okzitani even linguistically clearly from the north. Besides the rule area of the counts of Toulouse was, beside thatCounty Toulouse also Languedoc covered, despite the leaning sovereignty of the French king almost independently. The cultural and political demarcation of the north was strengthened additionally by religious factors. In 12. Century had strongly spread in Southern France the radical-binaryistic poverty movement of the Albigenser, itself also large partsthe there aristocracy attached. Toward end 12. Century were there already four dioceses of the Albigenser in Southern France. Since the Albigenser rejected the papacy in its existing form strictly, it came fast to its fight by the catholic church. Also the French kings were inConsequence of the general extension of their sphere of influence within France, which was directed also against the English Lehen in west France, strongly at a procedure against in fact independent counts of Toulouse interests.

process of the Albigenserkreuzzuges

Pope Innozenz III.organized and led the fightthe Katharer. It demanded the French king Philipp II. up to proceed against those noble ones which bore the Katharismus in their areas. The king was involved however into the war against the holy Roman realm and found no time. Thereupon Innozenz turned directly to thatCount Raimund VI. of Toulouse, which refused co-operation and for it one exkommuniziert. And still the papal Legat Peter von Castelnau, accused of the Pope Raimund was killed as an accomplice and called to a crusade against Languedoc; he promised each victorious portion involved of the countrythe Häretiker.

When 1209 ten thousand Kreuzritter in Lyon collected themselves, Raimund recognized the seriousness of the situation and agreed in the long run nevertheless a procedure against the Katharer. The spell was waived, and sent troops to Raimund for the support of the Kreuzritter.

The first goal of the Kreuzritter was Béziers, to 22. July 1209 was taken. The entire population, about 20,000, was killed. The papal envoy abbott Arnaud Amaury is to have given the instruction to the Kreuzrittern: Caedite eos! Novit enim Dominus qui sunt eius (“it kills all! Because God knows its "). InBéziers died Katharer such as catholics, men, women and children were equally killed, even if they had looked for protection in churches. The message of the massacre went around fast and spread panic and fear.

The next goal was Carcassonne, where the Kreuzritter at the 1. August1209 arrived. The city was overcrowded with refugees and offered its surrender. When the Kreuzritter conquered the city, nearly all inhabitants had fled by underground courses into the surrounding forests. Of the remaining 500 inhabitants - Greise, patient, children - one hundred were allowed the citynaked, only with their sins loaded, abandoned, the other 400 was burned or hung. From this several cities of the region resulted in short consequence, and Albi, Castelnaudary, Castres, Fanjeaux, Limoux, Lombers and Montréal fell to the papal troops.

The cities,still the resistance offered, from this attacked.1210 resulted after long FE storage the city Minerve. The katharischen inhabitants were converted or burned, if they refused. And term in December, gave it fell nearly no revolting cities more.

By their brutal procedurethe Kreuzritter had annoyed many of the residents noble ones. Raimund of Toulouse had quit its co-operation with the papal ones and had been again exkommuniziert. In its attendants many of the cities already conquered revolted. Starting from 1211 the crusade concentrated on fights between the Kreuzrittern and thatMen Raimunds. In the year 1213 struck Simon of Montfort Raimund and his brother-in-law Peter II. of Aragon with Muret. Raimund had to flee 1214 to England. Its Ländereien became of the Pope at king Philipp II. handed over.

In the year 1216 Innozenz III. died. In the same yearRaimund returned to Toulouse. The fights became now a war between Raimund and the royal troops, and religious questions played therein a subordinated role. Only in the year 1226 Ludwig VIII. called., in the meantime French king, after ten years of unsuccessful fights to a newlarge war course up, which led within three years to the conquest of the county Toulouse. The Albigenserkreuzzug was terminated thereby, and Raimunds son (that Raimund was called likewise and 1222 its deceased father had replaced) was imprisoned taken, expenditure-whipped and arrested.

Pope Gregor IX.pursuit that took overKatharer. Particularly for this purpose the created Inquisition received almost unrestricted power in Languedoc, and over years Katharer and their alleged supporter were looked for, condemned and burned. Dead ones even buried are to have been exhumiert and burned. In the region it came on that again and againRebellions and rebellions, which only 1255 should be completely struck down. In the year 1321 last a Katharer (Guillaume liking branch) on the heap of failure was burned.

consequences of the Albigenserkreuzzuges

the crusade against the Albigenser the direct rule of the French crown led up under religious pretextsSouthern France. In the year 1271 the county Toulouse fell under the direct rule of the French king, kept however to 1779 some special rights. A cultural and political splitting off of the south was prevented by the crusade, even if the contrast of north and south the today's Francestill in certain measure coins/shapes.


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