the Alchemie (also Alchimie) is an old branch of nature philosophy and became in 17. /18. Century gradually replaced from modern chemistry and pharmacology. The Alchemisten calls the Alchemie also royal art. In today's timecall themselves some representatives of the Pseudowissenschaften likewise “Alchemisten”. Often, the “production” is accepted by gold (see gold synthesis) and other precious metals (see precious metal synthesis) the only goal of the Alchemisten is, the Adepten (large Alchemisten) sees these Transmutationen rather than by-productan internal transformation.

Table of contents

Etymologie and origin

the word Alchemie leads itself from the Arab „aluminium-kymiya “ and/or. of the Greek “χυμεία” (chymeia) ago. The interpretationthe meaning of the word is however as multilayered as the Alchemie themselves: “Aluminium” meant on Arab “God/the allpowerful”, “keme” or “chemistry” is the Egyptian expression for “the black” and means also “black earth” and/or. the black fruitful earththe Nile bank. Black earth means the ursprünglichsten the subject of the “chemical” occupation, which is earth, in addition, the name, which the old Egyptians named their country. So one would know “Alchemie” e.g. translate with “göttliche art of the Egyptians”. The Greek “chymeia”meant however “fusion”, in this sense means Alchemie „theory of pouring “. On the basis the Etymologie already their origins in old Egypt and in (brightistic) the Greece become clear. The basis text of the Alchemie is the originally Arab Tabula Smaragdina, “Bible of the Hermetik “, which decrease/go back on Hermes Trismegistos.

field of application and achievements

the Alchemie were only partly driven from the idea of the artificial production of gold, on the search for the stone of the ways or the universal solvent Alkahest. The Alchemisten was the opinion, chemical elements could (transmutiert) become into one another converted. More fundamentally one was generally convinced, all materials were composed not only from characteristics, but also of principles. (Aristoteli Hylaemorphismus) like that it was theoretically possible,any material (hylae), preferably of unedlen metals taken to arrange new with the noble principles (eidos) of gold or silver. That was ideal-proves possible if one had removed all unedlen principles before from the unedlen material and him therebyto new principles had made sensitive. The featureless “great materia” and the principles, “qunita essentia” also often mentioned, universally transferable to it, applicable and, were the actual Forschungsgebiet of the Alchemisten.

These estimates were not based on at that time usual and also forokkulte researcher binding nature philosophies. Even if the opinions at that time appear wrong from today's viewpoint, such hypotheses were alone for lack of passable alternatives necessary links on the way to the modern natural science. General was the transition of the Alchemie to most, alsotoday still usual material sciences like the metallurgy, the medicine research etc. very more flowing, often missing.

Alchemisten were concerned, contrary to occasional wrong data, only allegorisch with the production of living art natures (Homunculus, basilisk). Resemblances to this okkulten Experiments for example still are in Goethe's fist I and fist II and in Meyrinks GOLEM. There are some allegorische representations, which personifizieren chemical elements. From the combination of man and woman for instance Hermaphroditen were born, the characteristics of bothBasic materials carried. Among them like said above not the Erschaffung of an artificial nature is meant, but only a chemical reaction result graphically explains. To these picture books it is to be marked that it mostly concerned art books or better decoration volumes, which illustrate morebecause to material experiments to train should.

We owe among other things (again) the invention of the porcelain and black powder in Europe to the wrong interpretation of the nature realization and experimental application of the Alchemie. The porcelain for example is a waste product of the search for gold.A Alchemist at the Saxonian yard saved its life, by being able to supply with to its employer at least white gold. Famous Alchemisten e.g. was.Vincenzo Casciarolo from Bologna, which 1604 for the first time phosphorescence - coloring material manufactured, „the Bologneser in such a way specified shining stone” or „Lapis Solaris”.This discovery carried discussions over the nature of the light and already led 1652 to first spectroscopic investigations. That Hamburg Heinrich Hennig fire was a further important Alchemist. He discovered 1669 the chemistry luminescence of the white phosphorus („Phosphorus mirabilis “) and thus thosefirst chemistry luminescence reaction at all. This chemistry luminescence reaction found as Mitscherlich sample entrance into forensische chemistry and is also today still another impressing experiment.


important basis and the Bible of the Alchemisten was the Tabula Smaragdina as it were. It is Hermes Trismegistos an attributed, originally probably Greek, later collection of few, with difficulty understandable and interpretation-needy sentences, spread in Latin version, in which the entire world wisdom should be contained.

A special type of furnace of the Alchemisten is called Athanor.

The Alembik (distilling helmet)is a helmet essay for a distilling flask.

Some containers of the Alchemisten are designated after animals, so z. B. Hedgehog or goose or the human pair.

philosophical meaning

of the opinion after some psychologists acts it with the Alchemienot only around a practical discipline in the sense of a Metachemie - it has rather also a philosophical dimension: the different alchemischen procedures - as for example the transformation of a certain metal into another - stand here for the development of theHumans, D. h. for insidepsychological processes. Above all that stressed this psychological aspect of the Alchemie Swiss psychiatrist and Psychoanalytiker Carl Gustav young, which was occupied in detail and tried with it to make her fruitful for its analytic psychology.

important Alchemisten

Alchemisten old Egypt, as well as the Greek one and Roman one antique

Chinese Alchemisten

in China have themselves within daoistischer currents such the internal transformation Neidan and such the outside transformation Waidandeveloped, which were however not yet divorced in their beginnings. With the principle of the Dao linked props after immortality - however actually in the sense of the completion and unity becoming in the Dao - holistic was referred to bodies and spirit, so thatthere also some Alchemisten within Chinese history was to improve the tried metals thereby besides the gun powder discovered and after a Elixier [dan] looked for, which makes terrestrial immortality possible. This was however as addition of the internal work Qigong, Meditation, chamfered etc. thought.

The first specialists in the arts of the immortality were those catch ski, which lived as einsiedlerische way in the mountains, shame anise tables practices offered, by emperors and aristocrats were visited and occasionally supported.

From this traditionWei Boyang, author of the oldest Chinese alchemistischen treatise Thouyi comes cantong qi („over combining correspondences “), that in accordance with the legend during 2. Jh. n. Chr. to have lived is. The following myth is after-said to him: After the dog onan experiment concerning the right Elixier dead, spoke the master fell down: „I gave the way of the world, my family and friends up, in order to live in the mountains. It would be shameful to decrease/go back without the Dao of the holy Unsterblichen found toohave. By this Elixier to die cannot be worse to live than without it. So I must take it then to me. “Also it swallowed the Elixier and fell down on the place dead. After the disappointed pupils gonewere, awaked dog and master and floated to the sky up, in order to become Unsterbliche.

Another was Ge Hong (284-364 n. Chr.). Its Hauptwerk is called Baopuzi („it, that the unbehauenen block embraced “or „the master, that the Schlichtheit covers “). Those Shangqing - school took up later some its techniques.

Lü Dongbin, one of the eight Unsterblichen, is to have been one first, which turned excluding the internal Alchemie. Its pupil was Liu Haichan; of this is Zhang Boduan (987-1082n. Chr.) its knowledge received. It wrote the Wuzhen pian („over understanding the reality “), which transfers the mode of expression of the outside Alchemie to the internal transformations. A goal is the Erschaffung shengtai („mental embryo “of the immortality). Justified themselvesafter its death many schools of the Neidan. Its pupils justified for instance the southern branch „of the school of the perfect reality “(literally: The way of the implementation of the truth ").

Alchemisten of the Islamic culture area

  • Kalid ben Jazichi (7. - 8. Jh.)
  • Kalidben do Jesid (born 702?)
  • Giver (approx. 721-815), father of chemistry
  • Rhazes (approx. 860-ca. 930)
  • Avicenna (980-1037)
  • Kalid Rachaibibi (approx. 11. Jh.)
  • Muhyi D DIN Ibn Arabi (1165-1240)
  • Abdul Qasim aluminium Iraqi (13. Jh.)

Abendländi Alchemisten

„the alchemistischen figures “of the NikolausFleming



  • Johann Agricola: Chymi Medicin: a manual of preparing and application of alchemistischer cures (original titles: Commentariorum, notarum, observationum & animadversionum in Johannis Poppii Chymi Medicin), after the first editionLeipzig, Schürer and Götze, 1638/39 given change, introduced and with a biographic sketch provide of olive Humberg, Elberfeld 2000 ISBN 3-9802788-5-9

older ones expenditures in new edition

  • Alexander of Bernus: Alchymie and welfare art 5. Edition thorn oh 1994 ISBN 3-7235-0757-3 (1.Edition of 1936)
  • God-dear rubber strip: The Alchemie, that is the science of the large secret means of the Alchemisten and the Speculationen, which one attached to her: A book, which first for physicians written [is, at the same time in addition, each educated philosopher requiredbecomes]. 1. Edition Bonn 1869, 2. Edition Cologne 2003 (reproduction) ISBN 3-89836-342-2
  • Dr. Musallam: Alchimie: The stone of the ways

modern trend research literature


the famous book of the Alchimist of Paulo Coelho is concerned only at the edge with Alchemie, it goes muchmore around self identification.

The book “the secret knowledge of the Alchimisten” of Rainer M. Schröder acts among other things of the Alchimie. One experiences much over the techniques and background the Alchemie around 1700.

Web on the left of

Commons: Alchemie - pictures,Video and/or audio files

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