Alessandro Scarlatti

Alessandro Scarlatti (* 2. May 1660 in Sicilies [either Trapani or Palermo]; † 24. October 1725 in Neapel) was a composer of the baroque. He was the father that likewise as a composer famous Domenico Scarlatti and Pietro Filippo Scarlatti become.

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Alessandro Scarlatti

one assumes generally that it a pupil Carissimis in Romewas, and there are reasons to accept a connection with north Italy since its early works exhibit influences of Stradella and Legrenzi. With the performance of its opera Gli Equivoci nell' amore in Rome 1679 it won the Protektion of queen Christina of Sweden (itself in Rome inExile found), and became their Kapellmeister.

In February 1684 he became a Kapellmeister of the viceroy of Neapel by the plots of his sister - an opera singer -, who was the Mätresse of an influential noble one in the city. Here it created a long set of operas, remarkablymainly because of their commonness, as well as other music for official causes.1702 it left Neapel and returned only, when the Spanish supremacy was replaced by Austria. In the meantime it enjoyed the Protektion of Ferdinand III., for its private theatre close Florenz it, And from cardinal Ottoboni, which made him the Kapellmeister and for it for 1703 a similar post at the church Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome procured, wrote operas.

After it had visited 1703 Venice and Urbino, it took up 1708 again its service to Neapel andremained there until 1717. To this time Neapel of its music seemed to have become tired. The Romans against it estimated it more, and so he led some its best operas at the Teatro Capranico in Rome on (Telemaco 1718, Marco Attilio Règolo 1719, Griselda 1721); likewise a fair for choir and orchestra in honours of the holy Cäcilie, 1721 for cardinal Acquaviva compose some distinguished pieces of church music, under it.

Its last larger work seems to be an unfinished serenade for the wedding of the prince von Stigliano 1723. It died 1725 in Neapel.




Scarlattis opera work is rooted in the venezianischen school, which remained last essentially faithful he to. The works, which it wrote during its two terms of office as royal Kapellmeister in Neapel, reflectalso influences of the neapolitanischen school against, them are however not necessarily typical for its complete work. Scarlatti is in principle Traditionalist; music history owes to it however a consequence-fraught innovation, i.e. the introduction of the three-sowing goats “Sinfonia” according to the speed pattern slowly (in contrast to the French Ouvertüre with thatSuccession), it since Dal paints IL bene ( 1687) slow fast slow regularly as introduction music of its operas used. This form of the “symphony “became soon obligatory on all Italian opera composers, and of it that development took its beginning, which finally led to the emergence of the classical symphony.

the operas to around 1700

its early operas contain numerous short airs, which are accompanied either only by the general bass or by few solistischen instruments and artful miniature pictures resemble. In the Rezitativ Scarlatti with skrupulöser accuracy pays attention to a plastic text declamation and particularly paintsfeeling-stressed or contentwise important keywords with graphic Koloraturen out. To Olimpia vendicata (1685) it introduced for the first time the Accompagnato Rezitativ accompanied by the caper orchestra , which it would use from now to frequent, in order to underline dramaturgisch important situations. High points of its early creative period are La Rosaura (1690) and Pirroe Demetrio (1694), in which the since-capo-air became generally accepted to a large extent. It existed already before Scarlatti, became however fast owing to the melodischen and emotional content, with which it knew to fulfill and as Hauptträgerin of the musical happening use it, the most important form within thatOpera.

Particularly for the neapolitanischen operas Scarlattis is La caduta de' Decemviri (1697) marking. It leans strongly to the obliging/pleasing style from the vice-regal yard favored Giovanni Bononcini , with remarkable preference of the Siciliano liked at that time - rhythm (slower 6/8 or 12/8-Takt), also the trade gladlyused. The melodies are usually more simply and more einprägsamer, the company fewer filigran, the entire style more brilliantly, in addition, more superficial than in the earlier works.

the middle creative period

on another sheet the operas stand the following middle creative period, under those for Mitridate Eupatore(Venice 1707) stands out. This after model classical French tragedy in five document (instead of the otherwise usual three) divided work was attempt to lift, which Italian opera again over the fashionable average level - which succeeded to Scarlatti, at the public however on fewApproval pushed. For the Rezeption at that time of its operas a letter of the Impresario Zambeccari is characteristic from the year 1709, in which it means, Scarlattis new opera has at all does not please, since it is written in a kontrapunktischen style unsuitable for the theatre, of underthousand people twenty would hardly understand something. Its leaving popularity did not hold Scarlatti first to pursue its artistic way further. Connoisseurs appreciated its art still, real popularity remained it however increasingly malfunctioned.

the late works

in the works,the Scarlatti after its return after Neapel wrote, opened it partial more modern currents, but is difficult to say whether he did this by internal conviction or over the dominant taste to come to meet. One of the best its late operas is Tigrane (1715), those in successful wayartistic Ernst and theatrical effect connects. The singing melodies are occasionally very plakativ of extraordinary varieties and expression strength, the orchestra set of magnificent sound volume and. Thus the air “universe begins' acquisto gloria” with 37 the clocks is enough plays, in behind the window blinds of stationed Bläserchor (existingfrom 2 horns, 2 oboes and bassoon) with the actual orchestra concentrated.

During this opera, also owing to the splendid production, large success had, the remaining works Scarlattis from this time was usually only lukewarm taken up. Its high Berufsethos did not only knock against itself here painfullythe reality. Scarlatti saw it as the most distinguished task of an opera composer to express human passions with all their nuances in music. In addition apart from an inexhaustible melodischen inspiration also a rich harmonious vocabulary, which does not back-frighten also before cutting dissonances and bold modulations, served it. Scarlattis melodies are not with priority as „ear worms “conceives (although it also could), but as tension-loaded singing lines, which after-draw the feeling situation of the singing person like a fever curve. Light food are Scarlattis operas thus not, and the public knew to begin obviously few with its examination and moderate passionateness detail-fallen in love,it rather as maintained boredom to have felt might.

Its last opera Griselda was specified 1721 in Rome only once in a private theatre. The work, to which one may quite award the rank of an artistic will, became some years ago at the state opera Berlin againproduced and afterwards on CD taken up, so that each interested one can make itself even a picture from one of the most serious and most deeply assessed composer personalities of opera history.

further ones of works

beside the operas, Oratorien (agar et Ismaele esiliati 1684, La Santissimaannunziata 1700, a Weihnachtsoratorium approx. 1705; S. Filippo Neri 1714 and other one) and serenades, which exhibit all a similar style, composed Scarlatti more than 500 come-notice-did for solo voice. These represent to most intellectual kind of chamber music of their time, and it is to regret that they are available to a large extent only in manuscript form, since one is carefully study of the scores essential for everyone, which wants to form itself an appropriate opinion over Scarlattis development.

Its remaining fairs (the alleged number of 200 is difficult to believe) and church music are generally comparatively unimportantly, with exception of the fair Sta. Cecilia (1721), which is one of the first attempts in the style, which found its high point in the large fairs of Johann Sebastian brook and Ludwig van Beethoven. Its instrument valley music is, compared to its vowel compositions,becomes outdated strangely, if also not without interest.

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