Alexander II. (Russia)

Alexander II. of Russia
Alexander II. von Russland
Alexander II. of Russia

Alexander II. Nikolajewitsch (Russian Александр II Николаевич; * 17. April 29. April 1818; † 1. March 13. March 1881 in pc. Petersburg), was Zar of Russia from the house Romanow Holstein Gottorp.

life

Alexander II. became 1818 as a son of the Zaren Nikolaus I. and the empress Alexandra Fjodorowna born. It was educated under the line of the poet Wassili Schukowski. It was considered as peaceful, points and in a well-meaning manner, in addition, wankelmütig and a little energetically.

To 16. April 1841 married Alexander II. the German princess Marie of Hessen darmstadt (* 8. August 1824 as Maximiliane Wilhelmine Augusts Sophie Marie of Hessen darmstadt) with which it had eight children:

as Alexander after the death of its father to 18. February 2. March 1855 the Zarenthron had mounted, was Russia in the Krimkrieg, that under Alexanderfirst invariably one continued. The Zar visited in November Odessa and the Krim.

That Paris peace of 1856 terminated this war. It weakened of Russia powerful position in the Orient much, but recovered it from this defeat by those outward like on the insidecareful, but energetic policy of the emperor soon completely. Also after this peace subjecting the Caucasian mountain peoples was continued, while the far areas between the Kaspi sea and the Aral Sea under Russian influence were brought at the same time and okkupiert partially completely.

As reaction to thosein the defeat in the Krimkrieg to light stepped backwardness of Russia took extensive reforms to Alexander into attack, whose most substantial components were the abolition of the body characteristic accomplished since 1861 and a new military organization. Alexander implemented these reforms approximately large of resistances.

1863 became the Polish January rebellion with relentlessHardness depressed. The great importance of the reforms and the complete transformation of economical conditions, which entailed it, caused refusal in many subpopulations. In the course of this discontent and as consequence of the still existing large inequality in the society socialist spread, communist and nihilistic ideas out and gained significance. At the same time the victory over Poland nationalistic feelings strengthened and led to the Erstarken of the Panslawismus. Alexander did not make serious attempts to suppress the corruption in the bureaucracy; rather it bore corrupt officials in its next environmentin high positions. Therefore the discontent in the people against Alexanders government continued to rise.

In April 1866 of that in a revolutionary manner Karakosow tried assassination attempt on the emperor, which was prevented by the farmer Kommissarow, detailed investigations compelled, which uncovered the existence of numerous political secret federations. This anda second assassination attempt, which was tried during that Paris world exhibition of 1867 by a Poland, Berezewski, made on the emperor deep impression and decreased its inclination to reforms. The censorship was restored in old severity and a comprehensive police monitor was furnished.

During the war betweenAustria and Prussia 1866 retained a neutral, but Prussia-friendly attitude to Alexander. Also during the French-German war 1870/71 Alexanders sympathies layer with Germany, which it showed among other things by medal awards to the German army leaders and by appointment of the Crown Prince Friedrich as the Russian general field marshal. Due to this warAlexanders influence rose:William I., the new German emperor, was not related only to him, but obligates to him also from gratitude for his support, while France strove for its sympathetic consideration in a possible revenge war. To a crisis it came to 15. August1879, when the Zar sent the slap letter in such a way specified to the German emperor. Alexander retained however its German-friendly attitude and closed 1872 with the emperors Wilhelm I. by Germany and Franz Joseph I. of Austria in Berlin the three-emperor alliance. Thus the tension existing for a long time becamebetween Russia and Austria Hungary first diminished and the peace in Europe temporarily strengthened. Alexander explained Russia for neutral in a any conflict between Germany and France and attained for it free hand in the east.

The campaign after Chiwa 1873 extended of Russia power inside Asia considerably,entailed however first still no conflict with Great Britain. On the contrary 1874 seemed itself by the marriage of the only daughter Alexanders, Maria, to initiate with Alfreds, the duke of Edinburgh, even an approximation between Russia and Great Britain. In May Alexander completed oneState visit in Great Britain.

Meanwhile it reorganized the army after German sample. Still before this reorganization was terminated, Alexander was pushed nearly against will toward the propagation of the Panslawismus particularly in aristocracy and official circles for the commitment of Russia on the Balkans. It bore in the Balkans crisis the support of Serbia and Montenegros by Freiwillige and funds, became even godfather for a son of the Serbian prince Milan III. and publicly position took for the Christians in the Osmani realm.

Alexander II.-Denkmal in Moskau

Im April 1877 erklärte Russland im Gefolge des niedergeschlagenen Bulgarischen Aprilaufstandof 1876 the Osmani realm the war. Alexander pulled Russia to the advancing Danube army with Gortschakow after Bessarabien, followed by Romania to Bulgaria and broke its headquarters open in Gorny Studen, where he remained also during the military setbacks, in July until Septemberssuffered. When with the case of polarize-polarizing whom success was obtained, it turned 15. December 1877 after sank Petersburg back, where it to 22. with large rejoicing one received.

Also after the war its situation remained difficult in the midst of the fighting directions in Russia,particularly after new notices of Nihilisten 1879. On Alexander several notices were committed: to 14. April 1879 shot Alexander Konstantinowitsch Solowjow at it; at the 1. December 1879 tried Nihilisten to blow up with Moscow the railway train, in which Alexander drove; to 17. February 1880 gaveit an attempt to blow up the winter palace. As reaction the monitoring and pursuit were intensified of regime opponents.

At the 3. June 1880 died the empress Maria Alexandrowna. Few weeks after, to 19. He married July 1880 in morganatischer marriage Catherine Dolgorukov (Katia), with which it alreadyfor a long time a relationship had had, and with which it had already four children:

Catherine Dolgorukov was introduced as a chamber woman with the Zarin to bring over it to the yard and after the marriage ceremony of the Zarento the princess Jurievskaya raised. The family never accepted it nevertheless.

Alexander planned also further reforms of the society.

At the 1. /13. March 1881 died Alexander by an explosive assassination attempt of the underground organization Narodnaja Wolja (people will) on sank Peter citizen new ski folder. Here let beSon the Auferstehungskirche build. Its grave is like the all Romanows in the Peter and Paul cathedral.

Some years ago Alexander became II. on a modern Russian coin (in platinum) perpetuates.

Note: Double data are first of all indicated to that in accordance with Julian calendar, in Russia up to the October Revolution 1917 applied, secondly in accordance with in the west since that 16. /18. Jh. used Gregorian calendar. See also: Wikipedia: Name conventions/cyrillic


Predecessor
Nikolaus I.
List of the Russian rulers successor
Alexander III.


 

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