Alexander III. (Pope)

non--contemporary representation

Pope Alexander III. (* around 1105 in Siena as Orlando Bandinelli; † 30. August 1181 in Civita Castellana with Viterbo) officiated of 7. September 1159 up to 30. August 1181 as head of the Roman-catholic church. Nearly twentyIt struggled years with the German emperor Friedrich I. Barbarossa and the English king Heinrich II. around the lay supremacy of the papacy. It is considered as one of the most important Popes of the high Middle Ages. In its term of office 1179 the third Laterankonzil took place .

In the older research becameAlexander III. usually with the decreists „Magister Rolandus “of Bologna identifies, however this opinion was questioned by John Noonan (1977) and Rudolf Weigand (1980).

Table of contents


Orlando Baldinelli came of to onemake Sienser family. From its early Bildungsweg hardly details are well-known, however the influence Gratians, Petrus Abaelardus leaves itself ', Bernhard's von Clairvaix, Gilberts von Poitiers and Hugos von St. Viktor on it recognize. Probably in the time 1142 ago he was lecturerfor theology in Bologna and there predominantly canonical right taught, later became it member of the cathedral chapter in Pisa.

After it already stood since at the end of of 1148 in its services, it became 1150 of Pope Eugen III. appointed the cardinal deacon by Santi Cosma e Damiano.1151 it ascended to the cardinal priest of San Marco, and became finally 1153 papal chancellor of the Roman church. It was at the same time one of the most important advisors Pope Eugens III. as well as its successor Anastasius IV. and Hadrian IV..

In the year 1157 it brought as papal Legat Emperor Friedrich I. Barbarossa on Reichstag to Besançon the letter of Pope Hadrian IV., which had been written considerably by him. In this the imperial was called papal beneficium, what meant actually „Wohltat “, of Friedrichs chancellors, the later Cologne archbishop Rainald of Dassel, but aggravatingly as „Lehen was translated “. The emperor was indignant. Doch AUCH Bandinelli widersprach der falschen Übersetzung nicht, sondern goss mit seiner Äußerung „冯wem帽子der Kaiser sein Amt inne, wenn nicht vom Herrn Papst ?“(因此A quohave, SI A domno dad non have imperium? - Gesta Frederici III, 12) still oil in the fire. It came to the eclat and present Otto I. from Wittelsbach Orlando threatened with the sword. On instruction Friedrichs I. became that Legaten however free escort forthe home journey grants.

Papal election

after death Pope Hadrians IV. became Orlando Baldinelli to 7. Septembers 1159 from a clear majority Gregorian gesinnten cardinals to its successor selected. A emperor-friendly minority was correct however for Octaviano de Montecello. There before unanimityfor a legal choice agreed upon was not kept selected it to Orlando for. When Orlandos trailers surrounded the papal coat nevertheless to this, Octaviano it tore these again from the body. It came to tumults, and Orlando fled itself into the Vatikanfestung close pc. Peter.

To 18.September 1159 became Orlando in Cisterna close Rome in a choice of its trailers as a Pope Alexander III. confirmed. Two days later the consecration took place via cardinal bishop Hubald von Ostia in Ninfa with Norma. Even if Alexander III. thus for the majority of the cardinalswhen in prescribed form selected and geweihter Pope applied, Octaviano became to 4. Octobers 1159 by cardinal bishop Imar von Tusculum in Farfa konsekriert and thus to the Gegenpapst raised.

In the year 1160 Pope Alexander III. refused, on from emperor Friedrich I. called up Synode in To appear Pavia. To 13. February 1160 became therefore over Alexander III. as realm enemy and Schismatiker the realm eight and the church spell expressed, after the Synode before at the 11. February the choice of Gegenpapst Viktor IV. had confirmed.

As answer Alexander III. exkommunizierte. thereupon to 24. March 1160 the emperor and the Gegenpapst. On in October 1160 the held Synode to Toulouse Alexander became III. recognition of England , France , Ireland , Norway and Spain as a legal and only Pope. There Friedrich I. but in the year 1162 Milan conquers, could itself Alexander had III. in Italy no more do not hold and fled to France.

Under outbreak malaria in imperial army, at which also the Cologne one archbishop Rainald of Dassel, which died mental leaders of the resistance, above all however by the large perfidiousnessits leaning man Heinrichs of the lion and the defeat exerted by it of the emperor against the Lombarden with putting nano to 29. May 1176 triumphierte Alexander III. finally over the emperor.

Friedrich I. had to finally agree a meeting with Alexander. To 24. July 1177 kissed Friedrich Alexander thoseFeet and held as papal stirrups ago. In peacetime of Venice the emperor Alexander recognized III. at the 1. August 1177 as a legal Pope on.

Civita Castellana bei Viterbo. Gemälde, 19. Jhdt.
Civita Castellana with Viterbo. Painting, 19. Jhdt.

Alexander had been able to already achieve a further triumph over the secondarymost powerful man of its time.The English king Heinrich II. around 1164 the church had subordinated to the state by the Constitutions OF Clarendon. After a six-year controversy became in this connection Thomas Becket, which murdered archbishop of Canterbury. King Heinrich II. of England III. had in the controversy with Alexander.the Constitutions OF Clarendon again waives itself and to 12. June 1174 in the cathedral to Canterbury of a Geisselung as well as afterwards a whole night at the grave of holy Thomas Becket submits being on the knees prays.

For the avoidance of further Schismen Alexander III. left. that Third Laterankonzil call up. In March 1179 the council decided that for a valid Papal election the two-thirds majority of the voices of the cardinals was necessary.

Pope Alexander III. deceased in the exile of Civita Castellana. Its Gebeine were transferred after its death to Rome. Its grave became however ofRoman people destroys.


  • marshal W. Baldwin: Alexander III and the twelfth century. Glen skirt (N.J.) 1968. (English)
  • Mary G. Cheney: The recognition OF Pope Alexander III. Some neglected evidence. In: HONOUR 84 (1969), 474-497. (English)
  • Ludwig falcon stone: Alexander III. andthe controversy over the double choice in Châlons sur Marne (1162-64). In: THERE 32 (1976), 444-494.
  • Walter Heinemeyer: „Beneficium - non feudum sed bonum factum “. The controversy on Reichstag to Besançon the 1157. In: ADipl 15 (1969), 155-236.
  • Johannes Laudage: Alexander III. and Friedrich Barbarossa (=Research for the emperor and Pope history of the Middle Ages 16). Cologne/Weimar/Vienna 1997.ISBN 3-412-15495-4
  • Willibald Madertoner: The zwiespältige Papal election of the yearly 1159, Diss. Vienna 1973.
  • John T. Noonan: Who which Rolandus? In: Law, Church, and Society. Essay in Honor OF Stephan Kuttner, hrsg. of KennethPennington and Robert Somerville, Philadelphia 1977, 21-48. (English)
  • Kennenth Pennington: Pope Alexander III. In: The great popes through history. On encyclopedia, hrsg. v. Franc J. Coppa, west haven (CT) 2002. ISBN 0-313-32417-4 (English) on-line
  • Rudolf Weigand: Magister Rolandus and Pope Alexander. In: AfkKR149 (1980), 391-423.

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Hadrian IV.
List of the Popes
Lucius III.


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