Alexander Sergejewitsch Puschkin
Alexander Sergejewitsch Puschkin (Russian Алекса́ндрСерге́евичПу́шкин, wiss. Transliteration Aleksandr Sergeevič Puškin; * 26. May 6. June 1799 in Moscow; † 29. January 10. February 1837, sank Petersburg) is considered as the most important Russian poetand the founders of the modern Russian literature.
Table of contents
Puschkin is born in Moscow and spends the summers of 1805until 1810 usually with his grandmother, Maria Alexejewna (a daughter äthiopischen slaves of the Ibrahim Petrowitsch Gannibal, which became late godfather children of Peter of the large one), in the village Sakharov with Svenigorod close Moscow. These early childhood impressions are again e.g. reflected in its first attempts as poets. inthe poems monk, developed soon thereafter, (Монах, 1813), Bowa, (Бова, 1814), as well as in its Poslanije k Judinu (ПосланиекЮдину 1815 ), developed in the Lyzeum, and dream (Сон, 1816).
Puschkin in the Lyzeum spends six years in Zarskoje Selo (that today its names carries), an elite institute, to 19. October 1811 opened is. From there out the boy experiences also the events of the “patriotic war “against Napoleon (1812).
At the beginning of of 1815 writes Puschkin in the presence G. R. Derschawins its patrioticPoem “memories of Zarskoje Selo” was printed, (ВоспоминаниеоЦарскомСеле) that in the magazine Russian museum (РусскийМузей).
Still as pupils Puschkin in absence becomes into the Peter citizens literary society Arsamas of the W. A. Schukowski taken up, which tradierte itself approximately,verkrustete language conceptions of the established literature turns and for an advancement of the Russian high/writing language used themselves. The early poetry of the poet radiates his unstillbare life desire.
1816 experience Puschkins lyric poetry a crucial idiom, when the Elegie becomes its main sealing form.
When Puschkin locks 1817 the Lyzeum,it accepts a position in the Peter citizen “Kollegium for foreign affairs” with the title of a “Kollegiensekretärs”. It will to the constant playgoer, participates in the meetings of the Arsamas society and becomes member of the literature and theatre community the Green lamp (Зеленаялампа), those of the beginningsthe Dekabristenbewegung is affected. Although Puschkin does not participate in early, secret working of the Dekabristen, he is nevertheless connected with many of the active members in friendship and writes political Epigramme and poems like “КЧаадаеву” (love, hope, quiet fame…), Вольность, Н. Я. Плюсковой, (all1818), Деревня (1819). In these years it is busy with that fairy taleful verse pos the Ruslan and Ljudmila (РусланиЛюдмила), which it already began in the Lyzeum and with which it completely on the line of Arsamas concerning the necessity for the creation nationalHeldenepen lies. The poem is locked in May 1820 and causes an embittered echo in the criticism, which is indignant about the fall of the “high canon”.
in the spring 1820 must itself Puschkin for some its mockery poemsanswer for, in which it makes personalities of the public life ridiculous like the war Minister or the Secretary of Education. A banishing to Siberia it escapes due to the Protektion of influential friends, must Petersburg however in the early summer of the yearly leave and to the Krim is shifted. It lives some timewith its still from Petersburg and its daughter Maria becomes acquainted with coming friend general Rajewskij. Here it writes the romantic poem „the well of Bakhchisaraj “. Until 1824 Puschkin at different places in the south of Russia lives, among other things Odessa and Chişinău. it begins 1823its most important work, verse pos the Eugen Onegin, which it only 1830 locks. 1824 to 1825 live Puschkin with its parents on the property in Michajlowskoje, a time, which is coined/shaped by conflicts with the father and an intensive literatischen exchange of letters with its friends. ItsTragedy Boris Godunow, with which it leaves the brought in ways of the Russian seal far, experiences its beginnings in this time.
After an audience with Zar Nikolaus I. Puschkin from 1826 to 1831 may live again in Moscow and Petersburg, its works become ofZar personally censors and its work and life strongly controlled (also due to its connections to the activists of the Dekabristenaufstands). This coins/shapes also continues working from Eugen Onegin. Puschkin is dissatisfied, since he can live neither its dichterischen nor his private conceptions.
A changein Puschkins life circumstances its marriage with Natalja Gontscharowa causes 1831. The pair pulls to Petersburg to, where they can participate with support of Gontscharowas of wealthy relationship in the mondänen life of the Zarenhofes - which frustrates Puschkin, which longs itself for independence. It duelliert itself frequently and oftenfor trivial reasons; its works in this time develop under large psychological pressure.
Only 1836 it may publish the literature magazine Sowremennik (the contemporary), a progress in its strongly censored activity. In the winter of the yearly 1836/1837 it duelliert itself in consequence of a plot alsothe French guard officer Georges Charles d'Anthès and thereby by a belly shot heavily one hurts. To 29. January 1837, two days later, he dies. D'Anthès, which the ball at chest and arm touched, suffers against it only light injuries. From fear of sympathy demonstrations one transfers Puschkin inthe Swjatogorski monastery with Pskow and buries it there.
Puschkin is for all its compatriots a Russian national poet (with far distance before abroad probably more well-known writers such as Tolstoi, Dostojewski, Gogol or Pasternak; in German comparably only one combinationfrom Schiller and Goethe) absolutely. It prepared the way in its poems, dramas and narrations of the use of the colloquial language; it created a erzählerischen style, which mixed drama , romance and satire - a style, which is inseparably connected with the Russian literature since thenand the numerous Russian poet substantial affected. Its romantic contemporary was Byron and Goethe; it affected by Voltaire and the Shakespeare' tragedies.
poems and verse narrations
- memories of Zarskoje Selo (1815)
- Ruslanand Ljudmila (1820)
- Eugen Onegin (1825-1831)
- Boris Godunov (1825)
- Poltava (1829)
- the eherne rider (1833)
- the fairy tale of Fischer and Fischlein
- the fairy tale of the golden cock
- the Nixe
- the celebration during the plague
- scenes from knight times
- the prisoner in the Caucasus / the mountain prisoner (1822)
- The pair of robber brothers
- the Fontäne of Bachtschisarai/the jumping well of Bachtschisaraj (1824)
- the gypsies (1825/1827)
- Zar Saltan
- the fairy tale of the dead princess and the seven Recken
- the little house in Kolomna (1830)
- the stingy knight (1830)
- the stone guest (1830)
- Mozartand Salieri (1832)
- Boris Godunov (1828)
- the sea virgin
- the captain daughter (1836)
- the Mohr Peter of the large one/the Mohr of the Zaren (unfinished, begun 1827)
- Dubrovsky (unfinished, begun 1823/33)
- stories of the deceased Iwan Petrowitsch Belkin/Narrations Belkins (1831)
- the Sargmacher
- of the post office masters
- the snowstorm
- the shot
- Ms as a farmer's wife
- Pique lady (1834)
- the coffin carpenter
- Egyptian nights (fragment, 1835)
- the journey after Arzrum during campaign in the year 1829
- Menno Aden: Puschkin. Russia and its first poet. Tübingen: Attempto. 2000. ISBN 3-89308-324-3
- Ulrich shrubs: Puschkin. Life and work. Munich: Wewel. 1989. (= sources and studies to Russian history of ideas; 7) ISBN 3-87904-105-9
- Andreas Ebbinghaus: Puskin and Russia. To the artistic biography of the poet.Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. 2004.(= Opera Slavica; N.F., 46) ISBN 3-447-04999-5
- Robin Edmonds: Puschkin. Biography. Zurich among other things: Benziger. 1996. ISBN 3-545-34139-9
- Natalia Hergett: “Honour” in the Russian literature. Analysis of the term in selected works of Aleksandr S. Puskin. Hamburg: Kovac. 2003. (= studies to the Slavistik; 6) ISBN 3-8300-1053-2
- Rolf Dietrich wedge: Puschkin. A poet life. Biography. Frankfurt/Main and others: Island. 2001. (= island paperback; 2782) ISBN 3-458-34482-9
- Wolfgang Kissel: The cult of the dead poet and the Russian modern trend. Puskin - Blok - Majakovskij.Cologne and others: Böhlau. 2004. (= components to the slavischen philology and culture history:Lines up A, Slavisti research; N.F., 45) ISBN 3-412-16503-4
- Ute long breaking man (Hrsg.): Alexander Puschkin. Baden-Baden: Nomos. 1998. (= bathe Badener of contributions to the Russian literature; 4) ISBN 3-7890-5605-7
- pure hard Lauer and. Alexander count (Hrsg.): A. S. Puskins work and effect. Contributions to a Göttinger series of lectures.Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. 2000.(= Opera Slavica; N.F., 38) ISBN 3-447-04364-4
- Yuriy M. Lotman: Alexander Puschkin. Leipzig: Reclam. 1989. (= RUB; 1317: Biografien) ISBN 3-379-00487-1
- Yuriy N. Tynjanov: Puschkin. Diogenes paperback. 1987. ISBN 3-257-21535-5
- Gerhard Ressel (Hsrg.): A. S. Puskin and the cultural identity of Russia. Contributions of the GermanRussian symposium “A.S.Puskin and the cultural identity of Russia ". October 1999. University of Trier. Frankfurt/Main and others: Peter Lang. 2001. (= Heidelberger publications to the Slavistik: A, linguistic row; 13) ISBN 3-631-36704-X
- Nyota Thun: Puschkinbilder. Bulgakow, Tynjanow, Platonow, Soschtschenko, Zwetajewa. Berlin and others: Structure. 1984.
- Elizabeth Vyslonzil (Hsrg.): Alexander S.Puschkin and the European spirit and culture life. Frankfurt/Main and others: Peter Lang. 2003. ISBN 3-631-38170-0
- Erwin whisk (Hrsg.): A. S. Puschkin (1799-1837). Contributions to 200. Birthday of the Russian national poet. Regensburg: Letting leaving. 2003. (= series of publications of the institute for Eastern Europe Regensburg Passau; 17) ISBN 3-7847-3167-8
- Markus wolf: FreimaurertumPuskin. Introduction to the Russian free bricklaying and their meaning for Puskins literary work. Munich: Sagner. 1998. (=Slavistische contributions; 355) ISBN 3-87690-692-X
- Gudrun Ziegler: Alexander S. Puschkin. In self certifications and picture documents. Reinbek with Hamburg: Rowohlt. 1979. (= Rowohlts Monographien; 279) ISBN 3-499-50279-8
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|ALTERNATIVE NAME||Russian АлександрСергеевичПушкин, wiss. Transliteration Aleksandr Sergeevič Puškin|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||Russian author and poet|
|DATE OF BIRTH||6. June 1799|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Moscow|
|DYING DATE||10. February 1837|
|DYING PLACE||sank Petersburg|