Alfred eagle

Alfred eagle

Alfred eagle (* 7. February 1870 in Rudolfsheim with Vienna (today the 15. Viennese municipality district Rudolfsheim Fünfhaus); † 28. May 1937 in Aberdeen/Scotland) was Austrian - a Jewish physician and Psychotherapeut. He is the founder of the individual psychology.

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eagles was second of six children of the corn dealer Leopold eagle (approx. 1833 cement lake, at that time Hungary today castle country - 1922 Vienna) and the PaulineBeer (1845 Trebitsch, Mähren - 1906 Vienna). It stood in the constant struggle for power with its older brother victory mouth eagle (geb. 1868 five-house with Vienna), which became later a successful buyer. This rivalry coined/shaped also the later theses and opinions of eagle. It was the favourite child of itsFather and stood also to his nut/mother in a good relationship. Eagle did not have easy childhood, because it was an ailing child, suffered at Rachitis and being correct cutting cramps. With four years it had a pneumonia, which cost it nearly the life.

Eagle studied medicine at that University of Vienna and attained a doctorate 1895. During the study it met a Russian, who studied in Vienna in a socialist group of students of Raissa Timofeyewna Epstein. They married 1897 in Moscow. It opened first an optician practice, then one for general medicine near the Viennese Prater - to an area,in that its patients in ärmlichen conditions lived, which encouraged him in its opinions over the necessity for a socialmedical support of the Viennese population. From 1902-1911 he was coworker and fellow combatant of victory mouth Freud, developed later however to the critic and opponent of the Freud psychoanalysis.

With its 1907 published “study over inferiority of organs” submitted it its first specific contribution to the depth psychology and its own contribution to the Psychosomatik . In this original beginning of eagle the compensation and over compensation of physical and mental inadequacies are located in the center. Became laterfor eagles and its individual psychology the topic of the affiliation of humans to the community central. According to eagle brothers and sisters influences and nut/mother connection are coining/shaping characteristics.

The time between the two world wars was a bloom time of the individual psychology. 1920 became eagle director of the first hospital for child psychology in Vienna. Innumerous educating advisory boards of Vienna promoted eagle coworkers of school children, as at all the individual psychology had a strong affinity for a liberal, human Pädagogik. Of 1926 to visited eagles regularly the USA, where its optimistic theory of humans attained extraordinary popularity as a social nature. Beginning of the 30's was Eagle probably still before Freud the most well-known psychologist of the western world; to of Arthur Kronfeld in Berlin large and at the same time last 5 organized. International congress for individual psychology are to have participated over 2.000 persons.

Large agreement exists between its thinking and the shape theory and/or. Gestalt psychology. This came also into it to the expression that the German shape psychologist Wolfgang butcher accomplished numerous investigations for the verification of Adler' theses, eagle of works gave change and the German society for individual psychology along-justified. Further agreement exists to the human psychology.

Eagle becomes the ironical sentence “who laughs andsings, belonged in therapy " attributed.

See also: List of forbidden authors during the third realm

of eagle individual-psychological theory

Alfred's of eagle earnings/services was it, acting consciously humans not like Freud as its (Sexual) impulses a delivered nature, but as

  • after
  • causality

a finalism holistic,to understand social individual. Eagle principle of the secret life plans and life guidelines, which the human organism from birth follows from reasons of the overcoming of inferiority and from reasons of the aspiration for power in the social surrounding field, follows this requirement.
Contrary to Freuds Sexual and death impulse as basisall human acting, eagle sees the overcoming already of the inferiority clearly noticeable starting from the birth as drive of humans. It divides the consciousness of the inferiority in 3 categories:

  • Objective inferiority

this describes clearly noticeable, inevitable inferiority opposite other individuals, who always with the feelingis connected for dependence. It refers to the biological development and arises therefore particularly in the frühsten childhood stages, in which newborn its biological inferiority and dependence on the surroundings it feel. In the later personal record above all the likewise biological-objective organ inferiority joinsphysically obstructed up.

  • Inferiority feeling

the inferiority feeling develops subjectively from social coinage and treatment. A goal of the individual in this inferiority situation are the overcoming of this condition by strong aspiration for power as well as the development of a clear social position.

  • Inferiority complex

here concerns it the likewise subjective meshconstant stressing of the inevitable inferiority opposite other humans. A goal for the implementation of the individual life plan is here achieving unrestrained attention of the social surrounding field. In the course of this complex it comes according to eagle to Verhätschelung (“I am the largest one” - life-style) or neglect.

Work on []

Association for individual psychology

of eagle association was not open for everyone, it excluded anybody. Its goal was it to integrate all if they let the same basic tendency assume only. For this reason it demanded the political neutrality for the association. But already on the citizen of BerlinCongress of 1925 political movements tried to seize the ideas of the individual psychology. Eagle a goal failed because of the economic crisis, ideological prepossession and the national socialism. The communist red flag wrote in a gloss to the day that the attempt of eagle to replace socialism by its psychology,failed. After the invasion of the national socialists in Austria the association became to 26. January 1939 officially dissolved.


  • Alfred eagle: a Bildbiographie, H.Ruediger of more inclined ones, publishing house E.Reinhardt, Munich/Basel, 1995
  • Alfreds eagle, biography of Josef Rattner, Rowohlt Tb., ISBN 3499501899
  • thatSense of the life, by Alfred eagle, Fischer Tb., ISBN 3596261791
  • knowledge of human nature, by Alfred eagle, Fischer Tb., ISBN 3596260809

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