Algeria

الجمهوريةالجَزائريةالديموقراطيةالشعبية
aluminium-Ğumhūriyya aluminium-Ğazā' iriyya
ad-Dīmūqrātiyya aš Ša'biyya

People's Democratic Republic Of Algeria
Flagge Algeriens: Links ein grünes, rechts ein weißes Feld; davor in Rot Halbmond und Stern
Wappen Algeriens
(detail) (detail)
Wahlspruch: منالشعبوللشعب
(Arab, „the revolution by the people and for the people “)
office languages Arab, since 2001 also Tamazight (national language)
capital Algiers
system of government People's Republic of
president Abd aluminium-Asis Bouteflika
surface 2.381.741 km ²
number of inhabitants 32.531.853 (July 2005)
population density of 13.6 inhabitants per km ²
gros domestic product/inhabitant 2,080 US-$ (2004)
currency Algerian dinar (1 Alger. Dinar = 100 cents)
time belt UTC +1
National anthem Kassaman
Kfz Nationalitätszeichen DZ
Internet TLD .dz
preselection +213
Lage Algeriens in Afrika
Karte von Algerien

Algeria (Arab: الجزائر aluminium-Ğazā' IR ) is a state in the northwest of Africa. The country ranking among the Maghreb borders on the Mediterranean, Morocco, west seeing era, Mauritania, Mali, The Niger, Libya and Tunesien. Algeria was up to the war of independence French area and is apart from the Sudan and the democratic Republic of the Congo one of the largest states of Africa. The majority of the surface lies in the seeing era. After years of the Civil war between Islamic fundamentalists and the government Algeria is now relatively befriedet and endeavored to carry out social and economic reforms.

Table of contents

geography

Algeria are after the Republic of the Sudan thatsecond largest country of Africa and extends of 1,100 km is enough for Mediterranean - coast into the seeing era.

North Algeria covers the mountain country of the Tellatlas (2,308 m ), rising behind the coastal seam, the internal high country that of bulkhead, the main part of the seeing era Atlas(2,328 m). South Algeria (80% of the state surface) taken of Sanddünen (large suppl.), the plateaus of the Hammada, ravine-rich stage landscapes (Tassili more n'Ajjer) and the mountain massif Ahaggar (2,918 m) in the central seeing era.

The north has Mediterranean climate, the Atlas area continental high land climate, the south desert climate. There are only few rivers flowing all year round. At the north side of the Tellatlas grow mediterrane bushes (Macchie), Aleppo Kiefern, cork oaks and stone oak.

See also: List of the cities in Algeria

population

predominantly Arabs and different Berberstämme, who are partially arabisiert, populate Algeria. The number of the Europeans sank after acquisition of independence up to approximately 20.000. The population density in northern Algeria amounts to 60 inhabitants for each km ²,on the other hand it is in the seeing era areas under an inhabitant. The portion of the urban population (about 60%) constantly increases. The annual population growth averaged during the last years 2.0%.

language

general colloquial language is the Algerian-Arab. Besides the French plays still another important role. Writing language is either French or high-Arab, whereby it gives an initiative to the government for the use of the high-Arab. About 83% of the population speak Arab as native language.

Besides a large part speaks,16%, the population Berbersprachen, particularly in the south of the country, which is inhabited by Tuareg nearly only, and in the northeast of Algiers (Kabylei). At most spoken Berbersprache is Kabylisch.

religion

the state religion in Algeriais the Sunni Islam. The large majority of the population are trailers of this religion (nearly 100%). Only a small minority, usually in Algeria living foreigners, in addition, a few Algerian, are coined/shaped by the Christian or Judentum. This tiny minority livestheir faith however very discretely.

By economic and social problems as well as the discontent with the achievements of the political system Islamic movements are very successful in Algeria. These demand themselves an Islamic state, its internal structure and foreign policy at the rulesa radical interpretation of the Islam to orient is.

Islamics represent the only reliable opposition, which anprangert the social bad states and for arms and suppressed themselves begins. Socialist oppositions do not exist in this country, there them - as previously mentioned- the absolute minority of the religions in Algeria form and remain reserved. The moreover one Islamics have a so large success, since Algeria consists too over 40% of illiterates. (That is nearly half!) For example in Tunesien however, where 90% thatTo read and write the Islamic tendencies know, are less strongly pronounced population.

The economic fall around 1990 led to the upswing of the Islamic movement. The seizure of power of the FIS, the Islamic Salvation front, could be still prevented. But since then civil wars prevail: Above allYoung persons were disappointed over the fact that by the FIS the anxious liberalisation was broken off. As a result of its hopelesness their relapse arose for Islamic radicalization; their only remaining and therefore proven stop.

Starting from del Aziz Bouteflika, since 1999 president of Algeria, tried, alsoto create its peace plan a reconciliation with Islamic extremists and thus an end of the civil war. Although the majority of the population its peace plan agreed, its politics are considered today as failed, since since that time the force in this country increased again.

[[Ein]]Economist called North Africa one „explosivsten parts of the world “: He said: „All are dictatorships, all are over-populated. None made its peace with the modern capitalistic world. All these countries are in close proximity to Europe. It givessufficient explosive, which could do 1995 lift-off. “Changed at this estimate to today unfortunately few.

None of the countries went through to today a real democratic development. In France the portion of the Algerian population is very highly, there Algeria inhistory a French colony was. One fears now that the Islamic extremism could spread to the own country, if the danger of the fundamentalism would not be gebannt `. This would mean a threat completely for stability Europe.

Also inFrance prevails - as in all countries - the old problem of the tolerance opposite foreigners. Algerians are often discriminated against. They receive less content for their work than Frenchmen and live in HLM's. Particularly young people, who are born in France, of themParents however from Algeria come, have it not easily: They see themselves as Frenchmen, because France is their homeland. They know Algeria only from narrations, at the most from vacation. But their skin color and their name are Algerian. Therefore they becomeoften excluded from French young people. They will integrate them not well from the society, there still from prejudices like „Algerians are violent, them are terrorists “be pursued.

history

major item: History of Algeria

since beginning of the historical excessive quantitybecame the area of Algeria von Berber - trunks settles. Immediately the region came under Roman rule. After the fall of the Roman realm in 5. The Berber won, became century again their independence however in 7. Century subjected by the Muslim Arabs.

As in 16. Century Spain the Algerian coastal towns conquered, attacked Korsaren under the sovereignty of the osmanischen Sultans in Istanbul and could with its assistance the Spaniards in lengthy fights sell.

In Algeria the Osmanen pashas began as regents.However these lost soon effective control of Algeria, so that the Korsaren and the osmanischen Janitscharen used the Dey in Algiers.

1830 occupied French troops Algiers, Oran and Bone and began with the conquest of the country. Now beganthe transformation of Algeria into a French province. Until 1906 also the Algerian seeing era had been subjected by the Frenchmen.

To the upswing of the movement of independence it came, when 1945 massakriert after unrests in Setif and Guelma of ten thousands Algerians of the French armybecame. In November 1954 the war of independence (Algeria war) began against France. 1962 reached Algeria with the contract independence closed in Evian after a eight-year old bloody war, which demanded high losses on both sides.

Soon struggles for power broke over thatpolitical course out, which ended however soon with the fact that all authorities and the put under state control economy were controlled by the unit party FLN. 1988 came it to heavy social unrests. A cause were among other things high unemployment and the housing shortage. A democratizationand 1989 a new democratic condition, which planned the separation from a party and state, parliamentary responsibility, Pluralismus, political liberties and warranties of the human rights, were introduced were created. 1991 came it with the first free elections to a Putsch of the military, due tothe threatening choice victory of the Islamic party FIS (front islamique you salut) in the second choice passage. This led to the outbreak of a bloody civil war between radical Islamics and the army, since that time over 120.000 humans are pleased who to the victim. To would background seealso references to Algeria under strategy of the tension.

After abating the civil war the government initiated 1999 a popular vote over reconciliation politics. In this politics the former unit party FLN is confirmed with the parliamentary elections 2002.

In the year 2003 hadthe Ministers Mourad Medelci and Abdelhamid Temmar and that solid pressure of the trade union roof federation UGTA withdraw. UGTA had accomplished that yearly - for the second time since beginning of the decade - in February a three-day-long general strike, that itself against the privatisation program thatGovernment arranged. In the strike participated over 90 per cent of the workers.

To 8. April 2004 took place a renewed Präsidentenwahl. After an election campaign, in which the entire state apparatus mobilizes including the national mass media for a custom-made representation of the presidentbecame, Abd aluminium-Aziz Bouteflika of the 1999 with cover of the military left selected was, which announce absurd election result of 83 per cent of the voices. Bouteflika is thereby a first president of Algeria, who receives a second mandate. Presidency candidate Benflis spoke of fraud.Choice observers of the organization for security and co-operation in Europe spoke however of a fair choice.

At the 1. May 2005 comes it to a change in the cabinet. Several Ministers were replaced by their respective predecessors, now particularly in key positions of the economic policysit. The Modernisierer Mourad Medelci and Abdelhamid Temmar took over the financial department and/or. the Ministry for investment assistance. They use themselves for the privatisation of public enterprises and the opening oil and natural gas sector for private investments.

To 30. Septembers 2005 are correctthe Algerian voters for reconciliation. With a referendum for national reconciliation over the “Charte pour la paix et la réconciliation national” tuned 97 per cent of the voters for the plan of the government of president Bouteflika. This means an amnesty formany Islamic extremists. The majority of the Algerians wants to draw a conclusion conclusion under the Bürgerkiegsära. The opposition, which had called to a boycott of the popular vote, criticized the results as election fraud.

politics

the presidents of Algeria(since 1963)

name of to note
Mohammed Ahmed Ben Bella 20. September. 1963 19. June 1965 at the same time prime minister
Houari Boumedienne 19. June 1965 27. Dec. 1978 to 9. March 1978 prime ministers, is seen to Rabah Bitat 27 at the same time as “
Befreier” of Algeria.Dec. 1978 08. February. 1979 transition president
Bendjedid Chadli 08. February. 1979 11. January. 1992
Muhammad Boudiaf 14. January. 1992 29. June 1992 became victim of an assassination attempt
Ali Kafi 2. July 1992 31. January. 1994
Liamine Zeroual 31. January. 1994 27.April. 1999
Abdelaziz Bouteflika 27. April. 1999

Algeria have a parliamentary system of two Houses, it consist of the national popular assembly and an upper house (national council).

provinces

major item Wilayat Algeria.

The state consists of 48 provinces (Wilayat, singularly Wilaya), which are designated after the capital in each case.

Grafik-Landkarte: Provinzen Algeriens
Diagram map: Provinces of Algeria

economics

agriculture

the agriculture is the most important branch of trade (portion of 6.8% of the gross domestic product, conditions: 2003), are overhauled however gradually by the producing trade. Intensive one agrarian use is possible only in the coastal and valley levels of the Tellregion. Are cultivated above all grain, sugar beets, potatoes and leguminous plants; in greenhouses early vegetables for the export. In the food sector less than 40% of the need becomeby own production covered.

In Algeria there are about 15 millions Dattelpalmen, most of it in the oases. They supply annually a yield of approx. 500,000 tons of Datteln of different quality. The soft, high-quality sorts are partly exported to Europe,the hard, resistant sorts are sold also into many countries of black Africa, which enjoy because of their durability in the tropical climate of large popularity there.

raw materials

Algeria is member of the OPEC. Basis for the development were oil (third biggestOccurrence of Africa) and natural gas in the seeing era. Further raw materials are usually not yet opened. Oil and natural gas processing constitute more than 90% of the receipts from exports. The oil revenues were partly invested into prestige objects and partly the Oberschicht flowed. With thatDecrease of the oil revenues came it to a crisis, since the receipts from exports had to be used for the repayment of foreign debts.

transport

liberalisation includes the danger of political setbacks. The transportation network is concentrated on north Algeria. The roads go souththe Atlas usually in desert runways over. The tourism is, compared to which the neighboring countries, still little develops.

For Algiers 160 km/h a fast rapid-transit railway is planned - system, which is to go to 2008 to 2010 into enterprise. But 64 fourth-hasty electrical become Triebzüge of the design FLIRT with Stadler in Switzerland ordered.

Population trend x1000

economical data

(estimated values for 2005)

defense between 1992 and 2000 the portion

of the public expenditures for the health service was appropriate for 122,8 million US-$ [

culture

the Algerian literature is the Arab cultural heritage. However there is also a cultural heritage of the berberischen minority. Many berberische authors write in French language and Tamazight (sothe language of the Berber in North Africa mentioned). In the 90's it came again and again to arguments between particularly separatist groupings of Berber and the government, supported by the ex colonial power France, with which humans died.In the course of the 2004 parliamentary elections desired the government Bouteflika made the Berbern of concessions (masierisch at schools), the tensions persists however. Economically Algeria recovered itself in the last years owing to security and not least owing to high oil proceedsrecovers good.

so far

four Algerian sportsmen could reach sport with olympic plays gold medal:

  1. Hassiba Boulmerka - (1992 - Leichtathletik, 1500 m, Mrs.)
  2. Noureddine Morceli - (1996 - Leichtathletik, 1500 m, men)
  3. Hocine Soltani - (1996 - boxes, middleweight 71-75 kg, men)
  4. Nouria Merah Benida - (2000 - Leichtathletik, 1500 m, women)

in the football Rabah Madjer is the first player in Africa and the Arab world, that those Champion League with its Portuguese club, which fiber plastic postage could win, 1987 against Bavaria Munich in the final in Vienna. Legendarily and uniquely is still its heel trick gate against Jean Marie Pfaff, the Torwart at that time of the fiber plastic Bavaria Munich.

literature

  • Bernhard forge: Algeria - front state in the global war? Neoliberalismus, social movements and Islamic ideology in a North African country. Münster, 2005. ISBN 3-89771-019-6
  • Thomas Hasel: Power conflict in Algeria (Middle East studies 3, hrsg. of peace man Büttner), 284 S., publishing house HansSchiler, Berlin, 2002, ISBN 3-89930-190-0
  • Habib Souaidia: Dirty war in Algeria - report of an ex officer of the special forces of the army (1992-2000), Chronos publishing house, 2001, ISBN 3-0340-0537-7

Web on the left of

Commons: Algeria - pictures, videos and/or audio files
Wiktionary: Algeria - word origin, synonyms and translations



coordinates: 27° 15 ' N, 3° 27 ' O

 

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