antiquity designates the historical period mediterran - of the frontasiatic civilizations between early history in the science of history (to center 4. Millenium v. Chr.) and the Middle Ages (starting from 6. /7. Century). The term antique one -particularly as classical antique ones - designates however excluding that Greek - Roman antiquity (depending upon temporal demarcation starting from 12. or 8. Century v. Chr.). The more comprehensive term „antiquity “encloses thus also this epoch.
At the beginning of the antiquity those standsTraining of the writing and the old-eastern realms of Anterior Asia - Mesopotamien (Sumer, Akkad, Babylonien, Mittani, Assyrien), Iranian high country (Elam, media, Persia), Levante (Ugarit) and small Asia/Anatolien (Hethiterreich, Phrygien, Lydien, Luwien) - as well as Egypt.
Into the end time the decay of the Roman and sassanidischen state structure falls during the people migration and the Arab expansion (fall of west Rome 476/480; Death Justinians 565; Destructionthe Sassanidenreichs 651). In the newer research the transition period between antique ones and the Middle Ages becomes (of the end of the 3. to beginning 7. Century) as an independent epoch counted, see late ancient times.
the civilizations of the antiquity developed from the fully developed Jungneolithikum (Chalkolithikum) out, characterized through: producing agriculture(Agriculture, aminal husbandry), arbeitsteilige society, fundamental metallurgical techniques, supraregional trade and stockpiling economy as well as permanence in ummauerten settlements. With the following cultures the training of the writing already connects itself, as their forerunner of pictograms and ideograms since the Jungpaläolithikum (e.g. on rock designs) inUse had been; the symbols developed starting from center 4. Millenium v. Chr. - possibly in mutual influence - in Mesopotamien to the cuneiform script and in Egypt to hieroglyphics further (from latter by kanaanitische switching starting from that 3. Millenium v.Chr. still further to alphabet writings). These new recording methods made states possible with durably furnished rule, administrative and religion apparatuses, which mark the beginning of the antiquity as first advanced cultures.
see major items: Sumerer
the first advanced cultureal development phase starting from center4. Millenium manifested itself in the south Mesopotamiens in the sumerischen city states, the most important of which Uruk, Ur, Eridu, Larsa , Lagasch and Kisch were. In particular Uruk drew opposite other cities by absolute size and ageits plant out. These centers were based on a constantly developed and widely distributed irrigation system, which was organized in the context of a national temple economy. Also already early trade relations are provable to Arabia and India owing to clay/tone pieces of broken glass , bronze artifacts and roll seals. Crucial economic impulses gavenot least the wheel and the Töpferscheibe. The rising requirements at trade and agriculture caused and favoured the development of a writing, which served first only the bookkeeping. That documents the transition to the writing as personal and collective style as oneoldest literary certifications the Gilgamesch Epos over a probably mythologischen king Uruks from that 26. Century v. Chr. The remarkable agreements with passages of the genesis and Greek origin myths (Deukalion and Pyrrha) are a voucher for the cultural continuum of theAntiquity.
The guidance of the city states was incumbent on priest princes, who united the lay and religious power on itself. The architectural expression pronouncedly polytheistisch - cosmological Religiosität Sumers was the Zikkurate, up to fifty meters high Stufenpyramiden; the palace plants beside themplayed a only representative role. The individual cities nearly constantly lay with their neighbours in the conflict over water laws, commercial routes and tribute payments; the wars remained however limited in their effects; a city-spreading realm formation did not happen. Starting from that 3. Millenium v.Chr. Nomaden from the north immigrated. The sumerische king list documents this by emerging semitischer names (Sumeri is so far an not assigned language). In this epoch, which led also to the destruction of the monumental temples, the unit of more religious brokeand lay power. The rulers of this time showed its claim to power with now also functional palaces as well as with graves, in which they bestatten themselves with their attendants left. At the end of this so-called Frühdynasti period, of 25. up to 24. Centuryv. Chr. , extended the sumerische sphere of influence lasted for the first time to to the Mediterranean.
see major items: Frühdynasti time (Egypt)
in Egypt found contrary to Sumer already the political agreement of the country to end 4. Millenium instead of, howthe geographical given protection against external influences (desert situation) the closed realm development to have favoured might. Several Kleinkönigtümer, which draw themselves into the two spheres of influence of Oberägyptens (with center in Nekhen) and Unterägyptens (with center in Buto) had grouped, became inseveral generations a continuing process for instance in the middle 32. Jh. v. Chr. under upper-Egyptian rule combines. At the beginning of the historical time and at the turn of the Prä to the Frühdynastik the ruler names appeared scorpio in the oldest written excessive quantities, Narmer and Aha, which summarized the later excessive quantity in the mythologischen shape of a realm being Niger Menes. At the end of the frühdynastischen time (end 28. Jh. V. Chr.) handed Egyptian power in the Sinai, the direct trade relations until Byblos in Lebanon.
Already the rulers of the first dynasties supported their rule by a state with central management system and by a Gottkönigtum, falkengestaltige in which they appeared to Horus as human Manifestation of the sky God. The religion was anyhow coined/shaped ofGod-light animals (lion, bull and cow), at whose side only at the end mixing natures with animal head and people body stepped the epoch. The the other world thought was very much pronounced. Enormous Sakralbauten and grave plants became from Nile mud bricks in bag era with Memphis and in Abydosestablished. United Egypt was based on still during the Prädynastik highly developed culture and interest in civilization refinement (faience, splendor making up boards). The hieroglyphic writing found use in cult and administrative recordings (control registers) increasing, in addition, with the calendar and for Anna reading tables shortest inscriptions, thoseBildwerke described.
see major items: Akkader
in the sumerischen culture area came it in the second half of the third millenium v. Chr. to profound changes. Of Akkad, a city north the sumerischen heartland, outgoing,established Sargon a large realm. It succeeded to this king not only to expand its sphere of influence since the hinterland of its hometown to unite but Mesopotamien under its rule completely. This probably leaves itself both on Sargons to an unusual guidance character and on military reformslead back. The akkadische army was more mobile than that of the sumerischen city states and this therefore superior. With Sargons death it prevailed over a realm, which extended from Persian Gulf to to the Mediterranean, whereby it also the first employment of a sea-armed forceone attributes.
In this time also an expansion of the writing culture took place. In the mesopotamischen border area, particularly in the realm centered on Susa Elam cuneiform script boards had developed already before.
See major items: Old realm (Egypt)
in Egypt continued the development unhindered. After the incorporation of the Nildeltas the realm expanded to the south. The rule structures were refined, the culture accepted their final shape. This shows up above allin the building of monumental grave plants, which should finally reach their high point in the third and fourth dynasties with the pyramids.
With the third dynasty, their beginning on 2707 v. Chr. , begins themselves the history of the old person of realm is dated,particularly by new architectural achievements marks. Beside the pyramids developed enormous palaces and sculptures, whose most well-known example is the Sphinx of Giseh. The most important owners of that time were Djoser, which let the first Stufenpyramide build, Snofru, Cheops and Chephren. How generally speaking monumental architecture was perfected, also the smaller art forms refined themselves. Painting and sculpture reached first high points. In the religion the sun God RA got a greater importance. Djedefra was the first king, itself „the sonthe RA “called. Since the fifth dynasty RA in its meaning overshadows also Horus.
see major items: Bronzezeit
dominance, those copper still in the second millenium the v. Chr. possessed, went gradually on those Bronze over. For its production one needed tin, which was probably introduced to Mesopotamien from western Iran or from Usbekistan beside in the meantime almost pervasive copper, who was now article systematic of mining industry, also.
In Egypt copper became andBronze only relatively late imported. Copper attained here never the same value as in Mesopotamien, while the bronze, which was probably never manufactured in Egypt, but only imported, could become generally accepted soon in the art and with the military. Here revealeditself a large problem for the development of the Egyptians. Egypt was poor in raw materials, which led to the fact that the trade relations had to be outward strengthened. Finally this is probably also the reason for it, why both the Bronzezeit and thoseEisenzeit in Egypt for a long time needed, in order to arrive at full bloom.
the high Bronzezeit
the realm of the Akkader went not for a long time to SargonsDeath both due to internal unrests as well as outside threat at the basis. A restoration of the sumerischen city states began, which continued however not for a long time. Ever more peoples, the Elamiter and Amurriter from the outside penetrated formed powerful realms, those soon on Mesopotamienspread. The end of the sumerischen time was creeping. The individual sumerischen princes won increasingly in power. The most powerful realm was first from Larsa, but soon the up to then unknown Babylon under guidance Hammurabis fought for the supremacy. Hammurabithe second large realm based on mesopotamischen soil. It reached the range of the large realm of Akkad not completely and disintegrated briefly after Hammurabis death again, however the effect on Mesopotamien was lasting. The administrative structures were refined and it becamecomprehensive Gesetzkodex compiles. Besides also Babylon a longer lifetime than Akkad was given to the city; soon it became completely the largest and most important Mesopotamiens.
Although in the Iranian mountain country the people of the Kassiten ascended to a power threatening for Babylon,and by frequent attacks on Mesopotamien, came the actual mortal blow became apparent for the realm completely unexpectedly from small Asia. Here the Hethiter had to develop begun a realm and attacked 1530 v. Chr. Babylon. It acted with thisInvasion not around a conquest course. The Hethiter plünderten only the city and withdrew themselves immediately into its realm area. However the Kassiten used and transferred this instant of the weakness of the Babylonian realm to Babylonien power.
the first century of the kassitischen rule in Mesopotamien remains due to sources lacking in the dark. At that time the Hethiterreich expanded to the south, where it in conflict with the Mitanni, a hurritischen state State of, that the extreme northMesopotamiens up to the Syrian Mediterranean coast took. Here after the end of the Akkadi realm the cultural life had strengthened. To a considerable realm formation it did not come, but developed larger settlements, which move through trade to wealth came,so for example Ugarit, era DOS, Byblos and Tyros.
see major items: New realm (Egypt)
the cities mentioned fell themselves to the majority at Egypt, after the expansion to the south now against the raw material-rich Anterior Asiaturned.Kanaan, Phönizien and the Levante became around 1500 v. Chr. by the Egyptians, under Thutmosis III. conquers. (1479-1425 v. Chr.) reached it its largest expansion and the high point of its power and bordered even on the Euphrates. ThoseKings of the 18. Dynasty, now already representatives of the new realm, were possibly most powerful Egyptian history. Amenophis IV., better admits than Echnaton introduced, however religious and social innovations, those particularly to the priest caste on substantial resistancepushed. It wanted to implement a monotheistische religion with the sun disk Aton as an only divinity. The capital was shifted into the again created Amarna. From here on pursued the king sophisticated diplomatic relations with the neighbour states. Its revolution failed however brieflyto his death, and Egypt dropped back again into the old structures.
see major items: History of Greece
on the today Greek island Crete developed around 2000 v. Chr. a first advanced culture, those that Minoer. The few archaeological certifications permit a limited view of the herrschaftliche palace culture, but the religious and political structures remain hidden. As safe it is considered that the Minoer attached great importance to the navigation and possibly already colonial expansion claimant.At that time they were probably prevailing power in the Ägäis. Around 1450 v. Chr. this culture had disappeared however suddenly, without certifications of any kind remained from this fall. Around 1300 v. Chr. Crete was toPart mykenischen culture area become.
The mykenische Greece was divided into several small kingdoms, from which the most important probably Mykene, Pylos and Athens were. The Greek culture achieved a provisional high point in the mykenischen time, however the Mykener appliedalso as aggressive Plünderer. The legend of the Trojan war is interpreted today as Romantisierung of a mykenischen raid.
the end of the Bronzezeit
the expansion of the Hethiter led to the collision with Egypt. To hethitischen conquests into the Levante cameit 1274 v. Chr. to the battle of Kadesch, which is considered as key event of the late Bronzezeit. With this battle no clear winner could be determined, and the one power equilibrium came finally documentary between to the first occupied peace agreement of world history,Specified to Egyptians and Hethitern.
In Mesopotamien this period of the efforts of the Assyrer to develop a large realm coined/shaped. From the central area around the capital Assur undertook the Assyrerkönige between 1300 and 1200 v. Chr. expanded war courses, those finally completelyMesopotamien under their rule brought. The Assyrer strove to accept mesopotamische traditions in order not to be considered as foreign rulers and to legitimize a universal requirement for rule. In the west the assyrische realm reached the Euphrates, which brought it in contact with the Hethitern.Similarly Egypt could reach Assyrien on diplomatic way a settlement of the conflict, so that finally a power triangle between Hatti, Egypt and Assyrien developed. This was however only from short duration, there around 1200 v. Chr. suddenly at the coaststhe eastern of Mediterranean the so-called sea-peoples appeared. It concerns here a multiplicity of small groups of peoples, to which one attributed in former times the collapse the mykenischen and hethitischen realms. Today one proceeds rather from local conflicts.
The hethitischen possessions at thatMediterranean coast and the mykenische culture fell these sea-peoples to the victim, to who it succeeded, in Syria and Palestine to settle (Philister). Shortly thereafter they attacked also Egypt, could of Ramses III.however to be struck back. The Hethiter suffered toresemble time under the invasion of the Phryger, which finally led under not yet completely clarified circumstances to the fall by force of its realm. The assyrische large realm went down regarding internal unrests and had first that again erstarkenden Babylonien its rank asHegemonial power in Mesopotamien transfer. At the same time increasingly Mesopotamiens arose the Aramäer in the borders. Only Egypt could protect, although by meeting one another with the sea-peoples strongly weakened, its national structures.
see major items: Eisenzeit
toothis time won the Eisenverarbeitung increasingly in meaning. The transition into the Eisenzeit ran flowing, but around 1000 v. Chr. the iron had displaced the bronze processing in the frontasiatic area.
after the fall of the Hethiterreiches and the fall of the kassitischen Babyloniens particularly caused by the Aramäer the Assyrer under Tiglat more pileser I. developed again in the front Orient a power vacuum , that.(1114-1076 v. Chr.) ready were to be filled out. Tiglatpilesar succeeded it to expand the realm to to the Mediterranean coast. This new large realm fell after its death however the Aramäern to the victim, and Assyrien was back-pushed on the heartland around Assur.
The Assyrer hadmaintain ground now against a number of aramäischer small states. Only about one century after Tiglatpilesars death succeeded it to the assyrischen king Assur dan II.(912-891 v. To expand Chr.) again its realm. The Assyrer could attain the supremacy in the north Mesopotamiens again andfinally conquer areas from the Urmiasee and the Zagrosgebirge to to the Mediterranean coast. Later fell also Babylonien, Syria and Palestine at Assyrien, and which knew in the northern mountains ascending realm of Urartu is defeated. On the high point of their power, 663v. Chr., controlled the Assyrer even Egypt until Theben.
The Assyrer had however overstretched its realm. Internal difficulties made for the realm to create in such a way that the rule structure crumbled. Particularly in Babylonien such a hate developed on the Assyrer,that a large rebellion was finally kindled, which led with the help of the Meder to the fact that the assyrischen Residenzstädte Assur and Ninive were destroyed not only taken but fundamentally. After the death of the last assyrischen king Assur Uballit II.was from thatnothing more remaining, and two hundred years later its existence was guessed/advised assyrischen realm in oblivion.
power had taken over detail of the Babylonian Ischtar gate in Babylonien. Allied with the Medern they knew their power after the end of Assyriensexpand since substantial parts of the former Assyrerreiches, so that it under Nebukadnezar II.with that one was almost congruent. At this time also the city Babylon had achieved its cultural bloom. The buildings of splendour Nebukadnezars became in opinion of today's scientists later thanthe hanging gardens combined into a world miracle of the antique ones. The Mardukkult existing since Hammurabi experienced its high point with the building of a 90 meters high Zikkurates - the Biblical tower of Babel -. Babylon became with approximately millions inhabitant toothe largest city of their time. This splendourful development went however on the costs of the subjected peoples, in particular the Jews, who were kidnapped into the Babylonian shank.
In small Asia that formed around Gordion on the rubble of the HethiterreichesRichly the Phryger. Nevertheless Hatti remained first freely by their influence and developed here späthethitische small states. The Phrygerreich had to fight soon with the incident Kimmeriern and Skythen, and fell gradually to the Lyderreich outgoing from Sardes to the victim.
at the Nile made itself starting from the end 2. Millenium v. Chr. a purge of the herrschaftlichen structures noticeably, which found its expression in political confusions and civil wars. The priests of the Amun won increasingly in power and could occasionallyeven establish a kind God state in Oberägypten. In 8. Century v. Chr. Egypt finally fell under control of the Kuschiten, which tried, to stop Assyrien in its ascent. This led finally due to the weakness of the Egyptian realm to conquestthe Nile area by the Assyrer, which drove out the Kuschiten from the country and with the re-establishment of the Egyptian rule the end introduced. Since Egypt faced the Assyrern due to these events friendly, it came along after the fall Assyriens to the conflictthe Babyloniern, which finally flowed in the conquest of Egypt by the Perser.
in the Mediterranean area fundamental changes took place at this time. In 10. Century v. Chr. colonizing began by the Phönizier in North Africa and upthe Iberi peninsula. This Kolonialisierung is to be attributed probably to the fact that the particulars, from each other independent cities Phöniziens by constant trade to such wealth and growth came that they were threatened by population of over, also because her landinward not expand could not.Thus probably also economic considerations go, because the raw material-rich areas of North Africa and Spain were purposefully headed for. The fertility of the countries and the wealth at different merchandise, among other things silver and gold, led to the fact that the phönizischen colonies soon sobecame rich like their nut/mother cities. Among the most important establishments of that time rank Karthago, Gades, Ebusos and Panormos. In the Ägäisraum strong social pagings took place after the fall of the mykenischen culture also due to new migration movements from the north,due to the unsatisfactory source situation the dark age to be called. On the Peloponnes the expansion Spartas began. Into other ranges of Greece the king rule changed structures into the Polis -. At the end of these developments usually democratic orders stood inthe individual city states, however there were also authoritarian political systems, which got either only gradually democratic courses (e.g.Further an authoritarian ruler kept Athens), or however at its point ( the Tyrannis, e.g. Pherai).
The close settlement of Greeceled finally to a population of over, who ended also on the part of Greece in a colonizing of the Mediterranean area (so-called large Kolonisation). It came also occasionally to conflicts with the Phöniziern, but the Greeks generally settled above all the north coast of theMediterranean. The Kolonialisierung proceeded mainly from Korinth, Megara, Chalkis and Milet . Main areas of the Kolonialisierung were the Iberi peninsula, Sicily and Unteritalien (Magna Graecia), the northern Ägäisraum as well as the whole black sea coast. Particularly on Siciliesthe Greek Kolonisten with the phönizischen colonies came into contact. This led to conflicts and wars, which coined/shaped the history of the island up to conquest by the Romans.
Also in Italy the structures changed in this time. Withinfluencing the Greeks those reached residents of peoples the historicity here. Around 900 v. Chr. the culture of the Etrusker from the iron-temporal forerunners of the mansion new fact culture formed. The Etrusker stretched their area to 500 v. Chr. on large partsItaly including the Poebene and Kampaniens out. It concerns here to a large extent uniform, also Greek coined/shaped, culture range, not however around a commonwealth. The Etrusker was splintered similarly as the Greeks and Phönizier on individual city states, howeveron the whole outward uniformly arose, in particular against the Greeks and different italische master ranges like the Latinern, Umbriern or Venetern. Since its writing until today is not deciphered, the culture is particularly over grave findsinvestigated.
the classical antique one
see major items: Perserreich
the large realm of the Babylonier in the front Orient began to crumble already briefly after its emergence. It did not succeed to the successors Nebukadnezars, their power into thatindividual ranges of the kingdom to intersperse, and also within the core range Babylonien the popularity of the ruling family sank. Thus it did not come surprisingly that the Persian king Kyros II. by the population proper one welcomed. Kyros had in the years before from Persia, a vassal state of the medischen realm, a large realm made as it the medischen king Astyages had defeated and its capital Ekbatana had taken, where he became in personnel union at the same time king of the Meder and Perser. Few years later it conquered also that Lyderreich under Kroisos and the Greek cities which are because of the smallasiatic coast. 539 v. Chr. Babylon was finally taken, and Kyros accepted the native crown also here, so that he was nominal at the same time king of three realms. Its sonand successor Kambyses II. this thing the crown of Egypt added, which it in year 525 v. Chr. conquered. With its death in the year 522 v. Chr. the realm threatened to fall apart, there still during its campaign in Egypt the leanin Persia had usurped the throne . A member of the staff of the Kambyses, Dareios I., it succeeded, to eliminate the usurpers and to occupy the throne. In the realm serious rebellions broke out however shortly thereafter, and Dareios needed twoTo strengthen years around its rule.
finally succeeded it to Dareios nevertheless to unite the realm under its rule and within its borders up to the Indus in the east and into the Kyrenaika in the westto expand. Also in the Ägäisraum the Achämenidenreich designated after the founder of the dynasty played an increasingly influential role. After the Persian expansion 480 v. Chr. with the battle of salamis and one year later with battle of Plataiai of the Greeksstopped was (see Perserkriege), turned the realm the inside too. Already under Dareios I. extensive political and social innovations were introduced. Whether one in view of the introduction of Persian standards in nearly all ranges of the political, and to largeParts of the cultural life of a Persian realm culture to speak can is rather doubtful; instead it can be observed that the Perser treated the peoples, their traditions and cultures, controlled by them, and even the political systems with large respect. Also understoodthe large king as a king of a Persian realm, but did not call itself „king of the kings “and „king of the countries and peoples “. This Zusammengehörigkeitsgefühl finds also in royal inscriptions and reliefs in the king cities Susa, Persepolis, Pasargadai and Ekbatanaas well as at the graves in Naqsh i Rustam expression.
The Persian rule was felt nevertheless of some peoples, in particular the Egyptians, as suppression, so that the realm in early 4. Century v. Chr. larger area losses to accept had. Also the individual province managers,the Satrapen, kindled increasingly rebellions against the largeroyal rule. Artaxerxes III.(359-338 v. Chr.) succeeded it however to implement its power with all hardness and some border areas, above all to Egypt, to integrate again into the realm. A profound restoration of the realmhowever by his murder one prevented, and few years later the area was conquered by Alexander the large one.
see major items: Antique Greece
the political and cultural developments of Greece led around 500 v.Chr. at the beginning of the classical period, one epoch, which is characterised by refinement and completion of philosophical, political and cultural ideas. Politically seen the beginning of the athenischen democracy and the fights against the Perserreich stand at the beginning the classical period.This so-called Perserkriege caused a thing in common feeling in an extent, which had here so far not given it in the Greek states. One understood oneself as a defender of the Hellenic culture against the foreign barbarians (whereby this term not yet the today's meaninghad, but one used as comprehensive term for all not-Greek peoples). The Greek state world was coined/shaped nevertheless by internal tearing upness, which was also only partly overcome in view of the outside threat.
An important characteristic of the time after the successful protection against the Perser(and following release the Greek pole ice at the west coast of small Asia; around 477 v. Chr.) was Athenisch Spartani dualism, a continual fight for the supremacy in the Ägäisraum. This led 431 v. Chr. to the outbreak serious following of the having Peloponnesi war, which one did not call to injustice an antique world war, and, briefly after its end of 404 v. Chr., to the Korinthi war (395-386 v. Chr.), at its end the king peace stood. This clarified also the supremacy of Persiaand the Persian large king Artaxerxes II., since the zerstrittene Greek state world was not able to find from own Kraft a mode vivendi. The contract contained also the explanation that all Greek cities and islands should become independent.For the smaller Greek states this much did not mean, but for Athens, Sparta and Theben this was an enormous paging. Sparta was considered as guaranteeing power to the Persian sovereignty in Greece, and held thus those long contested Hegemonialstellung. The goal,a general peace to intersperse, remained however unequalled, because the contract encountered resistance on the part of Athens and Thebens, and latter could finally defeat Sparta in the battle of Leuktra and eliminate few years of late Sparta as Greek large realm. The thebanischeHegemony collapsed shortly thereafter however again in itself, there power Thebens of a person, Epameinodas, which went out prominent figure of the thebanischen policy, the 362 v. Chr. with the battle of Mantineia fell.
Many Greeks felt in that oneTime that the former gloss of the civilization went down regarding political confusions. Thus some speakers, in particular ISOC advice, demanded the combination of the Greek states for the purpose of a large-scale revenge campaign against the Perser, the 480 v. Chr. Athens had destroyed.This became finally of the Macedonian king Philipp II. tackled, between 359 and the 338 v. Chr. almost completely Greece and large parts that north and east of Macedonia of areas Illyrien and Thrakien lain conquer, and 338 v.Chr. with Chaironeia an allied athenisch thebanisches army destroying to strike could. As new Hegemon Greece it planned a war course against the Persian realm, however by its murder 336 the v. Chr. one defeated.
the mental and cultural lifein Greece
generally is regarded the Greek classical period as origin and starting point of the abendländischen culture. Way-preparing for the Greek literature probably was the Epen of the Homer, which was considered already to the Greek as holy. In thatlyric lives of Greece ascended soon the drama to the most popular literature form. The works of drama writers such as Aischylos, Aristophanes or Euripides became pointing the way for the entire following abendländische literature. With Herodot began in 5. Century v. Chr. the historiography, thosefor the first time permits detail-faithful reconstructing of historical events to large extent, while Thukydides, the chronicler of the Peloponnesi war, which justified scientific historiography.
The probably most meaning achievement of the mental life is however arising philosophy. With the school of the Sokrates, beside their founder above all the Platon belonged, and the school of the Aristoteles, the philosophy of the antique ones reached their high point, and at that time the starting points and from them, developed, compiled works are also today still thoseBases of the Christian abendländischen ethics. Other art forms such as music, architecture, sculpture and painting reached likewise a bloom time. The achievements of the Greeks formed the foundation-stone for later developments also here.
western Mediterranean area
in the western Mediterranean rose thataround 800 v. Chr. created Karthago owing to active commercial activities to an important great power up. A colony of Tyros Karthago could bring soon the phönizischen settlements in this area under its supremacy. This led on Sicilies to the contact with thatthere Greek colonies, above all the powerful Syrakus, which finally led to several wars. Despite alliances with the Persern and the Etruskern in Italy it did not succeed to Karthago to force a decision.
Karthago does not know so active mental andcultural life up like Greece, which was probably because of the fact that owing to the trade relations influences came from the whole Mediterranean area into the city and its realm, which should coin/shape the cultural identity. The largest achievements of the Karthager leave themselves thereforein another area find, to the navigation. The city was always, particularly because of the earlier dependence on Tyros, which Mediterranean turned been, which caused a maritime orientation and therefore a high development of the navigation. Like that was the Karthageralso the first civilization of the Mediterranean area also beyond these became active. Discovery travels up to today's Gabon and to Scandinavia already found in 6. Century v. Chr. instead of, Karthago becomes of Herodot also orbiting the African continent, thosealready the Phönizier on behalf the Egyptian king Necho II. achieved, had attributed.
see major items: History of the brightism
after death Philipps II. its son Alexander the large one took over thosePower. After it had strengthened its rule in Greece, it began 334 v. Chr. a campaign against the Persian realm to release and since longer demanded revenge war accomplish first in order the Greek cities in small Asia. In only two yearsit succeeded to it to take the entire eastern Mediterranean coast including Egypt. It placed the Persian large king Dareios III. in the battle with Issos.
Despite the Macedonian-Greek victory Dareios and main header a new army escaped out, that in the levelfrom Gaugamela in the northern Mesopotamien his opponent expected (331 v. Chr.). Also in this battle Alexander triumphed and could finally advance unhindered after Babylon, Susa and into the Persian heartland, where he took Persepolis and Ekbatana. Here the revenge campaign ended, andcontinuing the war against Dareios became a personal affair Alexanders, to which it succeeded to win the army for this. To a last decisive battle it did not come however, because Dareios was murdered by the Satrapen Bessos, that for itself thatTitle of the large king in requirement took. Alexander understood therefore the sequential campaign now as retaliation against this betrayal and advanced into the centralasiatic Baktrien, where him Bessos was delivered. But the conquest course continued, and a kind guerilla warfare followed,particularly against the northern Sakenstämme. As central Asia 327 v. Chr. finally as befriedet, floated Alexanders conquest urge it applied in the Industal, where he fought against a set of princes and him its army troubled by homesickness finally toReturn forced. The Greeks brought still the remainder of the Indusgebietes under their control and began by the Gedrosi desert an involving heavy losses return journey. After the return 325 v. Chr. Alexander in Babylon yard held, where he 323 v. Chr. died.A planned Arabia campaign did not come off.
Alexanders ideology shifted from a purely Greek nationalistic coined/shaped revenge thought with the time to the idea of reconciliation between Greeks and Nichtgriechen, the so-called barbarian. This found in various regard expression, above allby numerous establishments of city in the areas conquered by it, an organized mass wedding between Greek soldiers and Persian women and not last also in the fact that Alexander its Königtum increases Persian and eastern courses lent. This encountered with the Greeks resistance,and by this eastern rule thought nothing more is to be found after its death. The thought of reconciliation between and the fusion of the peoples was again given up, and much more the attempt developed to introduce the Greek culture to the eastern areas.This again encountered resistance with the subjected peoples, and the Greek successors Alexanders were back-pushed gradually from the conquered areas. Traces of the Greek civilization kept nevertheless, particularly in Baktrien, in addition, in Mesopotamien, thatstill be enough under Greek rule. Syria, small Asia and Egypt however were assigned from now at the Greek culture area. In Egypt causes the fusion of native and Greek culture elements succeeded, in particular in the new capital Alexandria. In Syria and small Asiahowever displaced the Greek there cultures as far as possible.
The internal Zerstrittenheit of the Greek states, which had only won a larger geographical expansion by Alexander, led finally to the fact that the entire Greek area more and more attached to the Roman realmbecame, to 60 v. Chr. the entire area with exception of Egypt, which was conquered only thirty years later, became Roman and here the Roman culture the Greek fundamentally did not replace, but strongly affected.
the Roman realm
See major items: Roman realm
Rome was from its origins a city state, that with a new political order, the Republic of, the political, cultural and mental demarcation to the former Vormacht thatEtrusker searched. From the inside by this system strengthened it succeeded to the Romans to shake first etruskische power off (the legend after around 510 v. Chr., in the reality probably became the republic around 475 v. Chr. justified) and its independence tooconfirm and protect. From now on no more kings prevailed and the state became res publica, „the public affair “in Rome. After 387 v. Chr. the Celts Rome had occupied and had geplündert, saw Rome in the territorial extensionthe best keeping of its existence and went into the offensive. After a long set of wars against the neighbouring peoples of the Etrusker, SAM rivets, Latiner, Sabiner, Umbrer and finally the Greeks settling in South Italies (see also Pyrrhus) Rome had 270 v. Chr. completely Italy up to the Poebene under its control.
264 v. Chr. the first Puni war, the 241 v. began with rivaling Roman and karthagischen interferences on Sicilies. Chr. with the defeat Karthagos andended to the Roman income Siziliens. In the future Rome expanded its area on the before times karthagischen islands Sardinien and Korsika, while the Karthager with conquests in Spain sought to recover their lost power. This led to renewed tensions between bothPowers, itself 218 the v. Chr. unloaded Saguntum by the Karthager Hannibal into the second Puni war of the city allied with Rome with the income. Hannibal led a campaign to Italy, the 216 v. Chr. with the karthagischen victory overRome in the battle of Cannae culminated. Hannibal was able to take however not Rome and remained active in southern Italy, which permitted the Romans to develop the lost military strength again and go into the offensive. This became however firstconsciously not directly directed against the armed forces Hannibals separate to the possessions in Spain, which fell in the course of the war at Rome. A karthagische Gegenoffensive failed with the battle at the Metaurus and forced Hannibal finally to the retreat to North Africa,where it 202 v. Chr. with Zama by the Romans under Scipio one defeated.
In the future the Romans extended their areas in Spain, north Italy, Gallien and at the illyrischen coast, to it 149 v. Chr. to third PuniWar came, which ended in the perfect destruction Karthagos. The city was gradened, the areas was annektiert.
Starting from 200 v. Chr. Rome was also in Greece and in the eastern Mediterranean area actively, where it reacted first to assistance calls, in runs the followingWars however to the Ägäisraum completely under his control brought. 133 v. Chr. Rome of the king at that time inherited Attalos III. the realm Pergamon and received thereby its first province on the asiatic mainland.
the crisis period of the republic
Starting from approximately 120 v. Chr. the Germanic trunks of the Kimbern and Teutonen began to move after the south, where they were regarded of the Romans as serious threat. At repeated defeats it succeeded to the Romans under Marius due to an army reform thoseto defeat and strike back incident peoples. By participation in the Mithridati wars Rome in small Asia gained some vassal states. The absence of the armed forces led in Rome however to a reinforcement of political confusions, which prevailed since the reform attempt of the Gracchen(see in addition:Gracchi reforms and Roman civil wars). The difficulties relating to domestic affairs of the republic were not least the political structure of the republic owed, which had hardly become the control of such a realm, Rome, were sufficient. Besides the crisis period became thatlate republic by ambitious politicians and military aggravates, who pursued their own goals, which led in the senate to the fight between the Optimaten in such a way specified and the popular one. Successful general Sulla it succeeded to that to 82 v. Chr. with the invasion inRome, which settle Streittigkeiten (also by the employment of force) provisionally and established a dictatorship, those up to its resignation 79 v. Chr. continued.
the re-establishment of stable political conditions succeeded however above allnot, because the slave rebellion of the Spartacus in the Italian heartland radical measures required and the command authority Crassus and Pompeius became to transfer. After the suppression of the rebellion both eliminated the laws Sullas in the common consulate, closed however secretly an alliance alsothe goal actually of tearing as much as possible power. 60 v. Chr. Julius Caesar this federation followed, whereby the so-called first Triumvirat (i.e. an unofficial Kollegium from three men was justified). The largest beneficiary of this order was Caesar,on own fist the Gallien conquered completely. The alliance broke 53 v. Chr. as Crassus with Carrhae in a battle against fell part ago.
Pompeius regarded Caesar now as a personal rival and demanded 49 v. Chr. from Rome thoseResignation of its offices. Caesar reacted with the march to Rome, which led to the civil war between the trailers Caesars and those of the Pompeius. 46 v. Chr. Pompeius was defeated with Thapsus and Caesar became the exclusive ruler of Rome to it 44v. Chr. one murdered. In confusions like civil war following on it the senate assigned the Caesaranhänger Marcus Antonius to form Octavian and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, a Kollegium for the re-establishment of the political order (so-called second Triumvirat). 32 v. Chr.this ended however with the struggles for power of the two Triumvirn Antonius and Octavian, which ended in a civil war, which Octavian could decide for itself and finally transfer to Rome exclusive power.
early ones and high Kaiser era
Octavian succeeded it to arouse by skillful reforms the impression the fact that the republic was restored, while it transferred the autocracy to reality and so that justified the order of the Prinzipates. As a first Roman emperor alsothe honour name Augustus (dt. „the raised one “) it added Rome new areas in Spain, the alpine region, Illyrien and small Asia and took also Egypt for Rome in possession. However campaigns in Germanien failed with the battle in the Teutoburger forest. Underits successors Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius and Nero the order of the Prinzipats was strengthened and new areas in North Africa, small Asia, Thrakien and Britannien were added the Imperium, although inside the emperors after Tiberius less able or, howin case of Caligulas and Neros, dekadent and/or. probably were mentally not perfectly responsible. After the murder Neros (68 n. Chr.) came it to a short civil war with the victory of the Vespasian ended. Under Nero also the Christianity came for the first timeto the appearance.
With the emperors after Vespasian Rome reached the high point of its power. Vespasian reorganized finances and stabilized the administration; also its sons Titus and Domitian altogether regarded successfully governed, even if Domitian 96 v. Chr. a conspiracyto the victim fell and one murdered. The so-called foster emperors followed the Flaviern . Under Trajan the realm with conquest Dakiens , Mesopotamiens, Assyriens and Armenia achieved its largest expansion, most of it gained areas became brief from itsSuccessor Hadrian however again given up. While the reign Mark of Aurels (161-180) came it to invasions of the Teutons into the realm, those the emperor only with trouble by several large-scale campaigns gentleman become could. After the death of its incapable son andSuccessor Commodus (180-192) came it again to the civil war, which went out in favor of the Septimius Severus. Severus could not re-establish the internal peace in Rome however durably, and after the murder of its successor Caracalla in the year 218 the order of the realm beganto break apart. This culminated to 235 with the Meuterei of the Roman army in Mainz and the murder of the last Severers, Severus Alexander by its troops, which the age of renewed civil wars and the soldier emperor released.
late Kaiser era
see major items: Late ancient times
in this also as realm crisis of the 3. Century designated time threatened the realm apart completely to break. The continuous invasions of Germanic peoples from the north and the Erstarkung Persia under the Sasaniden meant serious threats for Rome, because a large numberthis occasional to, the fact by generals it led the emperor throne stressed and that the armies of the realm were complicated among themselves in military fighting. Temporarily areas of the realm (Gallien, Britannien and the realm of Palmyra) dropped. Border areas in Germanien and Dakienhad to be given up. Only Diokletian succeeded to stabilize it again with comprehensive reforms the realm. This accompanied with the practical partitioning of the realm in two large and four these subordinated smaller managements, which were governed by four emperors (Tetrarchie). Under Diokletian also last large-scale Christian pursuits were accomplished. These reforms did not fail however for a long time thereafter, and Konstantin the large one the autocracy took over 324 over the realm. The seat of the government became from Rome into the Konstantinopel designated after itshifted. Konstantin well-known itself allegedly at the dying bed to the Christian faith. Thus the way for a fundamental Christianisierung of the realm was smoothed, the 391 in the prohibition of the practice of all heidnischen cults by Theodosius I. culminated.
Starting from the second half of the4. Century penetrated increases Germanic trunks into the Roman rule area, there it, after the destruction of the Gotenreichs in south Russia through the Hunnen (375) and the escape of the Donaugoten into the Roman realm (376), into east and Central Europe to migration movements a largerPeople shanks had come. The Teutons broken in into the Imperium were settled partially on Roman soil as Foederaten. This and increasing recruiting of also highest military for the Roman army led however gradually to the formation of Germanic realms on thatSoil of the Imperiums and for the internal loss of actual power. At the east border Rome was hardly successful in the fight against the Perserreich erstarkte again under the Sassaniden. The Roman possessions could become to a large extent secured, but a Roman Vormachtanspruch could do not intersperse themselves in this region no more.
395 the realm was divided actually (however not formally) into an east and a western part. The reasons for this are to be found in overstretching the realm, because of the rising population and thatincreasing threat the Imperium made no longer controllable from the outside. The west realm, which had been hardest met by the attack of the Teutons, could not stabilize the borders any longer. After the murder of the army master Aëtius (454), that the Hunnenand the westRoman army had carried, dissolved the Teuton allied with them for still substantial resistance out actually. This led finally 476 to the end of the west realm, with which the history of the Imperium Romanum in the evening country, although many antique was terminatedTradition lines the case of west Rome outlasted. In the east the realm could maintain ground further, assumed however by its increasing Christian coinage and the dominance of the Greek culture as Byzantine realm soon completely different character.
In Iran the brightism could become generally accepted only conditionally. Set for the Greek rule in the 3. Century v. Chr. the collection setthat part ago an end, which justified the Arsakidenreich, a thing from to a large extent decentralized royal power and Vasallenfürsten. This realm worked also as a mediator between the western Greek-Roman world and the Indian and Chinese culture areas. Part ago had itself approximatelyThreats of the Romans in the west and the Nomadenstämme in the north maintain. This was made more difficult by the unstable feudale order inside the realm, and quite often there were throne confusions. Such confusions led for example also to the fact that those part ago their victorywith Carrhae (53 v. Chr.) not to use and the Roman realm fundamentally to weaken could. Afterwards Rome to a serious opponent that part ago, and increased had area losses to be accepted. Particularly around Armenia it came repeated to fighting.
That part-gentleman-calibrate experienced114 with the invasion Trajans in Mesopotamien, the center of parthischen power, a catastrophic defeat. After the task of these areas by Hadrian in the year 117, those could develop part ago their power however and again finally again to a serious opponentRome grow up: 161 began those part ago a war of aggression and penetrated into Armenia (the eternal Zankapfel between Rome and the Parthern and/or. later the Sasaniden), however 162 was struck back by the troops of the Avidius Cassius; the Romans conquered 165 thoseThe Roman troops withdrew themselves and brought capital Ktesiphon, 166 however again - thereby a form in of plague into the Roman realm. Soon the germ of the later fall grew up also inside the part ago realm; the vassal statePersia, increasingly dissatisfied with the parthischen rule and floated by an awaking national pride, could win in the following decades strongly at power.
218 closed part ago and Romans, following the part ago campaign Caracallas, which had been already murdered 217,Peace with one another. But at the same time a rebellion in Persia, the 224 inflamed to the victory of the Persian king Ardaschir I. over part ago the Artabanos IV. led. The Persian dynasty of the Sasaniden (or Sassaniden) took over power and justified the Sasanidenreich.Ardaschir and its son Schapur I.achieved control of all areas before times controlled by the Parthern, and attacked the Roman realm. It succeeded to the Persern to finally conquer Armenia and to defeat Roman troops several times. 260 became eventhe Roman emperor Valerian taken prisoner.
This ascent became by throne confusions between Bahram II. and Hormizd I. terminated, the Romans forced Persia to the peace treaty. Only Schapur II. (309-379) could go against Rome again into the offensive. Emperor Julian Apostata, that occurred to 363 with a large army in Mesopotamien, in a battle one killed. The Romans thereupon from the Persern in a forced manner to cessions of territory. In the northeast the Hephthaliten penetrated into Iran and developed to the second main opponent starting from 400the Perser.Peroz I. fell 484 in a battle against it, and Persia was forced due to this defeat into occasional tribute acres a dependence. At the same time broke out hunger emergencies in the realm, which led to rebellions.
All this also suppliedan attenuation of the aristocracy, which Chosrau I., the most important Sasanidenkönig, qualified to implement fundamental reforms in the realm and to close 532 peace with Rome. It however already broke 540 to these: A Persian army broke in in Syria and conqueredand the important Antiochia at the Orontes plünderte. Finally it succeeded to Chosrau I. to destroy also the Hephthalitenreich. Power in Arabia could be expanded and Yemen became a Persian province. Its grandchild Chosrau II.the realm continued to stretch stillout. It conquered Syria and Egypt starting from 603 and let 626 unsuccessfully Konstantinopel besiege, until emperor Herakleios drew back to the counterstroke and end of 627 could strike the Perser destroying. Chosrau was murdered 628. Long continuing throne confusions, those followed the realmin its bases weakened and thus starting from 634 using conquests of the Arabs facilitated.
to the problem
the antiquity term covers only the developments of Europe, and here completely particularly in the Mediterranean area, and thatfront Orient including Iran. Developments in other culture areas of the world cannot be considered by the chronological restriction. In Central America the antiquity became all developments of the first mesoamerikanischen advanced cultures (Olmeken, Zapoteken) around 1500 v. Chr.up to the Spanish destruction of the Maya culture in 17. Century, in India can such a containment still many more with difficulty be managed, in China are so well impossible they cover. Therefore the antiquity is as such a purely eurocentric term thatto other culture areas to apply does not leave itself. The only gradually taking place contacts between the civilizations described here and such in the Indian and Chinese-East Asian circle let such historical organizations for Europe and Anterior Asia be to a large extent unproblematic therefore. However the term must „Antiquity “also on the integration of the Celts and the Teuton do without, although these were located closely in the contact with the civilizations of the Mediterranean. The fact that these two cultures left to a large extent hardly written certifications and from grave finds admits is, leaves it to thatSpecialist area of the pre and early history assign.
|Wikiquote: Antiquity - quotations|
- Klaus bringing man: Roman history from the beginnings to late ancient times. C.H. Beck,Munich 1997, ISBN 3-406-393772.
(Very much knappe overview of the developments of Rome from the establishment to the time Justinians.)
- Eric Hornung: Fundamentals of Egyptian history. Scientific book company, Darmstadt 1978, ISBN 3-534-02853-8.
(Early period up to the foreign rule.)
- Bartel Hrouda: Mesopotamien.The antique cultures between Euphrates and Tigris. C.H. Beck, Munich 1997, ISBN 3-406-40330-1.
(Knappe overview of eventful history Mesopotamiens.)
- Detlef Lotze: Greek history from the beginnings to the brightism. C.H. Beck, Munich 1997, ISBN 3-406-39500-7.
(Likewise knappe overview of Greece in the before-Roman time).
- Josef Wiesehöfer: Early Persia. History of an antique world realm. C.H. Beck, Munich 1999, ISBN 3-406-43307-3.
- The Cambridge Ancient History. Div. Hrsg.,14. Bde. (partly in volumes) Cambridge 1970ff. (2.Aufl.)
(comprehensive and very important overall display of the antique one. The second Aufl. .) history
- of the antique ones was completely revised. A study book. Hrsg. of H. - J. Gehrke and H. Cutter. Metzler, Stuttgart 2000. ISBN 3-476-01455-X
(Fundamental introduction concerning. the Greek-Roman antiquity.)
- Routledge History OF the Ancient World (Routledge, London/New York):
- Amélie Kuhrt: The ancient Near East, 2 Bde., 1995.
- Robin Osborne: Greece into the making 1200-479 B. C., 1996.
- Simon Hornblower: TheGreek world 479-323 B. C., 3. Aufl., 2002. Discussion
- Graham Shipley: The Greek world after Alexander 323-30 B. C., 2000.
- Timothy J. Cornell: The beginnings OF Rome. Italy and Rome from the bronze Age ton the Punic Wars(C. 1000-264 B. C), 1995.
- Martin Goodman: The novel world 44 B. C. - A. D. 180., 1997.
- David S. Potter: The novel empire RK Bay, AD 180-395, 2004. Discussion
- Averil Cameron: The Mediterranean world in Late Antiquity A.D. 395-600, 1993.
(The Routledge History represents a fastidious overall display of the antiquity, whereby most volumes became long standard works.)
- Josef Wiesehöfer: The antique Persia of 550 v. Chr. to 650 n. Chr. Albatros, Duesseldorf 2005, ISBN 3-491-96151-3.
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|Wiktionary: Antiquity - word origin, synonyms and translations|