Old museum (Berlin)
old persons the museum (until 1845 royal museum) on the citizens of Berlin museum island was established to 1825 to 1828 by Karl Friedrich Schinkel in the style of the classicism and accommodated today the antique collection of the national museums to Berlin.
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in early 19. Century became the middle class in Germany appreciably more self-confidently and the idea of a museum accessible for all citizens began the focus of that up to then almost exclusively feudalen inaccessible art collections to away-steer. The citizen should receive the possibility of a comprehensive cultural education.
The enlightened Prussian king Friedrich William III. this Humboldt education ideal divided and assigned Karl Friedrich Schinkel the planning of a museum for the royal art collections. How he expressed 1841 in a decree, he wanted the whole Spree island to a free place for art and science umschaffen.
the planning of the architect Schinkel also drafts of the king were the basis, who sketched the museum island into to antikisierenden, akropolisartigen land development and him also a pencil sketch of a main building withdrawing behind Säulenhallen gave.
Schinkel embedded the building of the royal museum approximately in its planning into a klassizistisches ensemble around the desire garden . The city lock of the Hohenzollern in the south was the symbol of the lay power, which citizen of Berlin cathedral in the east embodied göttliche power and the new museum in the north should as free place of the arts and sciences of the education of the people serve.
Schinkel was already before responsible for the klassizistische transformation of the originally baroque cathedral been, also parallel to the building of the old person of museum the taking place reorganization of the desire garden by Peter Joseph Lenné decreased/went back to a large extent on Schinkels conceptions, which created such a matching klassizistisches ensemble.
old persons the museum ranks among the most important buildings of the classicism. With its clearly arranged outside form and internal structure it follows the organization canon of the Greek antique ones and embodied thereby the idea of a museum as educational facility for the middle class.
The architect already developed the plans for old persons the museum 1822 and 1823, but only 1825 could be begun with the construction work, which lasted to 1828. At the 3. August 1830 was handed over it to its regulation.
On a base a length of 87 meters has standing, zweigeschossige buildings and width of 55 meters. It consists of a flat covered, cubic solidium, which locks by a Vorhalle with eighteen kannelierten ionischen columns in monumental order outward. Of two the Eckpilastern limited resounds opens to the desire garden . On the timberwork resounds sit over the columns of eighteen sand-stone eagles.
The showrooms of the building group themselves around two inner courts, centrically lie a rotunda covered handing over both projectiles with a skylight. This resort to the Roman Pantheon and those resounds set forward outside staircase is elements, which up to then only buildings of rule were reserved. The rotunda is to be recognized from the outside by a neglected cubic essay, by its corners four sculptures set on Postamente was set.
Behind the Vorhalle find double-armed stairs running parallel to the front, whose special attraction is to be at the same time interior as outside space since she is outward closed only by the columns. The 1830 before the outside staircase set up, 6.91 meters through-measuring granite bowl of Christian God-dear Cantian should be originally set up in the rotunda.
Old person the museum is considered as one of the most important representatives of the classicism and as one of the most important works Schinkels. The building stands under monument protection.
for the conception of the museum responsible person, of the king used commission decided to issue, only the high art there. After the understanding at that time that excluded the Ethnografica, Prähistorica and in the Near East of excavated art treasures, which were accommodated for the time being majority in the lock Monbijou. 1855 began to accept the free place of the museum island with the completion of the new museum of Friedrich August Stüler shape. 1880 followed the national gallery (today old person national gallery) of Johann Heinrich Strack, 1904 after plans of Stüler by Ernst von Ihne the emperor Friedrich museum (today Bodemuseum) and 1930 the Pergamonmuseum of Alfreds Messel and Ludwig Hoffmann. Thus the museum island, how we know it today, was finished; old person the museum forms its germ cell.
With the building fourth citizen of Berlin of the cathedral in the style of the Neorenaissance in the place of the past klassizistischen cathedral was sensitively disturbed the klassizistische ensemble sketched by Schinkel, particularly since the building established by Julius Carl Raschdorff had substantially larger dimensions than its predecessor.
During the time of the national socialism formed old person the museum the window blind for propaganda meetings of the national socialists, both in the museum, and in and marching-up place transformed desire garden. In the Second World War old person was strongly damaged the museum. Under general manager Ludwig Josti was to a large extent original-faithfully again developed it as the first museum of the museum island from 1951 to 1966 by Hans's Erich Bogatzky and Theodor Voissen. Through the war damages by Schinkel sketched and by Peter Cornelius the implemented Fresken in the Vestibül and at the rear wall of the Säulenhalle to a large extent were lost. Colored painting of the rotunda was restored 1982 with further restoration work after Schinkels drafts. The floor scheme of the looking areas bordering lain in the ground floor on the inner courts was not restored. Without the pair of columns under cross girders one did. The former transition to the new museum was not again developed.
the antique collection
the building was originally created for all citizens of Berlin collections of the high art. Since 1904 it served the antique collection, which is accommodated today again here. In the upper floor changing special exhibitions are organized, since August 2005 up to completions of the new museum 2009 show there the Egyptian museum its exhibits.
- Cullen, Michael S.; Stick-live, Tilmann of: Old persons the museum. Berlin edition, Berlin 1998, ISBN 3-8148-0002-8
- Brigitte Knittlmayer, wolf Heilmeyer (Hrsg.): The antique collection, old museum, Pergamonmuseum. Zabern publishing house 1998, ISBN 3805324499
- wolf Dieter Heilmeyer, Huberta Heres, Wolfgang measure man: Schinkels Pantheon. Zabern 2004, ISBN 3805332556
coordinates: 52° 31 ′ 10 " N, 13° 23 ′ 54 " O