of the Altiplano (also „Puna “or „Páramo “) is a dischargeless Hochebene in southeast Peru and west Bolivia between the high mountain chains of the west (Cordillera Occidental) and the east Anden (Cordillera Oriental).
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of the Altiplano is on an average height of 3.600 m ü.NN and extends over a surface of about 170,000 km ². In the north of the Altiplano lies the Titicacasee, which largest high mountain lake of the earth, from which from itself the Altiplano extends approximately 1,000 km after the south.
the climate of the Altiplano is coldly and semiarid to arid, the annual average temperatures varies between 3 degrees in the western part and 12 degrees at the Titicacasee, the precipitation is with under 200 mm in the southwest and over 800 mm because of the Titicacasee. Snow is rare and arises earliest between April and September.
important waters beside the Titicacasee in the north are the Poopó lake and the Lago Coipasa in the middle Altiplano and the salt lake Salar de Uyuni in the south. Titicacasee and Poopósee are connected by the Río Desaguadero.
of the Altiplano developed, since this region itself with beginning of the Känozoikums (before 65 millions Years) opposite the Westkordillere and the Ostkordillere strongly lowered, so that kilometer-thick sediment deposits formed.
Since prevails to the Miozän (20 million years) into the Westkordillere active volcanic activity, by which Stratovulkane formed today up to 6000 m height. This very day hot steam and sources of sulfur at the edge of the Altiplano of this recent volcanism witness.
Since beginning of the Pleistozän 2 million years ago an elevation of the intermontanen basins used. The center of the Altiplano and smaller partial basins in the south were controlled in the past 30,000 years by large lakes (Ballivián). The fresh water lakes from this time had a middle depth of 20 to 70 meters, which refers to a clearly higher precipitation activity than today. The end of the ice age age and the beginning of the Holozän before approximately 10,000 years led a clear climatic reversal in it became warmer, but the amounts of precipitation decreased/went back.
of the Altiplano is since its first settlement before approximately 10,000 years a central residential area, in which cult places are and irrigation terraces of old advanced cultures.
Today at the east edge of the Altiplano La Paz with the seat of the government, which up up-pulls itself from a valley boiler of 3.100 m the steep slopes to Hochebene which was highly on the 4,000 m, are the Bolivian large city; the town with millions of inhabitants El Alto directly adjacent on the high surface; and far in the southeast the large cities Oruro and Potosí.