the old Mark is a region in the north of the Land of the Federal Republic Saxonia-Anhalt. It belonged to the oldest culture landscapes of Germany and is called cradle of Brandenburg. The region grown historically remained in its affiliation to superordinateadministrative units undivided and within their outside borders almost invariably. Originally the old Mark in the east was limited by the Elbe. Since the circle regional reorganization subdivided in Saxonia-Anhalt 1994 it however into the old Mark circle salt whisk and the district Stendal, whereby thoseostelbischen parts of the today's district Stendal among the old Mark to be ranked. Adjacent regions are the turning country in the north, the Prignitz in the northeast, the Havelland in the east, the farm servant citizens Börde in the south and the Lüneburger heath in the west.
Table of contents
early history to the late Middle Ages
the old Mark was westelbisches master country of the Mark Brandenburg and for the first time 1304 as such - Antiqua Marchia (old person Mark) - was mentioned. Before the people migration the region of Langobarden was settled, later followed Saxonia in the northwest and Slawen inThe east. After the wars of Franconias against the Saxonia the area was integrated into the realm of the Karolinger and was as north Mark under Karl the large border area for the protection of the duchy Saxonia against the Slawen. Mark counts of the north Marks were those Udonen. With the decay of the Franconia realm and their splintering the north Mark belonged in 9. Century to the Saxonian dioceses Verden and half in the east Franconia realm.
After the death of the Mark count Gero the north Mark became as Mark county of the remaining Saxoniaseparated.1134 belehnte emperors Lothar III. the Askanier Albrecht I.with this area, which became now starting point for the conquest of ostelbischer areas. After the final income of Brandenburg 1157 the north Mark part of the Mark Brandenburg with Albrecht I. became. asMark count. After becoming extinct to the brandenburgischen line of the Askanier the Mark Brandenburg and the old Mark from 1324 on arrived under the rule of the Wittelsbacher and Luxemburger, starting from 1356 cure princes to thus call itself was allowed and with emperor Karl IV. Tangermündeto the Nebenresidenz of Prague removals. 1415 began with cure prince Friedrich I., after nearly one century of unrests and confusions in the Mark, the rule of the Hohenzollern over the cure principality Brandenburg and the old Mark.
See also: List of the Mark counts thatNorth Mark
of modern times
starting from 1701 belonged the old Marks as part the Mark to Brandenburg to this core province in the Kingdom of Prussia. To the defeat of Prussia in the napoleonischen wars 1806 the old Mark came to the Kingdom of Westphalia. After that Viennese congress 1815 was slammed shut it the Prussian province Saxonia and subdivided into the circles salt whisks , guard putting , Osterburg and Stendal. To the province Saxonia came also the earlier office of blocks, that up to then an enclave of the duchy Braunschweig Lueneburg intothe old Marks was.
Of this flat country here,
of the altmärkischen homeland,
which is also the meinige,
Kraft and the impact finally went out
for the education
of the kurbrandenburgischen state and Prussia
and for the Wiedergeburt of the German Reich.
The circle regional reorganization in the Land of the Federal Republic Saxonia-Anhalt1994 led for the first time to larger changes in the fixing of the boundaries and to a change of the region term. Thus the city Oebisfelde decided for a connection to the ear circle and orients themselves since toward farm servant citizens Börde. On the other hand the ostelbische became Circle Havelberg - only 1952 from parts of the former Prussian district Jerichow II and the city Havelberg from the former Prussian district Westprignitz in an educated manner - the new great circle Stendal assigned.
since 1838 dedicates itself since1990 again in salt whisk Altmärki association present for patriotic history of the research of prehistory and history of the old Marks. Important homeland researchers in 19. Century were the Gymnasialprofessor Johann Friedrich let us THENhurry (1783-1868) and the pharmacist Theodor Zechlin (1818-1895).
the old Mark as one of the oldest culture landscapes of Germany consists of agriculturally coined/shaped, in addition, naturenear flat country with forests and heath like the Colbitz Letzlinger heath. It becomes natural-space in in the east and northeast throughthe Elbtalniederung and wipes limited. In the southwest a quite salient demarcation , the transition to the west and northwest is to the Vorland of the Lüneburger heath can be recognized hardly against it with the Drömling and the ear valley. Highest collection are with 160Meters the light mountains. (Comparisons also: D29 turning country and old Mark.)
the old Mark is a section of the old morainic landscape of the southern land back and developed by the retreat sedimentation of four main ice peripheral locations in the Warthestadium the Saale ice age. Firstand second peripheral location form the southern land back, which includes the Colbitz Letzlinger heath and the Klötzer heath also and middle heights between 80-100 m NN reached. The third peripheral location traverses the old Marks whereby the middle heights only 60-80 m NNamounted to. The fourth peripheral location in the northeast possesses still middle heights of 30-60 m NN. The old Mark became warm temporal periglazial and by the outgoing Saaleglazial, which over-coins/shapes Eem interglacial period and the Weichsel ice age. Characteristically therefore pleistozäne Endmoränenlagen , Grundmoränenplatten , is Sanderflächen,Valley and levels and holozän over-coined/shaped valleys.
the rivers and brooks of the Jeetze Purnitz system in the west, the mildness Biese Aland system in the center and the Uchte Aland system in the east, rising in the old Mark, followthe general Abdachung northward and come of the first two peripheral locations to the southern land back.
A characteristic is the Arendsee in the north of the old Marks. This was formed not by the ice age, but developed after the break-down of a salt plug in the underground.
soils and vegetation
characteristic of the soils of the old Marks are a kleinteiliger change, which is dominated by sandigen and lehmigen soil-forming substrate types. Thus soil companies of Ranker and Podsol, those are to the Endmoränen on the Sanderflächenand Grundmoränenplatten in brown earth turn into. In the northeast are above all back-up and basicwetness-affected soils such as Gley.
cities and important places in the old Mark
former Hanseatic cities
the two largest and at the same time most important cities in the old Mark are salt whisks and Stendal. They belonged beside five furtherCities in the old Mark of the Hanse on. The sieved altmärkischen cities were between that 13. and 15. Century rich, militaryful commercial towns and together the Altmärki standard ware with that they formed with the Hans floors unanimity demonstrated. The end of the altmärkischen Hans gloryafter bloody striking down of rebellions against the Bierziese introduced by the cure prince in the spring 1488 one introduced. In consequence of this defeat itself the altmärkischen cities from all alliances, also from the Hanse, had withdraw and lost numerous rights like thatRight of coining money. Only Stendal and salt whisks remained up to their exclusion 1518 member of the Hanse. Since that 16. The former Hanseatic cities developed century then very differently.
- Osterburg (old Marks)
- salt whisk
- sea-living (old Mark)
- to Stendal
- recruiting (Elbe)
Beside the former Hanseatic cities there are six further cities, which were contrary to the cities of the Altmärki standard ware in the late Middle Ages however no militaryful and important commercial towns in the today's old Mark. They went out of settlements or marks in the proximityof castles, which were put on from the respective national gentlemen to the protection of the borders are, out. Arneburg is considered as the oldest city the old Mark. On the other hand blocks, until 1815 an office of the duchy Braunschweig Lueneburg received, only in the 19.Jahrhundert the municipal law and Tangerhüttecame out in the course of the industrialization from a village. The city Oebisfelde, now ear circle, was historically a part of the old Marks, today however the region farm servant citizen Börde is assigned.
Magdeburg orients itself Ostelbi cities the former Hanseatic city Havelberg, historically a part of the Prignitz convenient in the district Westprignitz, 1952 toward old Marks since the establishment of the district. Only the few kilometers south of Havelberg lying town Sandau(Elbe) Havelberg belonged against it to the district Jerichow II up to the establishment of the circle.
marks and larger localities with centrallocal meaning
particularly in the western old Mark, into the by far fewer settlements the municipal lawreceived as at the eastern border along the Elbe, some villages developed to larger localities with regional meaning and/or. to the so-called marks. Usually they were developed for master seat of an aristocracy sex with a castle plant or as settlement around Monastery. Like that Beetzendorf was as master seat of those from school castle in 19. Century inside the most important place in the western old Mark between salt whisks in the north and Oebisfelde in the south.
the old Mark is coined/shaped above all agricultural, tries in addition, as Destination for tourists to establish. Thus among other things the road of the Romanesque leads by numerous places of the old Marks. Traditional region for the tourism is the areaaround the Arendsee. Increasingly however the riding tourism, for which the flat country of the old Marks is suited, at meaning wins.
Also the foodstuffs industry is established as an important industry in the old Mark.
- motorway A 14 (northernExtension by the old Marks planned)
- federal highway B 71, B 107, B 188, B 189, B 190, B 248