of these articles treats Amiga computers. For the GDR record label of the same name for maintenance music see AMIGA.
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The Commodore Amiga was ofCenter of the 1980er to beginning/in the middle of the 1990er far common computer, which was popular as home computers particularly in its small variants (A500 and A1200). For its time it had amazing Multimediafähigkeiten and an efficient, preemptive multitasking - operating system. In thatCommodore time worked he constantly with processors of the Motorola-68000 - family. The Amiga survived until today as niche product. The term Amiga comes from the Spanish and means friend.

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times of Commodore became throughout processors of the Motorola-68000 - family uses. Parallelin addition there were processors from the PowerPC - family (PPC) first on processor plug-in cards and then after Commodore also as main processor.

Most important characteristic of the classical Amiga hardware are the specialized Custom chips. These represent independent coprocessors, those the main processor with diagram operations, interrupt administration,Sound production and various in/output operations relieve, for which altogether 25 DMA (direct memory access) channels are available. The Amiga Custom chips, the so-called chip set, justified at that time the superiority of many years of the Amiga hardware in relation to competitive systems: Up to the beginning of the 1990er-Jahre no other on the market present could Similarly performanten and flexible sound abilities and diagram offer PC system.

The chip set consists of the following Custom chips:

  • Paula - responsible for sound and interrupt control; contains parts the diskette controller. The expenditure for sound is made by four 8-bit PCM - mono channels (two channelsper Stereokanal).
  • Denise (OCS/ECS) and/or. Lisa (AGA) - responsibly for the expenditure for diagram. The Sprite logic, colour register and the bit-map diagram logic contains.
  • Agnus (OCS/ECS) and/or. Alice (AGA) - „the heart “of the Amiga of chip set. Controlled altogether 25 DMA (direct memory access) channels, is responsible for the completeSystem Timing and contains a Blitter (to fast copying of diagrams, filling surfaces and drawing lines) and the so-called. Copilot by (Koprozessor with reduced command sentence for the pixel-exact change of chip registers).

Beginning of the 1990er years worked itself however this adjustment upthe chip set on the part of the operating system increasingly negatively on the flexibility of architecture out, since one did not have long time possibilities, more efficient extension cards such as z. B. To use diagram or sound maps system-conformal. This led in combination with the stagnating advancementthe chip set to the fact that architecture became outdated increasingly and was outdated until at the latest for the center of the 1990er years already technically.

In the course of the time three different versions of the chip set were developed: Amiga 1000, Amiga 500 and Amiga 2000use the first version of 1985, whatever late than original chip set (OCS) was designated. In the HiRes mode thereby dissolutions of 640×256 and/or 640×512 pixels in the interlaced scanning ( PAL) with a pallet of maximally 16 from 4096 possible can Colors to be represented. The LoRes mode with a dissolution of 320×256 and/or 320×512 pixels in the interlaced scanning (PAL), which the possibility does not only offer of using a freely selectable pallet from 32 colors to but in the so-called HAM6 is much more flexible - mode alsoto represent all 4096 colors at the same time (with certain restrictions). Additionally there is still the EHB mode (extra helped Bright), which makes a pallet possible of 64 colors, whereby however only the first 32 is freely selectable and the remaining from these with halfBrightness to be produced. By means of Overscan these dissolutions can be adapted slightly, as the upper and lateral edges of screen are eliminated, in order to use the surface of the video monitor/television better. With the sound chip Paula is possible it in addition to play vierstimmigen sound of 8-bit (two voices perStereokanal), whereby Samples with freely in each case selectable Samplingfrequenz of up to 28 kHz (OCS) and/or. 56 kHz (ECS, AGA) to be played can.

In the Amiga 600, Amiga 500 pluses and Amiga 3000 used Enhanced chip set (ECS) outthe year 1990 marginal around a superhere it mode with 1280×256 and/or 1280×512 pixels in the interlaced scanning (PAL) with maximally 4 from 64 colors as well as free programmable horizontal line frequencies and the possibility of addressing 2 MIB chip RAM supplemented.

The last variant, the AdvancedGraphics Architecture - (AGA -) chip set from the year 1992, was used for the first time in the Amiga 4000 and later in the Amiga 1200. (In Germany it had to be called AA, because it a name collision with a diagram map from the start time thatIBM-compatible Commodore PCs gave.) AGA extends the depth of shade of 12 bits (4096 colors) on 24 bits (16.8 million Colors), of it can in the HAM8-Modus in all dissolutions as many be at the same time represented, as pixels in chip RAM fit (minus the first pixel column), thuswith maximum chip RAM size of 2 MT scarcely 2 millions Colors. The Farbpaletten can cover 256 entries with AGA continuous. 2 MIB chip RAM is possible also here.

The classical Amiga differentiates with the main memory (RAM) between two different variants: The so-called nearly MEMORY, which is alone to the processor at the disposal, as well as the so-called chip MEMORY, which also the Custom chips can access.

The bus system of the Amiga is the Zorro bus in such a way specified with 24-Bit (Zorro 2) and/or. 32-Bit-Adressraum (Zorro 3). The A500 and/or.A1000 has laterally a 86-poligen connection with Zorro-2-Bus, the A2000 has internally several 100-polige Zorro-2-Anschlüsse. The A3000 and/or. A4000 has internally several 100-polige of connections with Zorro-3-Bus. The 32-Bit-Adressbreite with Zorro3 is reached by multiplex ones of some signal lines. By an adapter can one operate Zorro-2-Karten at an Amiga 500/1000. Of course also all Zorro-2-Karten runs still at the Zorro-3-Bus, since by the bus it is independently recognized whether it concerns with the map a Zorro-2 or a Zorro-3-Karte. With a so-called PC emulator map or a Bridge mapalso commercial IBM-compatible ones 16-Bit ISA are usable - plug-in cards.

The Amiga has already an autoconfiguration system (similar the Plug and Play), which makes possible for the operating system to variable assign addresses and interrupts to the maps. Therefore there are much less Konfliktpotenzial as with the ISA Slotsthe IBM-compatible system.

A further at that time outstanding possibility classical revision modification gas is the gene LOCK - ability. This makes for example (Chroma) Keying possible - a replacing of one determine color in the computer picture in real time by a video picture. Mainly it serves however for it, the wholeTo synchronize Amiga on an external video source, so that their video signals smoothly mixed and/or. to be overlaid can. Therefore the Amiga was often used for the private or halfprofessional video cut, for the Vertitelung or for complex screens. Also professional Bluebox - applications were available.

Later for the Amiga diagram maps were offered, which should supply the video abilities existing with the original over „flicker-free “representations for working necessary in the office. This time made IBM - compatible computers as well as Windows its triumphant advance into the offices thatWorld.

The probably most well-known hardware extension for the Amiga is a 512-KiB large memory expansion for the A500 as well as the Flickerfixer in such a way specified. The first models of the Amiga (1000, 500 and 2000) know standard excluding video signals according to the PAL or NTSC -produce, which work with a horizontal line frequency of 15.625 kHz. Higher vertical resolutions than approx. 256 pixels are possible thereby only by use of an interlaced scanning, which leads to violent flickering of the representation. In order to be able to head for nevertheless VGA monitors, the Flickerfixer becamedevised, which the two spent half-images join to a frame and as necessarily for these monitors with the double horizontal line frequency of 31 kHz can spend it. Amiga 500 pluses, 600 and 3000 could by their extended RPC chip set on his partwith different horizontal line frequencies, thereby however compromises deal for lack of memory range, which concerns the selection of the representable colors, must be received. In order to be able to use the Amiga 3000 also in office environments, a Flickerfixer was already ex factory inserted here. With the Amiga 1200and 4000 the Flickerfixer became redundant owing to the AGA Chipsets extended again.

With priority in the USA used Filmstudios and television station the Amiga as well as one „video toaster “hardware extension mentioned for the daily work. Most well-known example of it is the TV-series „Babylon 5 “, whose special effects were partly produced with Amiga computers, just like with the TV-series „SeaQuest DSV “. The 3D of computer programs Cinema 4D and Lightwave 3D was originally available only on this computer.

The first non removable disks for thatAmiga were already ST506 -, later then SCSI - and ATA - non removable disks.

One of the most usual extensions for the internal Amiga-1200-Erweiterungsbus (a abgespeckten Zorro-3-Bus) was the Blizzard turbo-map with the processors 68030 with 50 MHz, 68040 with 25 MHz or 68060with 50 MHz.

With fast revision modification gas problems can occur with some internal ATA non removable disks: After a RESET the Amiga queries the hardware, before the non removable disk can answer the computer that it is not yet ready there, but. Thereforethe non removable disk is not recognized by the system. With a trick some users remedy create themselves: The RESET line to the non removable disk becomes splits. If the other pins remain intact thereby, the non removable disk accomplishes a switching on RESET after switching on on automatically, not howeverwith the RESET when pressing both Amiga keys and the CTRL key. If one accomplishes a keyboard RESET then after switching on on revision modification gas after short waiting period (one second is sufficient), so also the non removable disk is recognized. Depending upon non removable disk splitting is redundant,since some non removable disks need longer time for the setting-up of their interface only after switching on on, after a RESET signal of the computer however are faster ready.


technical was the Amiga many computers of its time ahead. Beside the outstandingtechnical characteristics (z. B.PnP in form of the car Config - Mechanismus'), the operating system supported already preemptive multitasking in the priorisierten „Round Robin “- procedure - nearly ten years before the introduction of Windows 95.

Amiga Workbench 2.0 mit einigen offenen Fenstern und aktiviertem Menü. Unten rechts ist die Amiga-Shell zu sehen.
Amiga Workbench 2,0 with some open windowsand activated menu. Down right the Amiga Shell is to be seen.

AmigaOS, the operating system of the Amiga, is modular “developed „and possesses various similarities to concepts, as she admits from UNIX is. The Amiga possesses dynamically reloadable device drivers (suffix:.device) as well as Shared LIBRARies (suffix: .library) and supports many concepts of modern operating systems (Streams, Pipelining, signal, Message queue, etc.). Also from Unix and Linux well-known command line interpreters (CLI) is not strange to the Amiga.

The whole operating system of the Amiga watched out first2 disks, the Kickstart and the Workbench disk. When the Kickstart was so far stabilized the fact that it could be shifted into a ROM handed only one disk of 880 KB capacity. The speed of the AmigaOS can retrospectively only as legendarily designatedbecome. It offers a graphic surface in color, in the multitasking, and all of this with extremely short response times z. B. on user inputs. This was reached by the intelligent concepts of the different operating system parts, similarly object-oriented structure, but without their performance disadvantages, whereby unnecessaryData movements to be avoided and typically in each case pointers on data areas to be handed over have. This however bought by missing bulkheading of the processes among themselves (“MEMORY Protection”), whereby the whole system is comparatively error-prone, if a software does not behave rule-conformal. ThoseSpeed of the OS was increased over the years even still by various improvements, in the contrast to the competition, which became ever slower. There this is excused regularly with the increased number of supported features, however also the Amiga with everyone offeredGeneration more luxury and became nevertheless faster!

The AmigaOS offered already since 1986 a permanent and dynamic RAM disk. There was later even the possibility of merging a RESET-firm RAM disk which was boatable and after a restart with all data, whichwere invited before, was available. Applications could be accelerated by the RAM disk ernorm, there here the slow accesses to disks and/or. Non removable disks were void. Here was it shown also again, how far ahead the Amiga of his time was.

The Amiga can different file systems use. Originally Amiga was used the file system (late OFS with „O “of „old “or „originals “), with which version 2.0 of the operating system became an improved version named FFS (nearly file system) delivered, both is considered as very durable. Therethe operating system is modular developed, is easy it to add support for further file systems; beside a driver for the FAT system used by MS-DOS also further file systems were developed in particular of third for the use with non removable disks. With disks an automatic takes placeErkennung nicht nur des Einlegens (oder Entfernens) der Diskette, sondern auch des auf ihr genutzen Dateisystems. Disks as well as every other drive assembly can be addressed also via the name of the data medium.

As non removable disks still very expensively were and rather the exception, data formed exclusively on 3,5 " - dd - disks with a storage capacity by 880 KiB were stored. With the FFS also hp can - disks with the double capacity to be described. However for it special drive assemblies are necessarily, the hp disks also with the original CONTROLLERhalf number of revolutions propel, since it does not support the double data rate normally connected with hp disks.

Admits was „the Guru Meditation in such a way specified “. This designates the condition of a heavy program error intercepted by the Amiga operating system. It is comparable with „Blue screen OF Death “of the systems which are based on Windows NT. Even if this error message were replaced to software failure later by a sober „“, the designation kept itself colloquial.

With „the translator LIBRARY “and „narrator.device “was integrated the possibility, by higherTo carry out programming languages from acoustic output. The Amiga was the first computer, which was delivered in series with software to the speech synthesis. This became possible, because the audio expenditure of the Amiga was based on PCM and thus (apart from the expenditure quality) like today's PCs everyonearbitrary sound to spend can - most other computers of the time at that time offer, if at all, only Synthesizer chip, which can produce only certain sounds.

The Amiga became, except for playing (which with the Amiga 500/1200 rather the case was), mainly working onby videos uses. Further important applications were 3D-Animation, music (tracker such as sound tracker, Futuretracker and. A. enjoy today still cult status). In the last years also still applications were added like the Authoring . Most well-known representatives: Amiga vision, an author software for thoseProduction of interactive CDs, to the rendition of laser disks and for Karaoke - applications and Scala, whose most efficient version, is used info. Channel, also today still in cable television systems. There were these products for a long time, before manufacturers such as Macromedia with Director the marketconquered.


for the Amiga Platform published in the course of the years of hundreds at plays, to lift out are among other things following:

As the first play is considered Mindwalker, which was attached the first Amiga to 1000. 1986 appeared with Defender OF the Crowna play with outstanding diagram, which used for the first time the abilities of the system as far as possible;Shadow OF the Beast put the measuring pole to 1989 by ruckelfrei diagram moved in several levels again more highly. For new play concepts stand in particular Lemmings (1990) and the settlers (1993). Giana Sisters (1988) was located because of a law case not longer than one week in the shelves of the business and might have been shortest thereby the play available on the Amiga market. Biing!- Sex, plots and Skalpelle appeared 1995 because of at that time still quite small spreading of CD drive assemblies also on 19 disks - the installation program for the play contained even a small play, in order to make the waiting period bearable. An enumerating of further more popularPlay title is in the category: Amiga play.


to some considerable applications for the Amiga count the among other things following:

The Amiga basic delivered with each Amiga 500, 1000 and 2000 was ever the only program, Microsoft forthe Amiga manufactured. Remarkably it partly malfunctioned the service contrary to all other original programs under later system versions. The first Webbrowser for the Amiga was Aweb. Those today still (on Windows and MacOS) successful 3D-Programme Maxon Cinema4D and Lightwave 3D had their origin on the Amiga.

graphic user surface

the graphic user surface (GUI) of the AmigaOS was characterised by one - for conditions at that time - very intuitive operation, like one it today actually onlywith Apple finds. In particular MUI enjoyed, alternatively stood on the object-oriented BOOPSI - system based Gadgets of large popularity (corresponds: Widget) for the order. Trailblazing was also the consistent employment type of DATA so mentioned - those are codecs, some uniformInterface for the shop and memory of all usual file formats offer.

weaknesses revision modification gas

was the Commodore Amiga particularly with the first models 1000, 2000 and 500 of its time in puncto diagram, sound and multitasking far ahead- nevertheless it could never succeed against the PC within the office range. The reasons for this were house-made nearly all.

Already during introduction on the market the Amiga had the call of a play computer, since the product was originally planned as play console (computer-specific peculiarities howfor example a keyboard connection were by the developers from the outset intended, however the management, which had planned a play console, concealed). This image became the Amiga despite many attempts never correctly loosely, and the users of the PC appreciatedat that time the advantages, held however being entitled distance to the Amiga.

The moreover one the Amiga was really fast only in the range of combined graphics. With the classical tasks in the office world the computing speed counted more than graphic abilities and there could thatAmiga well keep up (z. B. opposite Intel 80286), was however not really faster, in order one transferred justifies to be able. Much the standard software was not too late available for the Amiga or. Even within the range diagram had it z.B. the range construction heavily. Flickering in highest and for this intended purpose only acceptable resolution in the long term not possibly made a working.


at the time of the appearance of the A1200 was considered as the largest deficiency, less itsChip hardware as more the old by the A500 taken over dd-floppy with only 880KB. This was not problematic only for the plays developers (AGA diagrams needs much more place) and for a mass the user, those at this time notrarely already collections of several hundred disks possessed. Cracks with several plays on a disk had large popularity and the hp medium 1,76MB saved by Commodore at this time would have been certainly completely used. Those plays the PC to the break-throughas play machine e.g. Wing did not help COMM other failed because of the technology to the conversion on the Amiga, as more at the fact that the 14 - 1,44MB disks of e.g. Wing COMM other 2 user compatibly on 880KB dd disks did not fit! Thisthen the Amiga applied 1200 had to sowas simply no more storage medium to almost all better PC for plays in 256 the colors shone.

Some voices said, the Commodore important documents about the orginalen floppy controller of the Amiga 500 were lost,and this therefore it had not simply any longer completely documented around the hp drive assemblies as once intended than dd-compatible to deliver. After the Commodore assumption by Escom the Amiga was again manufactured later 1200, however due to the missing documentation no old dd drive assembliesmore, instead easily modified PC-HD of drive assemblies assigned with however just as auftretenen problems of dd programs directly the hardware accessed, which more really could not do anybody.

The history PC would surely differently have run, would have only the HD-LW of the Amigafunctioned and/or. Commodore the documents over the dd floppy controller does not stroll! Or came unfortunately too late the UAE Macher delivered the Reverse subsequently engineering of Amiga Tech the one free circuit.

cultural phenomenon and psychology

the Amiga have, likewiselike other home computers, a youth movement coined/shaped. Rather one can say the fact that the technology-inspired young people the Amiga as object when used tool. In particular a this very day active demo scene developed. In Europe (and it gives partly still) a landre-clamping gaveNetwork of groups, which concerned themselves with the use of the Amiga.

The characteristic revision modification gas, particularly A500 and later the A1200 lay in the fact that it formed a system-conformal standardized unit contrary to the PC as computer. Sound, diagram, memory,Interfaces and job environment (Workbench) gave, like today for example consoles or Apple computers, a at least for few years aufrecherhaltenen standard, at which manufacturers and users could orient themselves. Thus there was hardly a problem with the computer, some different onenot already knew and to solve could. Contrary to the consoles of its time the Amiga offered to more as computer and in contrast to Apple was however clearly concerning the price cut it to the mass-market.



Jay Miner stepped out 1981 with Atari , there was it and. A. responsibly for the development of the play console Atari 2600 and the home computer Atari 400 and 800 and the company Amiga Corp based. At first Amiga and CONTROLLER supplied play modulesfor the Atari 2600-Konsole, its own Amiga play console was planned somewhat later. From the play console a computer became in the heads of the developers. Atari (at that time under guidance of Raymond Kassar, Warner Communications) was by agreement from July 1983 backer and wantedthe Amiga as successors to the XL-computer-series fastened meanwhile on the market bring. With the stock exchange scandal from December 1982 in the neck Kassar had to withdraw still in July 1983. The new CEO Morgan pursued the far goal, the project „Lorraine “, like thatAmiga was called internally to bring as successors of the XL to ready for the market ones. To 2. July 1984 sold Warner Communications the console and computer department of Atari at Jack Tramiel, the geschassten founder of Commodore. Tramiel tried to finally buy Amigaand 0.98 $ per share offered to the shareholders. Commodore (under Irving Gould) offered briefly before end of the 24-Stunden-Frist 2 $ per share and got the addition.

The first Amiga model, which only late Amiga was called 1000, became to 23. July 1985 in New York presented. It resembles very the Commodore 128D - however only from the appearance. An optional extension box named Sidecar (develops from the Braunschweiger Commodore development department) made possible parallel to the enterprise of the Amiga operating system also the use of MS-DOS (on one particularlybut 8088 used - CCU).

The direct competition revision modification gas was at that time the Atari sp and (in the USA) Apple of the IIgs, a little later also the colorable Macintosh - models of Apple.

Amiga 500 und junger Computerspieler mit Turrican 1
Amiga of 500 and young computer players with Turrican 1

1987 followed the models Amiga 500 (as successors of the legendary C64) and the Amiga 2000, which resembled the then modern Desktop PCs. For professional users 1988 also a computer were offered named Amiga 2500 /UX, on that parallel an UNIX operating system(AMIX) was available. Technically seen those were identical Amiga 2500-Modelle to the normal Amiga 2000, but by the installation of an additional processor board (with 68020 - and/or. 68030-CPU) clearly more efficiently.

As link between Amiga and the PC - world possessedthe Amiga 2000 both the Amiga-own Zorro -2-Slots and PC-typical ISA card locations. These could be extended with a bridge map (the successor of the Sidecar). Thus one possessed then an adequate PC in the Amiga, which one could access from Amiga side. Alsothis concept was its time far ahead.

The Amiga 2000 1990 the Amiga 3000 as well as its, followed Tower - variant, which brought for the first time a new operating system in a modern 3D-Look with itself. This had numerous innovations and optimizations, thosethis very day in modern operating systems to regain are (AmigaOS 2,0). Also the Amiga 3000 became, not least owing to the progressive operating system, a success.

With the Amiga 500+ and the Amiga 600 1992 the Amiga became 500 equivalent two technically nearly identicalSuccessors production, that floppten commercially very strongly and were replaced in the same year by the technically strongly improved Amiga 1200. The Amiga 1200 was introduced as economical variant of its large brother, the Amiga 4000 (as well as Tower variant). That again became asSuccessor of the Amiga 3000 brought on the market. The substantial community between Amiga 1200 and Amiga 4000 exists in the use of the same Kickstart version, the same Workbench and the diagram chip set. Otherwise the Amiga 4000 is technically superior, because it thatmore efficient processor MC68040 used.

The models Amiga 500/600/1200 were the economical variants of the large Amiga Desktop models (Amiga 2000/4000). Keyboard, floppy one (floppy disk drive), extension interfaces and the motherboard form a unit. With the A600 and A1200 is among other things also still place for2.5 " ATA a non removable disk. In the A1200 can also to little technical fate and a suitable adaptor cable also 3.5 " - plate be built.

The models Amiga 2000/3000/4000 are expandable systems, in which additional drive assemblies and extension cards can be integrated. The models 3000and 4000 was offered also as Tower versions and was in the upper price segment settled - comparable with today's High end computers. Also the keyboard computers have a expansion Slot, into which extension cards can be inserted.

The Amiga 3000/4000 with different processors were offered. ThosePallet reaches of 68020 up to 68040. There was even a special production of the Amiga 4000 with a 68060-Prozessor, which could not be delivered however no more.

For the connection of non removable disks the computers have a SCSI and/or. (with the Amiga 600,1200 and 4000) a ATA - interface - apart from the initial models, which with the ST506 - interface worked. The reason for the employment of the expensive SCSI standard is the small load of the processor during the loading procedures. With the Amiga 500/500+ one can do thoseSCSI plates re-tool.

Commodore tried already at the beginning of the nineties to position and into the living rooms bring with the CDTV (an Amiga in the Design of a CD-Players), the Amiga as Multimedia platform. At this time also the author system Amiga vision developed.Briefly before the fall of Commodore 1993 then the CD followed ³ ², which remained malfunctioned despite aufwändiger television commercial the large break-through. The CD ³ ² is based on the Amiga-1200-Hardware, which were extended by CD-ROM a drive assembly as well as a Customchip (Aikiko). Keyboard,Floppy ones and non removable disk could be re-tooled optionally.

According to the final bankruptcy Commodores were planned particularly by ESCOM still some successors. These were enough to that modem integrated by the Amiga 1200 with an integrated CD-ROM drive assembly over an Internet computer with, on the Amiga1200 are based, up to the Amiga 500 with 1 GB non removable disk and the AmigaOne with the Apple-G4-Prozessor, which is based on that 68060. These models were published either never or were a flop.

the personal note

particularly into thatearly Amiga products perpetuated themselves the developers more or less openly outside of the official framework. The most well-known anecdote steps „the Guru Meditation with the system crash to day, “. Important construction units got own names, Zorro, bend/Fat Agnus, Denise and Paula are some of it.The inside of the Amiga 1000-Deckels zieren engraved signatures of all developers as well as a paw casting of the dog Mitchy of Jay Miner. Naturally there is callable Easter Eggs also by means of various actions, and only with a memory monitor are more hidden a rowMessages in the operating system ROM. Likewise is etched in on the plate of the Amiga 500 with „B52/ROCK LOBSTER “which a Hommage to some Song that volume „The B-52's “represents.

music and art

very well-knownbecame also musicians, who made music (see also Chiptune) with the Amiga:

as well as artists, which used the Amiga for Computergrafik , video installations and Pop kind:

the Amiga today


although the nut/mother company Commodore 1994 was already liquidated, the development of this computer was never terminated completely.

By the owner at the rights, the German PC chain, following on Commodore , ESCOM AG (Heppenheim), the new company Amiga Technologies becameBased, and of this the models Amiga were again presented to GmbH (in Bensheim, Germany) 1200 and Amiga 4000T. The planned successor „Walker “(unofficially also Amiga 1300 one called), which on the CeBit 1996 was already introduced, is not howevermore appeared. ESCOM went into bankruptcy. Also the planned Advanced Amiga Architecture (AAA or Triple A) - chip set has therefore an only legendful character.

An assumption attempt of VisCorp - under the line of the today's Genesi - CEO Bill bend - failed after lengthyEfforts.

The Amiga rights were taken over then 1997 by the PC direct sender ( and Dell - competitor ) gateway 2000, whose again created subsidiary Amiga international (in Germany) continued to drive out the existing hardware.

In the year 2000 became then all to a company of former gateway coworkersnamed „Amino development “sells, then in Amiga the Inc. (in the USA) umfirmiert.

By former development engineers and managers the Amiga Technologies was created also the company PIOS computer AG, which was umfirmiert later to the Metabox AG. First became with PIOS Metaboxthe idea of power-PC-based computers and/or.Powermac - clones on CHRP - basis pursues. This idea failed because of the changed license politics of Apple, so that later only still turbo-maps for Mac computers were manufactured. Inspired of phase5, those starting from 1996 likewisePPC Turbokarten for Powermacs and Amiga computers developed, started Metabox with „the AmiJoe “(based on „joeCard “) own efforts. Later the entrance was tried into the SetTopBox market. This ended in a Fiasko for Metabox and their developer. The begun, in terms of software are partialDevelopment however flowed into MorphOS - the open SOURCE Amiga OS clone AROS represents here one of the links.

The efforts of power PC of phase5 ended with the bankruptcy of the enterprise - the maps were manufactured thereafter however still another time long by DCE andsold. The Cyberstorm and Blizzard Prozessorkarten already sold are operated today mainly with MorphOS - after first a competition solution of Haage & partner (being pos) had the nose in front, which is not no more developed further however in the meantime.

The company Amiga, Inc. concentratedfirst on the development of the AmigaDE („digitally Environment “) on basis of TAO/Intent as well as the associated SDK for Windows and Unix/Linux computers. Afterwards AmigaAnywhere followed among other things for PocketPC based PDA systems. Around the unbroken interest of a continuation that now„Classic Amiga “baptized line to follow, looked for itself Amiga, Inc. Partner for a new stimulation of the Amiga platform:Eyetech and Hyperion Entertainment.

In the year 2003 finally the hardware of an official successor - the AmigaOne of Eyetech - appeared, instead of thatbecame outdated 680x0 - CCUs von Motorola modern power PC CCUs contains. At first only LinuxPPC was available for this computer - the first public version of the new AmigaOS 4,0 developed by Hyperion Entertainment is only later, in June 2004, than „Developer Pre release “onthe past buyers delivered. When unofficial competition has itself to the AmigaOne - CHRP was likewise based - the Pegasos - computer of Genesi establishes, which is to be seen however rather in the tradition from phase5 and VisCorp to.

In the middle of 2003 are the rightsat the Amiga operating system by the company KMOS bought, in July 2004 also Amiga, Inc became. of KMOS taken over.

alternative of operating systems

the popularity of the Amiga operating system shows up also in several alternative projects:

  • AROS (to AmigaOS 3,1 source code-compatible open SOURCE operating system among other thingsfor x86 - Hardware)
  • AMIX (see Amiga 2500/UX)
  • Linux68k (for older revision modification gas with Motorola 680x0 - processor)
  • LinuxPPC (for more modern revision modification gas with power PC processor)
  • MorphOS (is binary compatible by 68k-Emulation to software, which was written for AmigaOS 3,1)

note to MorphOS and to thatbehind it standing conflict:

The companies Genesi and bplan brought the Pegasos - Main boards on the market, for which the operating system MorphOS is supplied. MorphOS is a Amiga-similar power PC operating system on Microkernel basis. It places apart from MorphOS specific new functions the largest part to thatAmigaOS3 API ready and is to a large extent SOURCE code compatible and - so far it the new hardware permits - binary compatible thereby to AmigaOS 3 and AmigaOS-3-Anwendungen (to AmigaOS-4-PPC-Anwendungen a reduced binary compatibility exists API emulation over the old AmigaOS PPC Kernel extensions such as PowerUP and the os4emu -). MorphOSwas originally planned as successors of AmigaOS 3, since an official advancement seemed safe a time long not. The negotiations with Amiga Inc. over the use of MorphOS as new PPC AmigaOS failed however and to Amiga Inc. , AmigaOS 3 decidedfrom Hyperion Entertainment on the power PC platform portieren to leave.

list of of the different Amiga models

Desktop Replacement of models

Amiga CPU MC68000
Amiga CCU MC68000
  • Amiga 500 pluses (CCU MC68000 with 7.09 MHz (PAL version), 1 MT RAM); Characteristics: possesses an extended chip set (ECS) andan improved operating system (OS 2,04), which however often proves as incompatible with old software, which works against the programming guidelines with direct hardware accesses; was not successful therefore particularly. From the technically similar Amiga 600 one replaced.
  • Amiga 600 (CCU MC68000 also7.09 MHz (PAL version), 1 MT RAM, ECS); Characteristics: additionally CONTROLLER with place for internal 2.5 " - a non removable disk has a PCMCIA - type ii-connection, an integrated TV-modulator and an internal ATA -; Acceptance was due to missing 10er-Tastatur, higher price and smaller compatibility tooPlays by the new operating system (OS 2,05) also small.
  • Amiga 600HD (CCU MC68000 with 7.09 MHz (PAL version), 1 MT RAM, ECS); Characteristics: like Amiga 600, however with standard non removable disk.
  • Amiga 1200 (CCU MC68EC020 with 14.18 MHz (PAL version), 2 MTRAM); Characteristics: new diagram chip set (AGA), PCMCIA type II connection, TV-modulator and an integrated ATA CONTROLLER with place for internal 2.5 " - a non removable disk; very successfully. The AGA Chipsatz and the 68EC020-CPU provide with some older plays for problems, why one in the boat menu of the computer boththe diagram hardware on a ECS - and/or. OCS - Compatibility mode over and the CCU Caches to switch off can. First with OS 3,0, later (at ESCOM/Amiga Technologies times) with OS 3,1 one delivered.
  • Amiga 1200HD (CCU MC68EC020 with 14.18 MHz (PAL version), 2 MT RAM);Characteristics: like Amiga 1200, however with standard non removable disk with 170 MT.

Desktop and Tower models

Amiga-500-Station with 2 Amiga A2000 as monitor support
Amiga 500
Amiga 500

setting OI box

play console

  • CD ³ ²; Characteristic: Still before the PlayStation the first 32-Bit-Konsole of the world. Places also as accessories of available keyboard in principle oneadequate Amiga 1200.

alternative hardware

  • Pegasos: The company Genesi brought the Pegasos Hardwareplattform on the market, for which the operating system MorphOS is supplied.

see also

Amiga emulators

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