Nitrate of ammonia

Structural formula

Bild:Ammonium.PNGBild:Nitrat.PNG

general
name nitrate of ammonia
other names Ammonsalpeter, Ammonialsalpeter, inflammable Salpeter, nitric ammonium, Ammonnitrat, ammonium nitricum
sum formula N H 4 N O 3
CAS number 6484-52-2
short description white, pulvriger solid
characteristics
mol mass 80.04 g mol
state of aggregation firmly
density 1.72 g/cm ³
melting point to 170 °C
boiling point disintegrates with 210 °C into H 2 O and N to 2 O
steam pressure 1013 h Pa (135 °C)
solubility with 20°C 1183 g/l, with 100°C 8710 g/l into water,

solubly into methanol

of safety references
of Gefahrensymbole
O
fire-promoting
Rand S-sentences

of R: 8
S: 15-17

MAK ?
As far as possible and common, SI-UNITs are used. If not differently notes, the indicated data apply with standard conditions.

Nitrate of ammonia is the salt, which forms from ammonia and nitric acid.

Table of contents

production

nitrate of ammonia (NH 4 NO 3) results from neutralization of ammonia with nitric acid.

use

nitrate of ammonia is the main part of many fertilizers (blue grain)and commercial explosives.

characteristics

with heating (T up < 300°C) disintegrates to nitrate of ammonia in accordance with the equation


<math> \ mathrm {\ NH_4NO_3 \ tons of 2 \ H_2O + \ N_2O}< /math>


in water and laughing gas. By strong Initialzündung and/or heating up over 300°C it disintegrates as follows:


<math> \ mathrm {2 \ NH_4NO_3 \ tons of 4 \ H_2O + \ 2 \ N_2 + \ O_2}< /math>


The nitrate (<math> NO_3< /math>-, Oxidationsstufe V) oxidizes thereby the ammonium (<math> NH_4< /math>+, Oxidationsstufe - III). In the product, <math> N_2< /math>, are both nitrogen atoms on same Oxidationsstufe (0). Such a reaction,the one atom Komproportionierung is called another atom of the same element oxidized. The transition like an explosion of the solid (<math> NH_4NO_3< /math>) to the gaseous products <math> N_2< /math> and water vapour explains the high explosive yield.

By reaction with concentrated sulfuric acid and following distillation those leaves itselfNitric acid recover, which is the original substance for the production of many explosives:


<math> \ mathrm {\ NH_4NO_3 + \ H_2SO_4 \ ton (NH_4) HSO_4 + \ HNO_3}< /math>


The chemical is considered as fire-promoting and can explode with heating up. In the Federal Republic of Germany is handling the transparent andcolorless crystals by the explosive law regulated. In fertilizers nitrate of ammonia may be used because of its latent danger only in mixtures.

disasters

  • a large disaster found 1921 with the explosion of the Oppauer of nitrogen workinstead of, after one wanted to loosen a festgebackenes mixture from 4500 tons nitrate of ammonia and ammonium sulphate with dynamite. The nitrate of ammonia exploded, and it occurred one of the largest explosion disasters in history: 561 humans died, and a large part thatFactory and the surrounding buildings were destroyed.
  • To 16. April 1947 the cargo ships Grandcamp ( France) and Highflyer in the port of Texas town center (Texas, the USA) (the USA), loaded with nitrate of ammonia, exploded. There were 486 dead ones, over 100Missed, 3000 hurt, hundreds homeless person and 65 million US Dollar damage.[1]
  • To 28. July 1947 exploded in the port of Brest (France) the freighter loaded with nitrate of ammonia Ocean Liberty (Norway): 21 dead ones, over 100 and 2 million Pound hurtSterling damage.

literature

  • smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Escales: Nitrate of ammonium explosives. Survival press, 1909, Reprint 2002, ISBN 3831135630
  • measured variables on detonation ability of nitrate of ammonia ofK cock field, and. A. (1983)

Wiki/Weblinks

 

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