Aníbal Pinto Garmendia

Aníbal Pinto Garmendia (* 15. March 1825 in Santiago de Chile; † 9. June 1884 ebenda) was a Chilean politician. From 1876 to 1881 he officiated as a president of his country.


Aníbal Pinto

Aníbal Pinto was born as a son of Francisco Antonio Pinto Díaz, which was between 1827 and 1829 a Chilean president. Its nut/mother originated from Argentina and in such a way visited Pinto also the Collegio Argentino in Santiago; subsequently, it studied until 1844 at the Instituto Nacional, however only up to the Bakkalaureus.

As a member of a delegation of president Manuel Bulnes Prieto it traveled in January 1845 to Europe, to the Vatikan; its following education journey by Europe took altogether four years, it made in several countries station, longest was it in Paris .

After its return 1851 he dedicated himself to the administration of the extensive family goods; politically Pinto ranked among the opposition against president Manuel Montt Torres, which he attacked sharply in newspaper articles. Also scientifically Aníbal Pinto worked, when he was accepted 1852 with a work over philosophy of René Descartes to the philosophical faculty of the Universidad de Chile. In the same year it applied for the first time for a parliament mandate and represented themselves to 1873 different constituencies in the Lower House. 1855 he married Delfina Cruz y Zañartu. The aristokratischen circles in the “small south” of Chile, which Pinto come of and which surrounded it, drove substantially the revolution of 1859 against president Torres.

The new president José Joaquín Pérez Mascayano appointed Pinto 1862 the mayor von Concepción, an office, which he had until 1871. In September 1871 president Federico Errázuriz Zañartu appointed it as the war and naval Minister. The Aristokrat, human and Pazifist Pinto had to pay in this office training money, critics threw to itunderstanding of lacking for the aspect of its generals forwards and accused it to lock the eyes before the crisis between Chile and its neighbour - particularly Peru and Bolivia - escalated. At the beginning of of 1875 withdrew Aníbal Pinto as a war Minister and concentrated on the presidency candidacy.

As a candidate of the national ones and some liberals Pinto won the tuning on the Party Congress of the Allianza liberals, and in the congress he obtained to 30. August 1876 293 of 307 voices. To 18. Septembers took over he the office business of the separating president Errázuriz.

The beginning of the term of office of Aníbal Pinto was coined/shaped of economic problems. In the wake of the world economic crisis, which in Europe for instance with the collapse period of promoterism - collapsed booms in Germany, also Chile came - with appropriate temporal delay - in the Straucheln. Besides the copper price lay in the cellar, and the Chilean receipts from exports suffered accordingly. In addition came heavy inundations, which afflicted Chile in the year 1877 and destroyed a good part of the anyway weakly removed traffic routes, as well as an earthquake, which afflicted the ports in the north.

The state reacted with heavy interferences in the economic life: Thus exchange restrictions were introduced and the conversion of Chilean notes was forbidden for one year. Only with the saltpeter war and thereupon the Chilean economy won gushing export incomes from the annektierten areas in the north momentum.

In the south the tensions with Argentina increased by contentious territorial claims in Patagonien. In Santiago by the dozen students announced themselves de Chile as Freiwillige, while the Argentine fleet had already opened itself toward Magellan route. Last the controversy could be settled nevertheless still on diplomatic way; in the Fierro Sarratea contract of 1878 Chile did to the Wasserscheide of the Anden without territorial claims east and left thereby the majority of the patagonischen level the Argentiniern. To 23. July 1881 was closed an additional agreement, which documented and assured the Chilean requirement on the Magellan route and the eastern part of fire country.

In the north against it it came to the war, when the new Bolivian government wanted to take Hilarión Daza under general in the year 1878 access to saltpeter proceeds, which should remain in Bolivian area, but - in accordance with a contract of 1874 - without tax liability opposite Bolivia. As the saltpeter companies (inChilean and English hand) itself refused carrying out the demanded deliveries instructed the Bolivian government the locking of the mines. To 14. February 1879 landed thereupon a Chilean expedition corps under the highest Emilio Sotomayor Baeza in Antofagasta and occupied the city. The Bolivian government answered with a declaration of war at Chile.

The Chilean government in Santiago built on the fact that Peru would behave neutrally in this conflict, but the government in Lima felt obligated a secret contract with Bolivia, which obligated Peru since 1873 to the assistance. When this admits became, Chile explained to 5. April 1879 both Bolivia and Peru the war.

The first larger fighting of this war went in the Peruvian port Iquique, where the Chilean fleet lost its corvette Esmeralda with the majority of the crew. This loss, to the heroirschen victim representative, released a wave of the enthusiasm for war, thousands of young men announced itself voluntarily and at the beginning of of 1881 finally occupied the Chilean army Lima, the capital of Peru.

Relating to domestic affairs the war had brought, on the contrary no agreement: War Ministry and army command argued about strategy, procedure and the supremacy in the war guidance. in January 1881 used besides the Mapuche - Indians in the south of the country the departure of the Chilean troops to the war into the north, over for their part to the rebellion, stationed thereto walk against the colonization of the white ones.

In September 1881 Aníbal Pinto handed over to its selected successor Domingo Santa María González, which had been in its cabinet Minister of the Interior before. Pinto withdrew itself into its house in Valparaíso ; as comparatively young Elder Statesman it received some offers for tasks of representation. But its bad state of health forbade further commitment to it, only at the fire-brigade of Santiago took over it the presidency. At the age of 59 years it died in June 1884 at a heart disease.

See also: History of Chile.


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