Anatole France

Anatole France (= Anatole François Thibault, * 16. April 1844 in Paris, † 12. October 1924 in Saint Cyr sur Loire with route) was a French writer and Literaturnobelpreisträger.

France buildup as a son of a highly educated bookseller and terminated 1864 its Gymnasialzeit tocatholic Paris Collège Stanislas with baccalauréat. Early it interested in literature and gained per finds a human education. 1866 he became acquainted with the publisher Lemerre and became with him a freelance lector, as which he e.g. one more-restrains Anthologie of contemporary lyric poetry gave change. 1876he took over, in order to have for marriage and establishment of family a firm income, a post as a library employee, whom he gave to 1890 up, after he could live of its Schriftstellerei.

As an author it began with lyric poetry in the style of the poets of the Parnasse, in their circle around CharlesLeconte de Lisle it starting from 1867 moved. It worked however early also as a storyteller as well as literary critic (e.g. the new symbolism about Mallarmés or Verlaines first did not goutierte).

Its break-through was 1881 the novel Le Crime de Sylvestre Bonn pool of broadcasting corporations, membre de l'Institut(= the crime S. B.s, member Institut), which was distinguished with the Prix de l' Académie française, it entrance to that Parisians literary salons provided, among other things of Mme de Caillavet, and it the 1884 the cross of the Ehrenlegion registered. Le Crime (the titleby the way ironically to understand) is a agitate-blessed novel, which tells the history of an unworldly older private scholar in diary form, is that in the first rather coincidental use for needy ones, especially. the abandoned granddaughter of its youth love, which finds real lives.

In accordance with its good-civil coming France represented long timea rather conservative attitude, so e.g. in that at present that Paris Commune playing novel Les désirs de Jean Servien (1882) or 1887 in a negative discussion Émile Zolas). it sympathized to 1888 short time even with the chauvinistism of Georges Boulanger, „the Généralrevenge “. Against 1890 it moved however slowly to the left. It opened, antiklerikalen and for humanitarian-socialist ideas, whereby a revolutionizing of the society interested it less than the emancipation of the individual of inhumanen material and moral obligations. Not indifferently at its reorientation the biographic circumstance was supposed,that it had begun 1888 a except-conjugal relationship with Mme de Caillavet, who led it 1892 to the separation from woman and daughter.

A reflex of its reorientation was 1889/90 Frances first historical novel, Thaïs. It tells in the kosmopolitischen Alexandria the 4. Century playing historya asketischen Christian monk, which tries to bekehren the heidnische Kurtisane Thaïs, however even to the insight it is bekehrt that the renouncement of any sense joy cannot be God-wanted. (1894 of Jules Massenet as opera tone.)

Frances antiklerikales and progressistic thinking shows up alsoin the very successful short novel La Rôtisserie de la pure Pédauque (the roasting kitchen [=Speiselokal] to the queen P.) of 1892/93. It is a action-rich work in the style of the philosophical novels and narrations 18. Century, which is allegedly out of a coincidentally regained manuscript taken to this time.Herein a pikaresker I storyteller reports its various experiences with the very unorthodox former church man and Gymnasialprofessor Jérôme Coignard (its figure of a undogmatischen Skeptikers and free philosopher France in the same year 93 in the sow-Irish series of articles Les opinions used de Jérôme Coignard).

In the presence against it playsthe auto+biographically inspired novel Le Lys rouge (the red lily) of 1894, which tells the history of the difficult love of a banker wife for an artist. (1899 to a piece process and specified)

1895 were moderated France in its characteristic as a progressistic author to the officer of the Ehrenlegioncarried. 1896 it as versatile man of letters and shining stylist were taken up to the Académie française.

Clear expression of its constantly far to the left drifting position are the four volumes of the Romantetralogie Histoire contemporaine (=Zeitgeschichte). Goods volume I and II (both 1897) still another sow-Irish custom painting thatfrom klerikalen and monarchistic forces controlled French province, then Bd stand. III (1899) and above all IV (1901), whose action around the university lecturer Bergeret in Paris plays, under the impression itself of the Dreyfus aggravating starting from end 1897 - affair. They show Frances transition of the bareSociety criticism from the perspective one moderately left republican for the decidedly left commitment of a sympathizer of the socialist party and her leader Jean Jaurès.

Its new commitment manifested itself also 1898 in its journalistic statements to the Dreyfus affair and in its interference into the politically motivated processagainst Zola. It shows up further in the biting narration L'Affaire Crainquebille (1901), which describes, as an inconsiderate judge in the association with an authoritarian policeman sentences a small costermonger and so the Vorbestraften of its civil existence robbed. (1903 to a piece process and specified)

politicalFrance pursues left intentions also in the Biografie La Vie de Jeanne D' Arc (1908), where he tries the figure Jeannes too entzaubern, which of French rights the straight was stylized to the national icon (blessed speaking by the Pope 1909).

Two trips Frances in the theatre subject also Noces of corinthiennes (1902) and La Comédie de celui qui épouse une muette (1908) remained rather without consequences.

Most famous Frances of novels L'Ile of the Pingouins (the island of the penguins) of 1908 and Les dieux ont soif (the Gods dürsten) of 1912. First is a sarkastischer outlinethe French history from the beginnings into the present, which the author shifts disguised into a fictitious penguin realm, whereby he judges its future because of the greed and arrogant unreasonable „of the penguins “very pessimistically. The other novel tells the history of a doctrinaire revolution acre and itsParticipation in the blood-run-risen fright rule of 1793/94. It is a call Frances against the ideological and political and Fanatismus, which polarized the France of the time.

In the First World War it, after it had tried to appear at first still as Friedensmahner, referred one moderated patriotic position.

1921 receivedFrance as a fourth French author the literature Nobelpreis. In Rome against it its work was set 1922 on the index.

After the excerpt of the communists from the socialist party at the end of of 1920 it struck on its side and was thereby one the first per-communist intellectual ones of rank.Party member it became however not, and 1922 it already set off because of their absolute Moscow Hörigkeit carefully from them.

To its 80. El noch 1924 de Tod del seinem del bei del und del überhäuft del mit Ehrungen de Francia del wurde de Geburtstag im selben el ausgezeichnet de Staatsbegräbnis del einem del mit de Jahr.

Today it is, despiteits fame during lifetimes, nearly forget, not least probably, because its Protagonisten work in the meantime and to clearly from the author in each case the wanting or rejection psychologically somewhat flat and undifferentiatedly to usually represent. Also France had the misfortune in its last Lebensjahr, of the per-communist Surrealisten, in particular Louis Aragon as pseudoleft Bourgeois to be geschmäht which provided for it with many orthodox linking the intermediate war, war and post-war period the Odium cut rights.

Literature history France entered particularly as Romancier and as the author of L'Ile of thePingouins and Les dieux ont soif.

honors and honours

of works (selection)

  • professor Bonnards debt (Le crime de SylvestreBonn pool of broadcasting corporations)
  • The roasting kitchen of the queen gänsefuss (La rôtisserie de la pure Pédauque)
  • Crainquebille (L'affaire Crainquebille)
  • the island of the penguins (L'Île pingouins)
  • the Gods (Les dieux ont soif) riot
  • of the angels (La révolte the anges)
  • the red lily (Le lys rouge)
  • the novels that dürstenPresence (Histoire contemporaine)
  • on the white rock (Sur la pierre blanche)
  • the life of the holy Johanna (Vie de Jeanne d'Arc)
  • the garden of the Epikur (Le Jardin d'Épicure)
  • Thaïs

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