Anatoli Wassiljewitsch Lunatscharski
Anatoli Wassiljewitsch Lunatscharski (Russian: АнатолийВасильевичЛуначарский; * 11. /23. November 1875 in Poltawa, today Ukraine; † 28. December 1933 in Menton, France) was in after-to Russia a people's commissar for the training system (NARKOMPROS). 1917 of Lenin into this function destined, he held the office until 1929. It is considered as one of the most important Marxist culture politicians.
Lunatscharski, son of a higher official in Poltawa, visited the High School in Kiew and came there for the first time with revolutionary ideas into contact, whereupon it had to leave soon the country. it studied 1892 to 1894 in Zurich nature and economic science, 1894 to 1896 in of Paris aesthetics, art sciences and literature. After its return to Russia it was again politically active and was arrested several times and arrested. Since 1904, again in the emigration, he worked in Geneva in the editorship of the magazines forward (Вперед) and proletarian (Пролетарий). it turned 1905 after sank Petersburg back, again was arrested and fled to Stockholm. 1908 it excited attention with a writing, which tried to make a connection between religion and marxism. 1910/11 it organized a school in Italy after the Montessori - principle, later he worked in Paris again than journalist.
Lunatscharski was since 1897 member of the social-democratic labour party of Russia. It was very unlocked in relation to the arts, the literature, the theatre and the music. By its stays in the emigration from 1906 to 1917, where he had belonged during the First World War to the closer circle of Lenin, it possessed per finds of knowledge of the Western European art scene and represented in art questions one rather liberal attitude. Lenin against it was expressed conservative in art questions. Lunatscharski ensured for the fact that also with the “new economic policy “, which applied in Russia starting from 1921 still certain free spaces were open to the avant-garde. It was expressed a skillful Taktierer, which took in purchase that its expressions contradicted themselves. Lunatscharski understood itself in the long run as political revolutionary, with which the needs of the masses of workers and farmers had priority. It could not prevent the fall of the avant-garde art, which ended into the doctrine of socialist realism.
The change in the art politics of Russia can be reconstructed at three by Lunatscharskis publications well. They are quoted in the following:
- 1918; from an article for the “art of the municipality”:
- I have dozen mark avowedly, the Kommissariat for public enlightenment should be impartial in its attitude to the individual directions in the art life. Which concerns matters of form, the taste of the people's commissar and all representative of the government authority may not be charged for. A free development is to be granted to all persons and groups within the art range! No direction may be permitted to displace the other one it is equipped with acquired traditional fame or with mode success!
- 1920, (Octobers); At a meeting of the art sector and the communist parliamentary group of the central committee of the trade union of the art-creative Lunatscharski its theses understood about it as guidelines speaks its Kommissariats to the art politics:
- 1. Preservation of the real art values of the past.
- 2. Critical appropriation of these art values by the proletarian masses.
- 3. Each erdenkliche promotion of the creation of experimental forms of revolutionary art.
- 4. Employment of all kinds of art for propaganda and implementation of the ideas of communism, in addition promotion of the influence of the communist ideas on the masses of the art-creative.
- 5. Objective attitude to all artistic currents.
- 6. Democratization of all artistic mechanisms, which must be made accessible for the masses in each erdenkliche way.
- 1921; Article for “red new ground” (with the contents-empty Sujetlosigkeit was above all the Suprematismus meant):
- The art is split today into different camps and a boundary falls immediately into the eye: the so-called realistic art, by which one generally understands the entire past art now, and which so-called futuristic. I personally believe that the way of the art of the past to the proletarian, socialist art does not run over the Futurismus, and if they are by these or that achievement of the Futursimus, and them only technical kind, are fertilized, then is not this probably very seriously to take (this does not apply to arts and crafts): But that is my personal opinion, which probably a majority of other communists divides… For micht it is not subject to a doubt that substantially more by lifeful epochs of the past is given to the Proletariat and the peasantry, when of an art, which explains from the beginning that it contentwise empty that it is purely formal, and which finally to an absolutely contents-empty Sujetlosigkeit comes. .. Without granting the so-called new art privileges, one should also organize neither an encircling rubbing against it, whereby we would joke ourselves the sympathy of hundreds of young artists, still from them martyrs in the name of their ideas to make, behind those her stand firmly. That would be completely futile, without each necessity and each use.
- Heiner prick house; Kasimir Malewitsch - a tragic conflict, Claasen publishing house Duesseldorf, 1989, ISBN 3-546-48681-1. Prick house concerns itself in this book in detail with the incompatability of political and mental-artistic revolution by the example of Kasimir Malewitsch. The above quotations are taken out of this book: S. 62ff.
Web on the left of
| | * Literature of and over Anatoli Wassiljewitsch Lunatscharski in the catalog of the DDB
|NAME||Lunatscharski, Anatoli Wassiljewitsch|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||Russian people's commissar for the training system (NARKOMPROS)|
|DATE OF BIRTH||23. November 1875|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Poltawa|
|DYING DATE||28. December 1933|
|DYING PLACE||Menton, France|