André Breton

André Breton

André Breton (* 18. February 1896 in Tinchebray (Orne) in normandy; † 28. September 1966 in Paris), was a French poet, writer and the most important theoretician of the Surrealismus; itswhole life was coupled to this movement.

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Breton before Breton: until 1913

he became acquainted with 1924 the writer Paul Valéry , at that time its model; it wrote lyric poetry, impressed from Stéphane Mallarmé and other authors of the symbolism. 1915, after the beginning oneMedicine study, he was drawn in to the Sanitätsdienst, met in Nantes Jacques Vaché, was occupied intensively with Arthur Rimbaud; he worked in a psychiatric institute and read the work of victory mouth Freud, which he should visit 1921 in Vienna. 1918 he became acquainted with Guillaume Apollinaire and discovered the wild poetry of Lautréamont. It fallow its study of the medicine off, in order to become freelance writer. it created 1919 with Louis Aragon and Philippe Soupault the magazine Littérature, thosestood for the Dadaismus close. 1919 came also Tristan Tzara from Zurich to Paris, which group that Paris Dadaisten extended constantly, when to it-pushed Paul Eluard , Max Ernst , Robert Desnos , René Crevel , Benjamin Péret. The unconsciouswas investigated, it was the time of the “automatic letter”, the Hypnoseversuche and dream minutes.

the Surrealismus up to the war

1924 he wrote the communist manifesto of the Surrealismus, in which he defined Surrealismus as a “pure psychological automatism”. Organthe new group became the magazine La Révolution Surréaliste (twelve numbers 1924-1929). The increasing political interest brought it and the group into the proximity of the communists, finally stepped 1927 beside André Breton Louis Aragon, Paul Eluard, Benjamin Péret and Pierre Unik of the KPF .

it wrote its most successful book to 1928: the experimental novel Nadja. With Le Surréalisme et la Peinture strove he around a theoretical reason surrealistischer painting, for which he as examples max Ernst, Pablo Picasso, Joan Miró and André Masson consulted. he tried 1930 in the second communist manifesto of the Surrealismus a redefinition of the Surrealismus as a socialrevolutionary movement: “Marx says, the world change. Rimbaud says, which lives change. “- The Surrealismus the synthesis of these two ideas is, he professed itself to the “social as for psychological revolution. “In together with Paul Eluard the written Unbefleckten receipt-sneeze tried the two a text-poetic simulation of illusion conditions from the freudschen psychoanalysis. Breton busyitself intensively with the contrast of “Wachsein” and “dream” in the communicating tubes (1932, contain and. A. also a short correspondence with victory mouth Freud).

The new newspaper of the group is program: Le Surréalisme outer service de larévolution (the Surrealismus in the service of the revolution, six expenditures, 1930-33). But Breton and its friends had ever more problems with party dogma TIC, 1935 culminated the tensions in the final break with the KPF. André Breton became the critic of the Stalinismus; it was the time of the Spanish of civil war, in which some the Surrealisten (like Benjamin Péret and Tristan Tzara) on republican side took part. 1936 created Breton as well as Georges Bataille a group of left-revolutionary intellectual, under thatName “Contre Attaque” admits will should. Breton met finally 1938 Leo Trotzki in its exile in Mexico with Diego Rivera: they wrote together the communist manifesto for an independent revolutionary art. In the meantime the Surrealismus was the far over borders of France admits and actively, with groups and Manifestationen in Brussels, Barcelona, London or Prague. 1938 organized Breton in Paris the first “international Surrealismusausstellung”.

war, exile, return

after the occupation of France by the German armed forces it fled 1940 to Marseille, from there out over the Antilleses to New York. There it met it on Marcel Duchamp and max Ernst, published in the newspaper “VVV”. The argument with the präkolumbianischen America followedand the early socialists, particularly with Charles Fourier. To the war it returned 1946 to Europe, its hope for a social like political new start was disappointed. Parts of the group, like Louis Aragon and Paul Eluard, had themselvesin the meantime the Moscow-friendly party line attached. Together with Jean Dubuffet created Breton 1947 the association Compagnie de l' kind brood, in order to promote and issue outsider art, over-threw itself with it however over it 1951. In the first postwar years it hadin particular by the opposition of the Stalinisten of problems to provide in the culture scene hearing; that changed with a comprehensive Surrealismus exhibition, which he organized together with Marcel Duchamp 1947 in Paris. 1960 it engaged itself against the Algeria war. Inthe following decade understood it writer criticized as „a Pope of the Surrealismus the “to provide further for the movement hearing approximately with the anthologies L'Art magique (1957), Le Surréalisme et la Peinture (1965) and the organization of several internationalSurrealismusausstellungen:E.R.O.S. (1959/1960) and the last large exhibition, whose title stands like a program for it and the Surrealismus: „L'écart absolu “: the absolute deviation. 1966 it died at a lung illness and became on the Cimetière of theBattignolles with Paris buried.


  • Mont de piété (pawnshop), poems (1919)
  • Les Champs of magnétiques (the magnetic fields) with Philippe Soupault (1920)
  • Clair de Terre (earth light), poems (1923)
  • Communist manifestos you Surréalisme (the communist manifesto of the Surrealismus) (1924, text with Wikisource)
  • Nadja (1928)
  • Le Surréalisme et la peinture (the Surrealismus and the painting) (1928)
  • Second of communist manifestos youSurréalisme (the second communist manifesto of the Surrealismus) (1930)
  • L'Immaculée Conception (the unbefleckte receipt-sneeze) with Paul Eluard (1930)
  • Les Vases communicants (the communicating tubes) (1932)
  • Le gun A cheveux blanks (The weisshaarige gun), poems (1932)
  • L'air de l'eau (the way of the water), poems (1934)
  • L'Amour fou (1937)
  • Pour un kind indépendant révolutionnaire (for independent revolutionary art) also Leo Trotzki (1938)
  • Anthologie de l' humour noir (Anthologie of black humor) (1940)
  • Prolégomènes à un troisième communist manifestos ou non (preface to a 3. Communist manifesto or also not) (1942)
  • Arcane 17 (Arkanum 17) (1944)
  • desert à Charles Fourier (desert at Charles Fourier) (1945)
  • Entretiens (Entretiens - discussions) (1952)
  • La Clé champs (width search) (1953)

expenditure for work commentated

  • André Breton, Œuvres of complètes, Bd. 1-3, Hrsg. v. Marguerite Bonnet, Bibliothèque de la Pléiade, Paris 1988-1999 (further volumes in preparation)


  • of peoples Zotz: André Breton. Reinbek 1990 (Rororo Bildmonographie)
  • Mark of Polizzotti: Revolution of the spirit. The life André Bretons. Munich, Vienna 1996 (so far most extensive Biografie)

further literature

  • to Contre Attaque: Moebius, Stephan: The magician's apprentices. Sociology history of the Collège de Sociologie 1937-1939 (Georges Bataille, Michel Leiris, Roger Caillois, the secret companyAcéphale and the effects on Foucault, Lévinas, Nancy, Maffesoli, Baudrillard and Derrida). Konstanz: UVK, 2006, ISBN 3-89669-532-0

Web on the left of

Wikiquote: André Breton - quotations
  • {{#if:
| | * Literature of and over André Breton in the catalogthe DDB


  • the “Anrennen against the borders of the language” - methods of the letter and strategies of reading (a discussion with Roland Barthes, André Breton, Gilles Deleuze and Raymond Federman) Ralph light riser


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