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Malraux became at the 3. November 1901 in Paris born. Already from childhood Malraux at the Tourette syndrome ( Tics) suffered. Its father remote and, bank employee, left the family 1905, so that Malraux of his nut/motherBerthe, geb. Lamy was drawn up, which lived together with its nut/mother and sister. Its father married himself again and had in second marriage two sons, Roland (*1912) and Claude (*1922). Father remote and committed 1930 suicide, after the economic crisis brought 1929 him harsh losses. Roland andClaude engaged themselves since 1942 intensively in the Résistance. Both were arrested in March 1944 by the Germans and did not return. Malraux married 1921 in first marriage Clara Goldschmidt, an high-intelligent Jewess from Magdeburg. Malraux always led a very mondänen, aufwändigen life-style. Financial one Setbacks, like the loss of the fortune of its wife at the stock exchange 1923, could divert him not of it. Friends, above all later its publisher Gallimard, always helped him financial difficulties. With its death it left debts in million height. By his first Mrs. Clara hadit a daughter, Florence (*1933). It separated from Clara 1938 and lived together from now on with Josette Clotis. With their it had two sons, Pierre Gauthier (*1940; since Malraux is married with Clara still, officially his half brother Roland was registered as a father) and Vincent (*1943;officially as a son without father). Josette has an accident 1944 deadly in a course accident. Ab1945 lives together Malraux with the widow of its half brother Roland, larva line, and their son Alain. The official divorce of Clara was expressed only 1946. 1948 the marriage with larva line takes place. Its both sonsPierre Gauthier and Vincent had an accident 1961 deadly with a car accident. 1966 it separated from larva line. Starting from 1967 Louise de Vilmorin was, after their death 1969 its niece Sophie de Vilmorin Malraux' constant companion.
the young Malraux
after the normal schools wanted Malrauxthe renowned Lycée Condorcet visit. It was not accepted 1918 however. He began to work as book salesmen, among other things for René Louis Doyon, which arranged the contact for it to writers such as max of Jacob , Paul Morand , Jean Cocteau or Raymond Radiguet. It began itself also intensivelywith modern art to concern, worked among other things for the renowned art dealer Kahnweiler. Starting from 1920 it published several articles over modern literature and art. In order to reorganize itself financially, Malraux went 1923 after Angkor wades itself/Kambodscha, where he sieve Basrelief from thatTemple Banteay Srei stole. He was arrested and condemned 1924 in Phnom Penh to three years prison. It succeeded to his Mrs. Clara with the help of Marcel Arlands, well-known writers such as Gide, Mauriac, André Breton, Aragon and max of Jacob at favour of Malrauxto organize. This led to the fact that the punishment was reduced and suspended to probation. After short stay in France the Malrauxs 1925 spent most time in Saigon (Ho-Chi-Minh-city)/Viet Nam. There Malraux engaged itself journalistically against the French colonial regime. Except a short visitin Hong Kong and Macao for purchases did not visit Malraux China. The fact that Malraux had at that time contact with the Chinese revolutionaries, in particular communists is only also more maintained in of Malraux carefully - myth.
back in France it began 1926 with itsfirst literary Essais and novels, which brought in also further friendships with prominent writers for it such as Gide and Drieu La Rochelle. Malraux was affected by Dostojewski, Friedrich Nietz, Oswald Spengler and André Gide. Between 1928 and 1937 he published its four large novels:with the publishing house grass set 1928 Les Conquérants and 1930 La Voie royale, with Gallimard, whose Lektoratskomitee it joined 1928, 1933 La condition humaine and 1937 L' Espoir. All four novels have an adventurous-exotic background:
- Les Conquérants acts of the rebellions in Guangzhou (CAN clay/tone) in south China.
- La Voie royale is appropriate for Malraux' experience in Kambodscha at the basis
- La condition humaine plays be based on the background of the revolutionary rebellions in the area
- Shanghai L' Espoir on Malraux' experiences in the Spanish civil war.
These novels justified Malraux' call as Frühexistentialist. In particular in La Voie royale, Malraux'Novel, which exhibits at most philosophical depth, it already anticipated some from Sartres theses. Sartre called Malraux once its Johannes the Täufer. The heroes of Malraux' novels are examples that became human existence and proof of the liberty of humans. Malraux describes thatHumans as one, which is coined/shaped like also hope by feelings of the fear and the disgust. Hope connects humans to common actions. And the fear, which is the constant companion of humans, propels it for acting. The most important for humansis the responsibility, which it has itself opposite - and not before a thing -. Humans select themselves, because the life does not have a final aim. But it fails in the long run, because not humans make something from his life, separate the life constitute somethingit. Erotism, play, terror, adventures and revolutionary actions are only substitute solutions, by means of whose humans try, from its tragic existence structures to come out from its condition humaine. Which distinguishes humans, is the consciousness of its death, the irrefutable proof of the absurdity of the existence. Already before Camus hasMalraux the absurdity of the life postulates. It is however exactly this absurdity of the life, which lends only sense to the human actions and which individual help to true life.
Not death, but the purge, subjecting is bad under the civil order. A meaningful deathis better than a senseless life. The Tragik of death exists alone that it the life of humans the fate become leaves. Like Sartre also the early Malraux sees a contradiction between moral and politics. There is no fair party. But goes without moralit in the policy, because politics is also not based always on moral. Only in order sake moral goals is to be gone humans ready, for a thing into death. Death is always a victory of the Sinnlosigkeit, but which counts, is that humansnever gave way and is underlaid never. Only the victory counts, not the life. Suicide would be however no way out, because it is only self-deception.
the political revolutionary and resistance fighter
early by his Mrs. Clara sensitized, began themselves Malraux actively against fascismto begin and he engaged himself therefore with the communists. it appeared to 1933 as a speaker at the first meeting of the Association präsidierten of Gide écrivains et artistes révolutionnaires. It met Trotskij, turned then however the Stalinisten. 1934 it went with Gideto Berlin, in order to reach the release of the communist leaders Georgi Dimitrow and Ernst Thälmann. In the summer 1934 was it in Moscow to attendance and participated there in the first Soviet congress of writer, on which socialist realism was raised to the guidance principle. It met at that time among other things Stalin. 1935 it organized défense de la culture together with Gide the Congrès internationally écrivains pour la. After it had been before again in the Soviet Union, it engaged itself actively starting from summer 1936 in Spanish civil war for the republican side. Right after beginning of war inJuly 36 it organized the structure of the airplane relay España, whose command it also held, although it could not fly. After their integration into the official republican units in the Nov. 36 it went 1937 into the USA, in order to akquirieren funds for the republican side.Thus direct commitment stopped being in the Spanish civil war, again it let which revive in its novel L' Espoir and in the film Sierra de Teruel (1938/39). The Hitler Stalin pact 1939 leads to the break with the communists. Malraux was in the years 1933-39 way comrade of the communists,however no scruplesless professional revolutionary, who loves the revolutionary movement more than humans. Malraux was to insert themselves ever more the adventurer, who does heavily, into a social existence and be given by means of its commitment above all to its own lives sense wants. Self implementation was for Malrauxmore importantly than the service in the class warfare. Malraux showed large abhorrence before discipline and obligation to obedience, how it is own to cadre parties like the communists. Only their energy and the readiness for action interested it. At the beginning of the Second World War itself Malraux, only the emergency service wanted assignedwas, at the armored troops announce, however one did not accept. Starting from April 1940 it carried service out as a soldier in the motorized Kavallerie, in June 1940 it of the Germans was imprisoned taken. In the Nov. 1940 succeeded to it owing to his half brother Roland the escape. Until March 1944it, usually in very fürstlichen mansions, stayed in Southern France. Many, among other thingsD' Astier, Bourdet, Stéphane, Sartre, Kaan, tried to persuade it to the participation to the Résistance. Malraux rejected, since he expected the release only from the Soviets and the Englishmen. Onlyin March 1944, three months before the invasion in normandy, Malraux tried, to follow under the name Colonel Berger of the Résistance in the Corrèze. In July by the German arrested, reached it only with the release of France in August. 44 again its own liberty. Overits work in the Résistance like the circumstances its capture and its release doubts climb. Of a prominent resistance fighter can until August. 44 anyhow no speech its. In September. 1944 he took over the command of the brigade Alsace Lorraine, those as officially French unit at the fightin the Vogesen and in the Elsass was involved. Disagreement over Malraux' genuine function and meaning prevails also here.
Gaullist politician and art journalist
in the autumn 1944 followed Malraux as on the left of Gaullisten de Gaulles movement. In August. 45 it met de Gaulle for the first time.Both testified itself from then on large respect and admiration. From the Nov. 1945 until January 1946 was it de Gaulles information Minister with Raymond Aron as its director of cabinet. When de Gaulle created 1947 the Rassemblement you Peuple Français as its party, Malraux became director/conductor of the Pressedienstes(until 1953). In the years 1947-1958, in which de Gaulle was political in the desert, Malraux returned to its large old passion, the art. Malraux wrote books concerning the art: La psychology de l' kind (1947-79), Musée imaginaire (1953-55). After it itself still in the springthe return de Gaulles to the policy in the summer 1958 Malraux' lives had turned, changed 1958 with Mauriac and Sartre against the torture in Algeria radically. In June 1958 he was appointed the information Minister, in January 1959 the Minister of State for cultural affairs, who office heup to the resignation de Gaulles 1969 kept. As a Minister of State Malraux the world bereiste. It was received from prominent state people, from John F. Kennedy over Nehru to Mao. It promoted the modern art (exhibition over Picasso; Chagall was allowed the cover of the Opéra, Masson that onethe Odéon paint), also disputed writers such as Genet. He was the father of the Maisons de la culture (first 1964 in Bourges), which to the goal had that people increases with the art in contact to bring. Malraux did also very much for retaining olderCulture objects as well as the reon purchasing of the city Paris as “city of the light”. As a culture Minister it ensured for the cleaning of the fronts - the deepest interference in the Stadtbuld since the “Hausmannisation” in the middle of the 19.Jahrhunderts. Its Gefolgschaft de Gaulles brought in however also the enmity of many for it, in particularthat Sartres. Malraux and Sartre were the two antipodes under the prominent intellectual at the beginning of the 60's. Malraux' daughter Florence signed 1960 in connection with the Algeria war the call for conscientious objection (communist manifesto 121), which led to the break between father and daughter (until 1968). Malrauxin May' only if a lyric illusion saw 68, 1969 used itself however nevertheless with Sartre and Mauriac for Régis Debray, which was imprisoned as revolutionaries in Bolivia. Toward and after end Malraux dedicated to its political career to its autobiography and set themselves it its worksover the art away. Characterized by its alcoholism and medicine abuse heavily gotten sick it several times heavily. Malraux deceased to 23. November 1976. Its ash is transferred twenty year later on Veranlassung by Chirac into the Panthéon.
- Lunes EN paper, 1921
- LaTentation de l'Occident, 1926
- Les Conquérants / the conquerers, 1928
- Royaume Farfelu, 1928
- La Voie royale / the king way, 1930; first Prix Interallié 1930
- La condition humaine / lives in such a way humans, 1933, Prix Goncourt.
- Le Temps you mépris, 1935
- L'Espoir / hope, 1937
- Sierra de Teruel, Film, 1939 (1945 appeared new, likewise under the title L'Espoir)
- La Lutte avec l'ange / the fight with the angel, 1943 in Switzerland, 1948 as Les Noyers de l'Altenbourg in France
- LeDémon de l'Absolu, 1946
- Esquisse d'une psychology you cinéma, 1946
- psychology de l'Art: Le Musée imaginaire - La Création artistique - La Monnaie de l'absolu, 1947-1948-1950
- Les Voix you silence / voices of the silence, 1951
- Le Musée Imaginaire de lasculpture mondiale: La Statuaire - the Bas relief aux grottes sacrées - Le Monde Chrétien "", 1952-1954
- La Métamorphose dieux, 1957, later than Le Surnaturel
- Antimémoires / anti-memoirs, 1967 (first part of Miroir of the Limbes)
- Les Chênes qu'on abat…, 1971 (againtaken up to La Corde et les souris)
- Oraisons of funèbres, 1971 (again taken up to La Corde et les souris)
- La Tête d'obsidienne, 1974 (again taken up to La Corde et les souris)
- Lazare, 1974 (again taken up to La Corde les etsouris)
- Hôtes de passage, 1975 (again taken up to La Corde et les souris)
- La Corde et les souris, 1976 (second part of Miroir of the Limbes)
- Le Miroir of the Limbes, 1976 (I. Antimémoires + II. La Corde et les souris + Oraisons of funèbres)
- Le Surnaturel, (1977, revised version of La Métamorphose of the Dieux L'Irréel
- , appeared La Métamorphose of the Dieux. II, 1975
- L'Intemporel, La Métamorphose of the Dieux. III, 1976
- L'Homme précaire la littérature et, 1977 (posthum)
- Jean Lacouture, Malraux, une vie dans le siècle. Seuil, 1973
- Axel Madsen, Malraux, 1976 (on English)
- Olivier Todd, André Malraux, une vie. Gallimard, 2001 (definitely the old reputation Malraux destroyed as in former times revolutionary and large Résistancekämpfer. Malraux appears as someone, its first goal thoseSpreading of myths over itself was.)
Web on the left of
|Wikiquote: André Malraux - quotations|
| | * Literature of and over André Malraux in the catalog of the DDB
- short biography
- entry (inclusive Literature data) in the biographic-bibliographic church encyclopedia (BBKL)
- Biblioweb: Biografie, Bibliografie,Analysis (on French)
|ALTERNATIVE NAME||eigtl. André Berger|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||of French writers and politician|
|DATE OF BIRTH||3. November 1901|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Paris|
|DYING DATE||23. November 1976|