the Industrielle and Stahlmagnat Andrew Carnegie became to 25. November 1835 born in Dunfermline (Scotland) as a son of a weber. It became richest humans of its time, before it at the 11. August 1919 in Lenox (the USA, Federal State Massachusetts) died. Andrew Carnegie was famous as a philanthropist. It donated altogether more than $350 millions
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Andrew Carnegie 1835 in the Scottish city Dunfermline one bore. Only with 8 years it went into the school, there its parents to it permitted to even decide, when it wanted to begin with the school teaching. The Schulmeister convinced Carnegie finally of the sense of the school.
The acquisition situation for Carnegies father became worse, since by the using Maschinisierung weaving became increasingly unprofitable by hand. Propelled by two already 1840 after Pennsylvania sisters of Carnegies, emigrated, nut/mother decided the family in the winter 1847 for emigration. To 17. May 1848 segelte it from Glasgow to New York. With the boat it went far until Allegheny with Pittsburgh into Pennsylvania, where the family established itself.
first work experiences
at the age of 13 years Carnegie already worked as Spuler in a cotton spinning mill. There he earned $1.20 per week. Beside its 12 hours working day he learned at an evening institute.
With 14 years Carnegie changed to an office for telegraph in Pittsburgh and learned there a telegraphing. There also the director/conductor of the Western became division of the Pennsylvania Railroad Thomas A. Scott on the abilities Carnegies attentively and made it its secretary. Carnegie ascended in the enterprise and reached the position of the director/conductor of the railway range Pittsburgh. When Scott in the American civil war of deputy war Ministers became, Carnegie with him went to Washington, D.C. and worked as his right hand. Some of Carnegies task consisted of organizing the military telegraph system.
investments in steel
after end of war Andrew Carnegie Thomas A. beerbte. Scott as directors/conductors of the Western division of the Pennsylvania Railroad. 1865 left Andrew Carnegie the railway company, in order to develop its own enterprise. Sent Carnegie invested in several enterprises, among them several ironworks and iron works. The most important investment of it was a 20%iger portion of key clay/tone Bridge. With patronages in Great Britain he noticed the fast development in the iron industry. It was impressed by Henry Bessemers converter of iron in steel. It it became clear that steel would replace iron in the production of heavy goods and it established 1870 its first blast furnace, which used the ideas developed by Bessemer. 1873 established a steel plant, which he after the president of its former employer Pennsylvania Railroad, J. to Carnegie. Edgar Thompson, designated. This was a skillful idea, because after the building Carnegie kept a large order already short from this enterprise. Although it brought several partners into its enterprise, Carnegie insisted always on holding the majority at its enterprises. It kept this majority also, when it fused 1881 its company with from Henry the Clay Frick. Carnegie was before one of the best customers of the coke producer Frick and obtained by the fusion a wage-worth vertical integration of the two enterprises.
1889 withdrew itself Carnegie from the operational business and left the guidance to its business partner Henry Clay Frick. At this time in the area Pittsburgh existed the company of several steel plants and blast furnaces. Frick summarized 1892 all business parts in the Carnegie Steel company . The enterprise was at this time the largest steel enterprise of the world. In order to increase the profits, Frick lowered the wages of the workers. Thereupon the workers, aforementioned by the trade union Amalgamated Iron and Steel Workers union, closed the work by strike in Homestead. While Carnegie was in Scotland, the conflict escalated, when Frick let 300 strike breakers bring into the work. In the armed fight 10 humans and 60 further died hurt to the governor the martial law over Homestead imposed. Carnegie was hereditary east over Frick, since this Carnegies instruction did not ignore to use strike breakers. Publicly Carnegie Frick criticized however not and had to take so personally the responsibility for the incidents.
Further conflicts between Frick and Carnegie led to the fact that 1899 Carnegie Frick for 15 million US-$ from its enterprise portion bought.
When Carnegie sat down to 1901 to the peace, he could sell its enterprise for $250 million. Andrew Carnegie died 1919 in Lenox. It was buried on the Sleepy Hollow Cemetery in Tarrytown.
in its 1889 appeared book “the gospel of the wealth” (original title “The Gospel OF Wealth”) wrote Carnegie: “The man, who dies richly, dies in dishonor.” Faithfully this slogan based Carnegie in the USA and in Europe numerous donations, which were active in most different ranges or are partly still. In an article for the magazine The North American Review  it described 1889, in which places its opinion after Philanthrophie is worthwhile oneself. Carnegie wanted to help the industrious ones and ambitious ones to help itself.
Carnegie Hero Trust of find
impresses by courageous acting of two men, who saved 1904 under mortal danger with a mine misfortune many buried ones, but together with 179 other men died, based he in eleven countries Carnegie Hero Trust of find, which should particularly selbstlos acting humans out characters. The donations render also financial help to hurt rescuers or the survivors of the deceased rescuer. As the first Hero Trust find created Carnegie 1904 in America the Carnegie Hero find Commission. 1908 followed the establishment of the Carnegie Hero Trust of find in Great Britain . Further ones followed in France, Germany (1910), Belgium (1911), Denmark (1911), Italy, the Netherlands, Norway (1911), Sweden (1911) and Switzerland  (1911).
donation for the international peace
in the year 1910 placed to Carnegie 10 million US Dollar for the donation under the name “Carnegie Endowment for internationally Peace “to the order, considerably to it persuaded from the philosopher and peace activists Nicholas Murray Butler. To 25. November 1910, its 75. Birthday announced the establishment of the donation to Carnegie. As a first president of the donation Carnegie selected former the Secretary of Defense and interior Elihu root , to which 1912 the Nobel peace prize was lent. The Carnegie Endowment for internationally Peace represented one of the most important financial supporting columns of the international peace work in the subsequent years.
Carnegies request was to be made possible for everyone the entrance to a free public library, so that everyone gets the possibility for the education. In the USA Carnegie - and/or the Carnegie corporation - between 1889 and 1923 supported the establishment of altogether 1681 public libraries. Thus made it a large contribution for the growth of the public library nature. Altogether it donated over $56 million around 2.509 libraries to establish.
the Carnegie of institutes OF Technology (today's name Carnegie Mellon University after the fusion with the Mellon of institutes) was created 1900 with $10 million a donation by Andrew Carnegie. Carnegie wanted to establish a first-class technical school for the children of the Pittsburgher steel workers.
in spring 1887 met the director/conductor of the Symphony Society OF New York and the Oratorio Society OF New York, the then 25-year old walter Damrosch, Andrew Carnegie on a ship travel from New York to London. Carnegie was straight with his Mrs. Louise Whitfield on the wedding journey to Scotland. The Carnegies and Damroschs befriended themselves on and together developed it the idea of the Carnegie resound, whose building began 1890. Andrew Carnegie financed the building of the concert hall and was responsible also over many years for the losses, which the enterprise of the house caused. The Carnegie resound today as one of the stages most meaning world-wide was established.
Carnegie corporation OF New York
with a starting capital of 125 million US Dollar, which represented the majority of its remaining fortune, created Andrew Carnegie 1911 the non-profit donation Carnegie corporation OF New York. It was the last donation, which created Carnegie, and she was meant to administering the remaining fortune for the promotion Carnegies of philanthrophischer goals. The donation, which led Carnegie up to its death in the year 1919 as its president, is today active until and since its establishment 1.35 billion dollar at allowances assigned.
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|SHORT DESCRIPTION||of Industrieller, Stahlmagnat, at that time richest humans and philanthropist|
|DATE OF BIRTH||25. November 1835|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Dunfermline (Scotland)|
|DYING DATE||11. August 1919|
|DYING PLACE||Lenox (the USA, Federal State Massachusetts)|