Anjou

Anjou is the name of a county (approx.880), a duchy (1360) and a province of France with the center of the city of meadow in the lower Loiretal at 8.975 km ². Anjou essentially corresponds to the today's Département Maine et Loire.

Anjou (lat. Andegavum) became oncefrom the Andegaven inhabits and subjected by the Romans.

For the ascent from Anjou to the most powerful county in west France the rule of Fulko III. became crucial. Nerra of Anjou (987 - 1040). Fulk Nerra created a network from numerous castles in Anjou,in distances from approximately 30 km in the entire county were built. All castles consisted of stones, which represented a characteristic in the time at that time. Under the protection of these weir structures the counts von Anjou their position of power could strengthen.

The title count von Anjou wentin later time on different dynasties over. First were the Angevins (angevin adjective, of Anjou) from that 12. Century or Plantagenets. Properties and titles of the county Anjou went through a sister of the last male Sprösslings of the old count family to the house Gâtinais over, the Gottfried V., the ancestor gentleman of the Plantagenets, belonged. It left Anjou and normandy 1151 to its older son, Heinrich, the 1154 than Heinrich II. mounted the throne of England and justified the Angevini realm. Its descendants governed until 1485 in England. Anjou wentalready 1204 under Johann without country with normandy and nearly all British possessions in France at Philipp II. August lost.

The title count von Anjou became of the king Ludwig IX. 1246 again for his younger brother Karl I. used, the later king of Neapel and Sicilies. 1282 were driven out the Anjou however by a rising of the people from Palermo (“Sicilian Vesper “).

Its granddaughter Margarete brought the county Anjou to her husband Karl von Valois, the brother Philipps IV. from France, too, and this raised it 1297 to Pairie. Margaretes and Karl's son became 1328 as Philipp VI. King of France, whereby the line Valois turned into on the French throne and Anjou was combined at the same time again with the crown.

King Johann II.it raised to a duchy and gave it its secondSon, that as Ludwig I. 1382 king of Neapel and master father of the younger house Anjou became. However this recent line in Neapel could not hold itself. The duchy belonged now to this Titularkönigen of Neapel, to it after death Renés II. (1480) of Ludwig XI. actually in possession one took and always one combined with the French crown. Since then a prince of France usually led the title of a duke of Anjou.

Also Poland and Hungary had during 14. Century of kings from the recent line Anjou.

Starting from 1473princes from the house Anjou over Lorraine prevailed. They carried as coats of arms Lotharingian cross, which is called in France this very day also Croix d'Anjou.

Mrs. Heinrichs VI. from England, Margarete of Anjou, came of to this county.

Table of contents

history

in France worked at different times families named Anjou. Since the center 10. Jh. the first counts von Anjou are provable. They were a powerful count sex in France.Fulko V. by Anjou 1131 king of Jerusalem became, its descendant governed there until 1192. Fulkos oldest son Gottfried Plantagenet took over thoseCounty Anjou. He married Mathilde of England, former empress (wife of Heinrich V.) and 1144 became duke of normandy. Its Helmzier was the broom - lat. planta genista, therefore he received the pointed name Plantagenet. This name became the surname of its descendants,in direct line from 1154 to 1399 kings from England were. From the Plantagenets the two collateral lines Lancaster and York come of, to their rule in England from 1399 to 1461 and/or. from 1461 to 1485 lasted.

Ludwig IX. appointed his younger brother Karl (1220 - 1285) to the duke of Anjou. This married the younger sister Beatrix of the queen Margarete of Provence. Thereupon Karl became also count of Provence and formally still Vasall of the emperor. Practically the realm could exercise no more power in Provence.The counts were practically independent. The last count Raimund Berengar lavierte between individual powers. It had four daughters. Eleonore married English king the Heinrich III., Sancha its brother smelling pool of broadcasting corporations von Cornwall (German Titularkönig). Margarethe married the French king Ludwig IX. and Beatrix married Karl von Anjou. Karl von Anjou let himself be persuaded by the Pope to conquer the Kingdom of Sicily. In the battle with Benevent in the year 1266 it defeated the Staufer Manfred of Sicily, oneSon of Friedrich II.. 1268 destroyed Karl the army of thelast Staufers Konradin. Karl let Konradin execute thereafter publicly in Neapel. Karl practiced a cruel rule as Vasall of the Pope in the Kingdom of Sicily. 1282 he was driven out due to the rising of the people Sicilian Vesper from Sicilies.

New king became Peter von Aragon, a grandchild ofFriedrich II.

In South Italies Karl von Anjou could hold himself . For this realm it carried the title king of Neapel. It exercised now directly the rule in the Kingdom of Neapel and in the county Provence.

Further he was an advisor of his brother Ludwig IX. During thatGovernment of its nephew Philipp III. (1270 - 1285) Karl was occasional the most powerful man in Europe. He stood as a candidate 1273 to the king choice in Germany. Neither the Pope nor the German princes wanted a powerful German king, therefore one selected the “poor count” Rudolfof having castle. The neapolitanischen Anjous was Pope faithful, therefore Karl Robert von Anjou (a great-grandchild of Karl) could maintain ground as a king of Hungary in the follow-up of the Árpádendynastie in the year 1308. With the death of his son Ludwig of the large one (Lajos Nagy) in the year 1382this dynasty in Hungary and Poland ended (there since 1370).

Likewise in the year 1382 the neapolitanische queen Johanna died.

It set the above mentioned as inheriting. Ludwig von Anjou . Their inheritance in the Anjou and in Provence became it due to lex salicadoes not grant. These areas were transferred between 1350 and 1360 Ludwig von Anjou as Lehen. The younger Anjou remained only Titularkönige of Neapel, since they could not maintain ground there. Ludwig von Anjou died on a campaign after Neapel in the year 1384. It setsitself in Neapel Karl von Durazzo through. It comes of to a Nebenlinie of the neapolitanischen Anjou and can maintain ground in Neapel and in Dalmatien as a king. Briefly he is king of Hungary, 1386 is however already murdered. Its son Ladislaus prevails then from 1386 to 1414in Neapel. From 1403 to 1409 it prevails also over Dalmatien. Its successor is its sister Johanna II., which prevails in Neapel until 1435. This sets Ludwig's von Anjou grandchild René I. as an inheritance.

René I. of Anjou could itself from 1435 to 1442 in Neapel as a king maintain. 1442 had Rene the aragonesischen king Alfons V. yield. The conflict between the Anjou and the Aragón around the rule in the south of Italy remained in 15. Century exist.

Due to the equilibrium of five most important powers in Italy (church state, Republic of Venice, Republik Florenz, duchy Milan, Kingdom of Aragón) no foreign powers interfered into Italian affairs after 1442. With the fall of the Medici 1494 in Florenz, the Aragon in Neapel 1495 and the Sforza 1500 in Milan those endedItalian sovereignty. The old conflict around the rule in the north between France and the realm and around the rule in the south between France and Spain (as “legal successors” of Aragon). The commitment of both Anjou lines in Italy since that 13. Century in competition to Aragón caused alsothe Italian wars from 1494 to 1559. This conflict went then over into the conflict France having castle.

And its descendants acted to Ludwig von Anjou in the neapolitanischen affairs quite unfortunately. This commitment prevented it to an active policy in France. Beneficiary of this politicsthe French kings were.

The later Polish (1573 /74) and French king Heinrich III. carried the title duke of Anjou. (1574 - 1589).

Philipp, duke of Anjou (1683 - 1746) was the grandchild of Ludwig XIV.. Philipp became 1700Spanish king. He is the master father of all Spanish Bourbonen including the Nebenlinien Bourbon Parma and Bourbon Neapel.

count von Anjou

  • Lambert II., Count von Nantes and Angers († 852)

Robertiner

first house Anjou

  1. Ingelger, (around 840, † 886), vice-count (Vicomte) of meadow around 880.
    1. Fulko I. the red one (Foulque Ier le Roux) († 941) count von Anjou starting from 929
      1. Guy, bishop von Soissons
      2. Fulko II. that property (Foulque II le Bon) († 958) count von Anjou starting from 941
        1. Gottfried I. Grey jacket (Geoffroy Ier Grisegonelle) († 987) count von Anjou starting from 958 count von Chalon sur Saône starting from 978 ∞ Adelheid of Vermandois, heiress of Chalon sur Saône, daughter of the count Robert, Witwe of theCount Lambert von Autun
          1. Gottfried (Geoffroy) († before 987)
          2. Fulko III. the black one (Foulque III Nerra), count von Anjou starting from 987 († 1040) ∞ Elizabeth Gr#fin and heiress of Vendôme
            1. Gottfried II. Martel (Geoffroy II Martel) († 1060) count von Vendôme 1031-1050, countof Anjou starting from 1040, count of route around 1044 ∞ 1. January 1032, divorced around 1050 Agnes of Burgund, daughter of the count Otto William of Mâcon and Burgund
            2. Irmgard (Ermengarde), heiress of Anjou ∞ Geoffroy Ferréol count von Gâtinais - descendants see down
            3. ennoble,Heiress of Vendôme ∞ Bodo of Nevers from the house Monceaux count von Vendôme
        2. Guy, bishop von Le Puy EN Velay
        3. Adelheid ∞ 1) Stephan (Étienne) count von Gévaudaun; ∞ 2) 982, separated 984, Ludwig V. King of France (um967-987); ∞ 3) 984/um986 William I. Count ofArles, Mark count of Provence, † 994; ∞ 4) 1016 ago Otto William, 982 count von Mâcon and Nevers, 995 count von Burgund, † 21. September 1026 (house Burgund Ivrea)
        4. Arsinde ∞ around 975 William III. Count of Toulouse, Duke of Aquitanien († 1037)

the counts von Anjou (and kings of Jerusalem) from the house Gâtinais or Château Landon

  1. Geoffroy Ferréol of Château Landon († 1043/46), count von Gâtinais ∞ around 1035 Irmgard (Ermengarde) D' Anjou, daughter of the count Fulko III. - see above
    1. Gottfried III. the Bärtige (Geoffroi III le Barbu) († 1097) 1060-1068, count von Gâtinais, Fulko IV. drove count out von Anjou by the brother.
    2. Fulko IV. the Zänker (Foulque IV le Réchin) (1043-1109), count von Anjou starting from 1068, count of route,the Gâtinais surrenders to the king, ∞ Bertrada from Montfort, daughter of the Simon I. of Montfort l'Amaury
      1. Gottfried IV. Martel (Geoffroy IV Martel) († 1106), hereditary count
      2. Fulko V. the boy (Foulque V le Jeune) (1095-1143) count von Anjou 1109-1129, count von Maine starting from 1110, king of Jerusalem starting from 1131
        1. Gottfried V. Plantagenet (Geoffroy V le Bel or planned Genêt), (1113-1151) count von Anjou starting from 1129, count von Maine, count of route, duke of normandy 1144-1150 - to descendants see house Plantagenet
        2. Sibylla († 1165), 1158 Nun in Bethanien (Palestine) ∞ 1) divorced 1124 William Clito († 1128), ∞ 2) 1134 Dietrich count of Flanders († 1168)
        3. Matilda († 1154) ∞ William Atheling († 1120)
        4. Balduin III. (1129-1162) King of Jerusalem starting from 1143
        5. Amalrich I.(1136-1174) King of Jerusalem starting from 1162
          1. Balduin IV. the sowing goat (1161-1185) king of Jerusalem 1174-1183
          2. Sibylle († 1190) ∞ 1) William VII. Mark count von Montferrat († 1177), ∞ 2) Guido of Lusignan king of Jerusalem 1186-1192, king of Cyprus 1192-1194
            1. Balduin V.(1166-1186)King of Jerusalem starting from 1183
          3. Isabella I. († around 1208) ∞ 1) November 1183, divorced 1190 Humfried IV. of Toron, ∞ 2) 1190 Konrad Mark count von Montferrat († 1192), ∞ 3) 1192 Heinrich II. Count von Champagne († 1197) king ofJerusalem 1192-1197, ∞ 4) Amalrich of Lusignan king of Cyprus, king of Jerusalem (in Akko) 1197-1205
            1. Maria (* after 15. April 1191, † 1212) ∞ 1210 Johann of Brienne († 1237) king of Jerusalem
      3. Irmgard (Ermengarde) 1119 testifies ∞ around 1089, divorced1092, William IX. Count von Poitou, Herzog von Aquitanien (1071-1126)

Plantagenet

  • Gottfried V. Plantagenet (Geoffroy V le Bel or planned Genêt), (1113-1151) count von Anjou starting from 1129, count von Maine, Herzog of normandy 1144-1150 - see above
  • Heinrich II. ofEngland, its son (1133-1189) duke of normandy, count von Anjou starting from 1151, king of England starting from 1154
    • Heinrich the younger one (Henry the Young King) (1155-1183), its son, duke of normandy, count von Anjou, Mitregent
    • Gottfried VI. (Geoffroy VI d'Anjou) (1158-1186), its brother, duke that Brittany, Earl OF smelling moon, count von Anjou
  • smelling pool of broadcasting corporations lion heart (smelling pool of broadcasting corporations the Lionheart, smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Coeur de Lion) (1157-1199) king of England starting from 1189, count von Anjou starting from 1189
  • Arthur (1186-1203), son Gottfrieds VI., duke of Brittany starting from 1196, count von Anjou off1199
  • Johann without country (John lacquer country, Jean Sans Terre) (1167-1216), brother Richards, king of England starting from 1199, count von Anjou 1203-1204

Anjou is conquered 1204 by France

Kapetinger

  1. Ludwig VIII. (1187-1226), king of France, conquers 1204 Anjou
    1. Ludwig IX.(1215-1270), kingof France
    2. Johann (* 1219, † 1232), count von Anjou and Maine
    3. Karl I. (1226-1285), count von Anjou 1246, king of Neapel and Sicilies 1265, count of Provence 1267
      1. Karl II. (1254-1309) Anjou stepped 1273 to its daughter Margarete starting from
        1. Karl I. Martell(1271-1295) Prätendent in Hungary
          1. Karl I. Robert (1288-1342) king of Hungary
            1. Ludwig I. (1326-1382) King of Hungary, 1370 king of Poland
              1. Maria (1370-1395) queen of Hungary 1382-1387
            2. Andreas of Hungary (1327-1345) ∞ Johanna I. (1326-1382) Queen of Neapel
        2. Margarete (1273-1299) countess of Anjou 1273 ∞1290 Karl, count von Valois (1270-1325), 1297 duke of Anjou and Pair of France - to descendants see below
        3. Philipp I. († 1332) prince of Tarent, 1307-1313 prince of Achaia
          1. Ludwig von Tarent (1320-1362) ∞ 1346 Johanna I. (1326-1382) Queen of Neapel
          2. Philipp II. (1329-1374) Prince of Tarent, 1364-1373 prince of Achaia
        4. Robert of the way (1277-1343) king of Neapel 1309
          1. Karl (1298-1328) duke of Kalabrien
            1. Johanna I. (1326-1382) Queen of Neapel ∞ Ludwig von Tarent (1320-1362)
        5. Johann († 1335) prince of Durazzo
          1. Karl († 1348) prince of Durazzo
          2. Ludwig († 1362)
            1. Karl (1345-1386) as a Karl II. King of Hungary 1385, as a Karl III. King of Neapel 1382
              1. Johanna II. (1373-1435) Queen of Neapel 1414, leaves to Neapel at René of Anjou (see below)
              2. Ladislaus (1376-1414) king of Neapel 1386

Valois

  1. Philipp III. (1245-1285) King of France, son of Ludwig IX.
    1. Philipp IV. (1268-1314) King of France
    2. Karl (1270-1325), count von Valois, 1290 count von Anjou, 1297 duke of Anjou and Pair of France ∞ 1290 Margarete (1273-1299) countess of Anjou - ancestors see above
      1. Philipp VI. (1293-1350) 1325 count von Anjou, 1328 king of France
        1. Johann II. (1319-1364) Count von Anjou, 1350 king of France
          1. Karl V. (1337-1380) King of France
          2. Ludwig I. (1336-1384) 1360 duke of Anjou, 1382 count of Provence, 1383 Gegenkönig of Neapel
            1. Ludwig II.(1377-1417)Duke of Anjou, count of Provence, 1390-1399 Gegenkönig of Neapel
              1. Ludwig III. (1403-1434) Duke of Anjou, count of Provence, Titularkönig von Neapel
              2. René (1408-1480), duke of bar 1430, count of Provence 1434, king of Neapel 1437-1442
              3. Karl I. (1414-1472), duke of Maine
                1. Karl II.(1436-1481),Duke of Maine and Anjou (Karl IV.), count of Provence, Titularkönig von Neapel, Sicily and Jerusalem (Karl IVTH)

Anjou drops back to the crown.

Bourbon



Anjou in Québec is also the name of a city and a district in Canada

 

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