Anne (Great Britain)

Anne
6. February 1665-1. August 1714
önigin Anne, kolorierter Stich aus einem für August den Starken 1706–1710 gefertigten Atlas
queen of England and Scotland (and/or. Great Britain) as well as queen of Ireland
Term of office 1702-1707 (queen of England, Scotland)
1707-1714 (queen of Great Britain)
1702-1714 (queen of Ireland)
predecessor William III./II.
Successor George I.
Father Jakob II.
Nut/mother Anne Hyde

Anne Stuart (* 6. February 1665 in the pc. James's Palace in London; † 1. August 1714 in the Kensington Palace ebd.) was queen of England and Scotland 1702-1707 and of Ireland 1702-1714. At the 1. May 1707 became Anne the first Herrscherin over Great Britain, after England and Scotland united to a kingdom. Anne was the last British queen from the house of the Stuarts; George I., which followed it on the throne, belonged to the house of Hanover.

Table of contents

historical classification

Annes lives coined/shaped repeats state crises in connection with the English throne follow-up, which accompanied with drastic condition-political reforms. Annes reign, which lasted from 1702 to 1714, is particularly characterized by the development of the British cabinet system.

Annes Roman-catholic father James II. 1688/1689 in the Glorious revolution were entmachtet, it followed the Protestant William III. and Mary II. - Annes brother-in-law and sister - on the throne after. Anne had supported the unblutigen government revolution, which entmachtete their father.

None of the children of Mary II. or Anne survived in the adult age, therefore the dethroned, Roman-catholic James would have II. or its descendants requirements on the British throne to raise again can. The English parliament issued a legislation (act OF Settlement) for this reason, which permitted it to the house of the Guelfen (Welfen) to follow after the death of Anne on the English throne. With this legislation less than 57 Roman-catholic throne candidates were not ignored, who would have had a larger requirement on English throne due to their descent. The Scottish parliament refused trade restrictions, Scotland at the beginning of its agreement to this legislation, however by measures as for example economically substantially harmed, induced to the agreement. The act OF union of 1707, with which England and Scotland united to Great Britain (material union), were a result of the negotiations following on it. Result of this development was that for the British throne follow-up not only the descent was crucial, but also the Protestant Glaubensbekenntnis.

John Churchill, His Grace the Duke OF Marlborough, haven-guesses/advises from Sir Godfrey Kneller, around 1705 - it was Annes of most successful army leaders

with the “Glorious revolution “from 1688/89 was changed England in addition in the anti-French camp. While nearly the entire reign of Anne England was as a member that Hague alliance into Spanish the succession war complicated, in which England at the side of Holland, Prussia, Hanover and the emperor tried to limit the influence of France in Europe. Parallel to it England experienced an economical and cultural bloom, those the largest Manifestation of England power and influence since the reign of Heinrich V. was. With the separate peace conclusion of Utrecht of 1713 jokes England from this alliance, thereby however the basis for the development of the British Empires put in 18. Century. Anne contributed to it few; it was neither formed nor intelligent and drove themselves out their time with gossip stories and packs of cards. Their bio graphs describe it as a mentally ponderous, starrköpfige and rather shy woman. At the same time it was conscious of its role as a head of state and showed up a high obligation feeling opposite their office. From the violent arguments in its cabinet before their death she suffered briefly strongly - some their bio counts make responsible these even for their death.

The friend of many years of Anne, Sarah Churchill as well as their married man John Churchill, 1 practiced substantial political influence. Duke from Marlborough . The later English Prime Minister, Literaturnobelpreisträger and descendant of Sarah and John Churchill, Winston Churchill coined/shaped therefore the sentence “Sarah steered the queen, Marlborough [John Churchill aristocracy name] directed the war and Godolphin the parliament.

Over the personal situation Anne at the time of its accession wrote the Historikerin Ulrike Jordan:

The psychological conditions, which princess brought into her reign, appear to the later viewer in their cooperating… nearly insurmountably with difficulty: Fundamental religious and political contrasts in the ruler family had to a large extent humanly isolated Anna. Alienated from father and half brother - both in the exile - in particular, it found intellectual and emotional security particularly within two ranges: on the one hand on that fields of the policy by the principle of condition-conformal behavior and the acceptance of the role and power delimitation of the crown, on the other hand by the structure of close emotional connections. Here must be called above all Anna's extremely lucky relationship with her husband, prince Georg of Denmark, who was characterised by its human qualities, not however its politically rather pale profile. The marriage between the eighteen-year old Anna and that twelve years older George was closed in the year 1685 and represented for 25 years - apart from close friendships to familiar yard ladies - the main source of personal support. (Jordan, S. 178f)

The relationship from Anne to their yard ladies Sarah Churchill and late Abigail Masham was so close that in biographies upon a homosexual relationship between these one speculates again and again. However there are no real vouchers.

Into the historiography went out itself Anne with Great Britain as “Good Queen Anne “in in this designation to press also military and political successes as well as the economical bloom, which experienced Great Britain during their reign.

lives

early years

Annes Großvater, "The Rt. Hon. the Earl of Clarendon"
Annes grandfather, “The blank. Hone. the Earl OF Clarendon "

Anne was the second daughter of James, the duke of York and later Jakob II. Their nut/mother was lady Anne Hyde, daughter of Edward Hyde, that 1. Earl OF Clarendon, an influential English politician. Their uncle prevailed as Charles II.. Anne and Mary were the only children of the pair of dukes of York, which survived in the adult age. Anne suffered however from an eye disease, so that one would already send her as an infant to France, in order to let her treat there medically. It lived at first with her grandmother, the queen Henrietta Maria and afterwards with its aunt, Henrietta Anne, the duchess of Orléans. 1670 returned Anne from France to England. Approximately in the year 1673 she became acquainted with Sarah Jennings , which had been taken up as a young girl to the yard state of the second woman of the duke of York , Maria Beatrice von Modena. Despite the age difference of five years the two girls closed a close friendship, which should persist over many years and which led to the fact that Sarah Churchill became the most influential Beraterin of the later English queen.

1672 became it publicly admit that Annes father was converted to the Roman-catholic faith. On instruction of Charles II. Anne and its sister Mary were educated further in the Protestant faith. Charles II. it ensured also for the fact that Anne the Protestant princes Georg of Denmark, brother of the Danish king Christian V., married. Its sister Mary had already married 1677 the Protestant William of orange.

As Charles II. 1685 - it still converted on the death bed to the Roman-catholic faith - died, mounted Annes father as a king James II. English throne. The historian Alexander gau country wrote over this ruler:

With Jakob [James] II. the misfortune returned on England throne. The problems ererbten by its brother would have required a farsighted statesman, a skillful politician and one likewise from far away goats like generous monarchs. But Jakob was not anything from all that. Its intellectual horizon was limited and its imagination limited. It was bigotter Frömmler and its own Rechthaber. (Gau country, S. 102)

James was much to pass its throne on to a Roman-catholic successor and placed Anne in prospect that she becomes its heiress to the throne, if she would profess herself to the Roman-catholic faith. The deeply religious Anne held however to its anglikanischen faith. James II. if you sent further books and essays over the catholic faith, however more intensive Bekehrungsversuche omitted.

William III. of England - owing to Annes agreement it was allowed after the death of his Mrs. Mary alone further-governs

James II. Attempts of the Rekatholisierung of England, the re-establishment of an absolute monarchy and feedback of England into an alliance with France encountered little approval in the English public. Since the king was Protestant however old and Mary, the successor to the throne, the conviction was far common to experience here only one transitional phase in England. This estimate changed, as James second Mrs., Maria Beatrice von Modena 1688 a son and thus potential a Roman-catholic throne successor to the world brought. Rumors stated, the child would have been put underneath, in order to supply in such a way England again to the catholic side. In the Glorious in such a way specified revolution, since four years prepares, the unpopular and the-poetic James II. became toward end of the yearly 1688. entmachtet; with a small army William and his Mrs. Mary from the Netherlands landed on England coast. James II. fled to 23. December 1688 from England to France. Anne did to the allies approximately without a support of its father and followed around William. The British parliament met and decided that James II. with his escape from the English kingdom resigned.

The English crown was offered to the pair William and Mary together and accepted by them. As equal sovereigns both became at the 11. April 1689 crowned, although William did not have any dynastischen requirement on English throne. New was also the oath formula, which both spoke. If English monarchs committed themselves so far usually, the laws issued by them to respected, then said William and Maria to “tons govern the people OF this kingdom OF England… according ton the of statute in agreed on, and the laws and parliament customs OF the same “. With it the shift of power began in favor of the parliament, which ended on a long-term basis in a constitutional monarchy. In addition the “Bill OF Rights “issued by the parliament from the year 1689 regulated the throne follow-up. Under the influence of their friend Sarah and their married man John Churchill Anne had agreed that William was allowed to carry also then the English crown, if his Mrs. Mary before him died. Princess Anne and their descendants would follow him on the throne, descendants of William after them a requirement on English throne would only have.

the rule of William III. and Mary II.

the first years

Maria II. - their contemporaries expected that she would outlive her kränklichen man. It died however 1694 at the smallpox

as thanks for its role in the Glorious revolution appointed William and Mary John Churchill the count von Marlborough. The following treatment the Churchill was however not completely so friendly. 1692 consolidated itself for William III. the suspicion that John Churchill kept further contacts upright to James II., which was in the French exile. Churchill was arrested from all its offices to dismiss and even for short time in the Tower. Annes friend Sarah Churchill, meanwhile one of the honour ladies of Anne, was forbidden it to appear at the royal yard. Princess Anne left over it annoys her royal residence and referred residence in the Syon house. Thereupon you were extracted their honour guard and forbidden from the guards of the royal palace it to salute to its married man.

1694 died Mary II. at the smallpox, William III. thereby British autocrat was. The popularity of Mary II. than those of in-married William III. was always larger. been. In order to improve its reputation in the English population, he equipped Anne again with all her which are entitled honours and permitted it, in the pc. To reside James Palace. The reappointment of John Churchill into all its offices in the year 1695 was a further attempt on the part of William III. to improve the relationship to Anne. Anne actually demonstrated publicly its support of Williams government. Their brother-in-law did not trust her however by any means completely. He did for example to appoint it as its Regentin during its military enterprises on the European mainland.

“act OF Settlement”

Anne and her married man, prince George, experienced a number of personal low impacts during this time. Up to the year 1700 the future queen at least eighteen time was more schwanger; it suffered or brought thirteen times an abortion a dead child to the world. From the five children, whom them bore living, four did not experience their second birthday. William, duke of Gloucester, the only son, who survived the infant phase, died at the age of 11 years to 29. July 1700 at the smallpox.

William III. and Mary II. also no survivors had children; Anne was simultaneous thereby the successor to the throne and the last living person of the line, which had Bill OF Rights “a claim on English throne after the succession to the throne law „. With its death this line would become extinct and the dethroned Roman-catholic James II. and its descendants could have lodged a complaint the English rule again for itself. Around this to exclude the English parliament issued the act OF Settlement. This law regulated that in case of the death of Anne and William III. without physical descendants the right of the succession to the throne to Sophie of Hanover and its descendants would turn into. Sophie of Hanover came by her nut/mother Elizabeth von Böhmen, the winter queen in such a way specified, from Charles I. off. There was a set of persons, who were more near related to the governing English king house than Sophie of Hanover, these were however all together catholic faith.

Anne would have präferiert it, the throne follow-up their father and its descendant would have been awarded. From insight into the necessity for a Protestant successor it resigned itself to the “act OF Settlement “. When its father however 1701 died, she carried for mourning clothes. To her half brother, the son of James II. and its inheritance, James Francis Edward Stuart, developed it against it no cordial relationship.

the first rule years

William III. 1702 died; Anne followed it - as regulated in the “Bill OF Rights “- on the English throne. Physically it was at this time already a Krüppel. The countless pregnancies and the charge had ruined their body. Into gentle ones it was carried for coronation/culmination.

Nearly at the same time with the accession of Anne the Spanish succession war broke out . The Spanish succession war was the military argument over the question whether the grandchild of Ludwig XIV. (France), Philip, a right to the follow-up to the Spanish throne had. Philip was as an inheritance of the previous Spanish king Karl II. used, but the largest part of Europe opposed this follow-up, since thereby of France zone of influence on the European mainland would have become too large. The Spanish succession war nearly regency lasted and affected both the outside and the home policy considerably to to the end of Annes.

Das von John Vanbrugh erbaute Blenheim Palace war Annes königliches Geschenk an John Churchill für seinen Sieg in der Schlacht von Höchstädt
The Blenheim Palace built by John Vanbrugh was Annes royal gift at John Churchill for his victory in the battle of high city

after short its Inthronisierung appointed Anne its married man to the lord High admiral; John Churchill received the guidance of the army. Churchill received in addition a set of honours, he became among other things with the most exclusive medal of England, which became trousers volume medal excellently and as “1. Duke OF Marlborough “into the rank of a duke appointed. Sarah Churchill, now duchess of Marlborough, and Annes became friend of many years since child days, the “Mistress OF the Robes “appointed - the highest office that to the time at that time openly stood for a woman at the English king yard.

Annes first cabinet under the direction of Sydney Godolphin consisted predominantly of Tories. The Whigs - which decided differently than the Tories the English participation in the Spanish succession war supported - won substantially at influence, after 1704 John Churchill, who could cause duke of Marlborough, in the battle of high city a crucial victory for the English nation. A row further followed the victory. Due to the influence of the duke nearly all Tories of the cabinet was replaced by Whigs. Lord Godolphin was a Tory, it died however a close alliance with Marlborough. Although lord Godolphin was nominal a cabinet boss, it was in the long run Marlborough, which determined the English policy together with two undersecretaries of state (Charles Spencer, 3rd Earl OF Sunderland and Robert Harley). Also Nepotismus was not strange to Marlborough thereby; both lord Godolphins son and lord Sunderland were married with daughters of the pair of dukes Marlboroughs.

Herrscherin of Great Britain

apart from the Spanish succession war coined/shaped the attempts to merge England and Scotland into a kingdom the policy during the first government years of Anne. When the English parliament 1701 adopted the act OF Settlement, it had not come to an agreement before with the Scottish parliament, which wished a throne follow-up by someone from the house Stuart. The Scottish parliament adopted the “act OF Security “: If the queen without descendants deceased, then Scotland could select its own monarch due to this regulation, if it Protestant and royal descent was. It was a little probable that Scotland would select someone, which was identical to the English as a monarch. Anne could not refuse their agreement despite initial resistance to the act OF Settlement, since the Scottish parliament threatened to take the Scottish army parts off from Marlboroughs army and raise no taxes. The English parliament, which had to be afraid that an independent Scotland let the old alliance with France revive again, answered with the Alien act in the year 1705. This Alien act permitted it to up-succumb to the trade with Scotland substantial restrictions to explain Scots as foreigners and limit thus their right, in England to property to possess. The English parliament had made unmistakably clear that one would convert these measures, if not Scotland recalled the act OF Security or with England unites. The Scottish envoys tuned to 22. July 1706 of a combination with England too and the Scottish parliament approved of this decision to 16. January 1707 - although the majority of the Scottish population of this combination faced rejecting. At the 1. May 1707 became from England and Scotland thereby the Kingdom of Great Britain, Anne was now Herrscherin of a united kingdom.

Relationship of many years and the close between Anne and Sarah Churchill worsened in the year 1707. The Literaturnobelpreisträger and English prime ministers vienna clay/tone Churchill, a descendant of John and Sarah Churchill, wrote over it:

Approximately at this time [1707] the relations Sarahs with the Künigin stepped into a precarious stage. It was made from its lady to the scapegoat for the penetration of the Whigs in cabinet. Anna hated the Whigs from deepest heart, but their Ministers did not see, since only half of the Tory party supported them, a possibility, of continuing the war [against France] without the Whigs. Sarah lost the friendship of the queen, because she regarded it as her obligation to guess it to government politics with the parliament in the agreement. At the same time a Nebenbuhlerin emerged. When Sarah became older and the tasks of a large lady, who ordered over more power than a cabinet Minister, rested ever more heavily on it, them looked for themselves the continuing demand by the personal service with the queen, who had filled out so many years of their life to extract. Anna's friends did not have it easily. It required of its companions that they all day long were around it and played to deeply into the night with it maps. Sarah held after a possibility look out of getting rid of of the load this continuing Zusammenseins. In Abigail Hill, poor relatives, found it a suitable second occupation. It introduced it to the life of the queen as „Kammerjungfer “or a Zofe . After a while the new official won the affection of the queen. Sarah felt relieved, spent more time on the country and dedicated themselves to its family. (Churchill, S. 76ff)

In addition Abigal Masham, cousin of the duchess of Marlborough, was related to one of Annes Whig Ministers. Robert Harley began to affect the policy of the queen over Masham. Both lord Godolphin and John Churchill operated thereupon his office dismissal, which succeeded to them 1708. The British policy considerably and became under the name „the junta began to affect a group of five Whigs - lord Sunderland, Thomas Wharton, John Somers, Charles Montagu and Robert whale poles - “admits. Harley succeeded to exercise it nevertheless as private advisors of the Queen influence.

Annes married man, prince Georg of Denmark, died in October 1708. Its commander in chief shank over the British fleet had been never gladly seen on the part of the Whig guidance. Even as it already on the dying bed lay, tried some Whigs its dismissal from its office to operate. Anne had to contact John Churchill, in order to prevent this. After the death of its married man Anne separated still more strongly from Sarah Churchill and turned more Abigail Masham. The friendship between Anne and Sarah Churchill ended in the year 1709.

the late years

the deprivation of power of the Whigs came very rapidly, after the cost-intensive Spanish succession war in the English public became increasingly unpopular. Robert Harley used this tendency reversal in particular during the lining up elections. The voters were particularly annoyed about the case Dr. Henry Sacheverell, a church man, who belonged to the Tories. It attacked the Whig government, because it showed according to its opinion to large tolerance opposite religious deviationists ( so-called Dissenters). It thereupon because of bad Nachrede sues. It did not succeed to the Whigs however that the judge the judgement fällte that they wished themselves: Sacheverell received only a lecture prohibition for three years and received by no means the term of imprisonment, for which many Whigs had hoped. In the choice in the year 1710 a dissatisfied population with large majority selected a Tory government.

John Churchill was still too influential, in order the office to be relieved. Its relatives lost their offices with the accession of the Tories however. Godolphin became to 7. August 1710 dismisses; Robert Harley managed now the Ministers. The new Tory government tried to negotiate now a separate peace treaty for Great Britain in the Spanish succession war. From its view an unrestricted victory of Austria in this war would harm the British interests exactly the same like a victory of the Frenchmen. The Tories was ready therefore to permit that a grandchild of the French king had the Spanish throne. For the Whigs the thought was to pass on a Bourbonen the Spanish throne intolerable. In the House OF Commons had the Tories the unrestricted majority, applied however not to the House OF lord. In order to sabotage the peace plan, the Whigs closed an alliance with Daniel Finch, the 2nd Earl OF Nottingham and its Tory allying in the House OF lord. Forced to act, Anne and her Ministers John Churchill of its office relieved queen and transferred the army guidance of the British troops at James Bulter, the 2nd Duke OF Ormonde. In addition Anne appointed 12 new Peers on only one day. Such a number of collections into the nobility was unparalleled. Elizabeth I. during their nearly fifty year had raised lasting reign fewer persons into the nobility than Anne on only one day. With the new denominations however the majority of the Whigs was in the House OF lord eliminated; the peace treaty was now attainable.

With the peace of Utrecht of Great Britain participation in the Spanish succession war ended. Philipp, grandchild by Ludwig XIV. was allowed on his throne to remain and a majority of the Spanish colonies in south and North America to keep. The remaining Spanish sphere of influence was divided: Great Britain received Gibraltar and Minorca and got a row before times French colonies on the North American continent awarded.

death and follow-up

George I. of Great Britain - Annes successor on the British throne

James Francis Edward Stuart, son of James II. and catholic half brother of Anne, had seized initiatives again and again to follow Anne on the throne. With each illness Annes in of London coffee houses one speculated, as far it was with its preparations to land on the British island and introduce thus a civil war. Anne had not shown much support opposite cure princess Sophie of Hanover, which was since the act OF Settlement in the year 1701 their präsumtive successor. Besuche von ihr oder ihrem Sohn - der aufgrund von Sophies hohem Lebensalter der wahrscheinliche zukünftige Herrscher war - lehnte sie ab. The cure princess died in June 1714 and knappe two months later got sick also to Anne heavily. Their last days were a little willful, the Zwistigkeit between their Ministers continued into its dying room. Still briefly before it to 30. July in coma fell, appointed Anne under that urge of its government advice a new head of their government. During its trailers of the Whigs, which felt obligated to the protest anti-mash the succession to the throne law and the confession of the nation, prepared for it, to seize to the weapons. Also the advice made its preparations;

One met effective measures to the safety device of the hannoverschen succession to the throne. One sent messengers into all directions, in order to call each official and each officer on its posts. The fleet was mobilized under the command of a Whigs, the count from Berkeley, and received the instruction to patrouillieren in the channel and to observe the French ports. Ten battalions were recalled from Flanders. The garrisons were armed, and alarmed the militia. One reminded the dutchmen of its contract obligations. Everything was prepared, in order to secure the accession of the cure prince of Hanover as George…. As a queen Anna at the 1. August around half eight o'clock their last breath did, was certain that it would not give Papismus, no disputed succession to the throne, no French bayonets and no civil war. (Churchill, S. 107).

To 23. August was buried the deceased queen in Westminster Abbey during the night. While today no more Grabmonument reminds of “Good Queen Anne”, the monument from white marble stands still that you established the trusted friend of many years Sarah Churchill in the Blenheim Palace.

other

after the British queen Anne was designated a building and a furniture style. For this style calm, reserved elegance and balanced symmetry are characteristic.

literature

  • Alexander gau country; The house Windsor, settler publishing house Berlin, 1996, ISBN 3-88680-534-4
  • Ulrike Jordan; Anna (1702 -1714) in Peter Wende (Hsg.); English kings and queens, publishing house C.H.Beck Munich 1998, ISBN 3-406-43391 X
  • vienna clay/tone Churchill; History, volume III - the age of the revolutions, joke & Coverts publishing house, Stuttgart 1957
  • “Anne, Queen” in Encyclopædia Britannica, 1911, 11th OD. London: Cambridge University press.
  • Marita A. Tank; England queens - from the Tudors to the Windsors, Piper publishing house Munich, 2003, ISBN 3-492-23682-0

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Predecessor
William III./II.
Queen of England
queen of Scotland
successor
until 1707
Predecessor
William III./II.
Queen of Ireland successor
George I.
Predecessor
starting from 1707
queen of Great Britain successor
George I.
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