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after the end of the holy Roman realm of German nation in the year 1806, which had connected the German-language hereditary countries of Austria with the other German countries, developed 1815 as new connection the German federation. This loose union from 41 German member states became however the efforts fair after a uniform state only insufficiently, so that for the reaching of this goal different solutions developed: on the one hand the largeGerman solution, a new German total state, including the German-language countries of the many people state Austria Hungary, on the other hand the smallGerman solution, without Austria. Latter solution was carried out after the Prussian-Austrian war, so that it came to the establishment of the Empire of German Reich, the union of German principalities and kingdoms under guidance of Prussia, but without Austria (also without Liechtenstein, Luxembourg and other areas with German-speaking population). Thus the centuries old clammy ones, which had connected the German countries of the holy Roman realm - material-politically often only drew although -, finally had been omitted.
Connection efforts after the First World War
after the end of the First World War and the Ausenanderbrechen of the k. and. k. Many people state, the union of the new Republic of Austria (1918/19 „German Austria “) with the now likewise republican German one Reich was the avowed goal of a majority that Austrian politician. It seemed to be the logical result of the nationalism, which already breaks the many people state into states defined after nations had leaves. Also relatively small „remainder Austria appeared “many, in view of the circumstance that economically meaning regions did not belong now to no more to the national territory, as not lebensfähig. The hunger winters 1918/19 and 1919/20 strengthened this impression.
The populations of the Lands of the Federal Republic Tirol and Salzburg votierten with unofficial populars vote with in each case over 90% for a connection to the German Reich. The Vorarlberger was correct in May 1919 by the majority for the connection of its Land of the Federal Republic to Switzerland, which was rejected however both by Swiss government, as well as by the Federal Government in Vienna. Further tunings were stopped on initiative of the allied ones, above all France, which threatened with the prevention of credits at Austria. After by the contract of Saint Germain for Austria and the peace treaty of Versailles for the German Reich did not set „connection prohibition “the goal of the combination politically any longer actively one continued to pursue. It remained however, for different reasons, further avowed distant goal, particularly for the largeGerman people's party, the German national movement as also for the Social Democrats („connection at Germany is connection to socialism “, slogan of the worker newspaper). Also the Christian-social party occurred politically for it. With the seizure of power of the native Niederösterreichers Adolf Hitler in the German Reich 1933, who had become only one year before at the age of 43 years realm citizens, the basic conditions for it changed fundamentally.
Positions of the parties
the social-democratic party (SDAPÖ) had still 1926, in in principle in a marxist manner aligned „Linzer program “, which union with „the German republic” endorses, the appropriate passage at the Party Congress 1933 „in view of the situation changed by the national socialism in the German Reich “was painted. Also from the Christian-social party (CS) the come out, 1933 of Engelbert Dollfuss as „collecting movement of all native country-faithful Austrians “created patriotic front (VF), which after the prohibition of all other parties than only permitted political organization of the austrofaschistischen Ständestaates remained, occurred - not least before the background one power loss which can be expected - against a connection and for the independence of Austria.
Power participation of the national socialists
after its seizure of power 1933 held back itself Hitler, who must the demand „German Austria again back to the large German motherland “ in its book „my fight “ (1924/25) had already written down, first in things of Austria. It wanted Mussolini, with which it looked for an alliance, does not annoy.
To 25. The Austrian national socialists, under guidance of the SS - banner 89, tried July a Putsch (Juliputsch), which failed however. Some Putschisten succeeded it thereby into the Office of the Federal Chancellor into Vienna to penetrate, where Dollfuss was so heavily hurt by shots that he succumbed to the injuries a little later. Hitler denied a participation in the Putschversuch from German side. The Austrian NSDAP was supported further from the German Reich, but the regime changed now strengthened to infiltrate the political system into Austria with confidence people. In addition, beside others, Edmund Glaise Horstenau, Taras Borodajkewycz and Arthur Seyss Inquart counted.
Italy began at the 3. October 1935 the conquest of the Abessinien at that time (Italian Äthiopi war), which internationally to a large extent isolated Mussolini and let it an alliance with Hitler search. For the patriotic front governing in Austria that meant the loss of an important allied one. Federal Chancellor briefly Schuschnigg, successor of the murdered Engelbert Dollfuss, had to look now for ways to improve the relationship to the German Reich. At the 11. July 1936 it closed the July agreement with Hitler. The German Reich main header the thousand-Mark barrier up, in Austria arrested national socialists were amnestied and LV newspapers again certified. Beyond that Schuschnigg accepted confidence people of the national socialists to the government. Edmund Glaise Horstenau was accepted Federal Ministers for national affairs , Guido Schmidt undersecretary of state to the State Department and Arthur Seyss Inquart to the Council of State. 1937 followed the opening of the patriotic front for national socialists. In again furnished „people-political papers “, which stood usually under the direction of national socialists, the NSDAP forbidden since 1933 could again organize itself.
After strengthening his alliance with Mussolini, Hitler arrived to the axle Berlin Rome at the opinion that Mussolini became tired it to play the guard of österreischischen independence. As it to 5. November 1937 of the armed forces guidance its military plans described (Hossbach minutes), called it as a latest time for the Annexion of Czechoslovakia and Austria the year 1943, under favorable circumstances could this to 1938 take place.
To 12. February 1938 quoted Hitler Federal Chancellor Schuschnigg to a meeting on the upper salt mountain in Bavaria. Hitler threatened with the invasion of the armed forces, should not be waived the party prohibition for the Austrian national socialists not again and be granted to them the full agitation liberty. Also it demanded its intensified integration into the government. Schuschnigg bent itself the threats and believed with the Berchtesgadener agreement the Selbstständigkeit of Austria to secure to be able. As demanded by Hitler, Seyss Inquart became to 16. February attained thereby, the Minister of the Interior appointed and, control of the police.
When Schuschnigg recognized that its new government partner him pulled away within fewer weeks the soil under the feet and was to take over power it gave to 9. March admits, on the following Sunday, 13 to that. March to want to hold a popular vote for the independence of Austria. The question herein should read whether the people wants „a free, independent, German and Christian Austria “or not. Hitler, who obviously feared a refusal of the connection to the German Reich, acknowledged with the mobilization of the 8 planned for the invasion. Army. Glaise Horstenau, which had been at this time in Berlin, brought from there the ultimatum of Hitler, which was affirmed by Hermann Göring also in telephone calls by Schuschnigg. The realm government demanded the shift and/or. Refusal of the opinion poll. In the afternoon of the 11. March consented Schuschnigg. Still in the same evening Hitler forced the resignation Schuschniggs in favor of Arthur Seyss Inquarts. Göring left thereupon on instruction of Hitler a telegram with the request for the delegation of realm-German troops to touch down, which sent itself the realm government then in the name of the nunmehrigen Federal Chancellor Seyss Inquart.
Execution „of the connection “
To 12. March 1938 let Hitler soldier of the armed forces and policeman, altogether approximately 65,000 men with partly heavy armament, invade in Austria. They were often received from the present population with rejoicing. In Vienna Aspern of the Reichsfüherer SS Heinrich Himmler arrived accompanied by SS and police officers, in order to accomplish the assumption of the Austrian police at the airport. Still in the same evening met in Linz Hitler and Seyss Inquart and agreed upon the immediate execution „of the reunification “without the transition periods planned in former times.
To 15. March announced Hitler at the hero place in Vienna under the rejoicing to tenth out that humans „the entrance of my homeland into the German Reich”.
Seyss Inquart educated a National Socialist government and carried out „the connection “. Already in the first days after the seizure of power the new ruling powers, also with the aid Austrian trailers, arrested approximately 72,000 humans, in particular in Vienna, among them many politicians and intellectual ones of the first republic as well as Jew. Most of it deportiert into the KZ DAK-strike. The police, which was subordinated now to Heinrich Himmler, prevented each lasting resistance. At the burner finally realm-German and Italian troop units met to friendly ceremonies.
Hitler left itself additional the combination of Austria with the German Reich by a popular vote to 10. April absegnen, which resulted in an agreement of 99,73% according to official data. In the German Reich, „the old realm in such a way specified “99.08% were correct for „the connection “. The election turnout in Austria was with 99,71%, in „the old realm “about 99,60%. In the apron both representatives of the catholic church, and the cardinal Theodor Innitzer, which signed an explanation of the bishops in addition with „welfare Hitler “, had occurred like also politicians, under it the Social Democrat Karl racer, for . In several cities of Austria precisely produced appearances of high functionaries of the NSDAP (Hitler, Goebbels, Göring, Hess among other things) took place and propaganda penetrated all areas of life before the tuning. Flags, banners and posters with slogans and the swastika symbol in all cities, attached at streetcars, at walls and particularly established to poster stands and columns; alone in Vienna were approximately 200,000 Hitler Portraits at public places. Even in postmarks was to be read: „To 10. April the leader yours “. Press and broadcast were not firm in the hand of the new ruling powers, had other topic than , so that there were no public dissenting votes. Approximately 8% that actually choice and/or. Voters had been excluded from the tuning; about 200,000 Jews, approximately 177,000 „half-breeds “and for political or racistic reasons arrested already before.
In Austria, now in „ostmark “renamed, the NSDAP had large inlet. Evaluations of member card indices according to the proportional portion of the NSDAP members of the total population was higher in former Austria than in most parts of the remaining German Reich.
The Western powers Great Britain and France, which had forbidden 1919 the entry of German Austria to a föderalen German one Reich and 1931 also a customs union, sent now only diplomatic protest notes. London Time wrote in addition, Scotland had finally followed England before 200 years also. Only Mexico and the Soviet Union inserted protest; first by transmission of a protest note „against the foreign aggression against Austria “with the Völkerbund and those, unsuccessful, demand the summoning council meeting by the minister of foreign affairs at that time Eduardo Hay, the latter by protest letters to the Western powers.
The memory of the Mexican protest note became to 27. June 1956 the ore duke Karl place in Vienna in Mexico place renamed and 1985 Gedenkstein with the following label platziert there: „Mexico was in March 1938 the only country, which inserted official protest before the Völkerbund against the connection by force of Austria to the National Socialist German Reich. To the memory of this act the city Vienna lent the name Mexico place to this place. “ Also in Mexico city to this cause 1988 by Austria a monument was donated.
- „Now, since Nazi power poured also over Austria and in the indication of murders and suicides and the ruin of many thousands happened, what would have happened otherwise peacefully and with dignity, turned away it courageously. “ (Golo man, German history 19. and 20. Century, page 875)
integration into „the largeGerman realm “
major item: Austria in the time of the national socialism
at the 1. May 1939 was adopted the so-called „ostmark law “, with which the powers should be handed over by the realm governor to the realm commissioner. The conversion of this law was to 31. March 1940 terminates. Josef Bürckel was used in April as „a realm commissioner for the reunification of Austria with the German Reich “. Followed it starting from 1940 Baldur of ski oh. The national territory that formerly sovereigns Republic of Austria was divided into realm gaus (Kärnten, Niederdonau, upper Danube, Salzburg, Steiermark, Tirol and Vienna). Hitler left the name Austria („measurement birth of history”), unloved of him, at first through „to ostmark “(one starting from that 19. Century spread translation for marcha orientalis) and starting from 1942, since „ostmark “of the historical self-sufficiency of the country reminded, through „replace Danube and alpine realm gaus “.
Web on the left of
- the way to „the connection “ (documentation archives of the Austrian resistance)
- the protest note of Mexico to the Völkerbund in the wording