Antarktis

Dieser Artikel behandelt die allgemeine geographische Bedeutung von Antarktis. For the term in the Pflanzengeographie see Antarctic (Florenreich).
Lage der Antarktis (Karte hebt durch Farbe und Verzerrung Antarktika hervor)
Situation of Antarctic (map lifts Antarktika out by color and distortion)
of the map of Antarctic
of the Antarctic, Geografie, Ansprüche and Forschungsstationen

those Antarctic (literal: Counter arctic), not to confound with the southern ocean Antarktik, covers the land and sea areas lain around the South Pole. As geographical-astronomical zone it is limited by the southern polar circle and is thus enough to 66° 33 ' southern latitude.As geographical border the Antarctic convergence is considered with for instance 50° southern latitude, where the cold Antarctic drops under the warmer subtropical Oberflächenwasser.

In the center for the region the continent Antarktika , also south continent , for however inkorrekterweise usually mentioned is appropriatethe designation Antarctic is used.

The Antarctic was opened starting from 1820 by different researchers and sailors. 1958 are regulated in the Antarctic contract the political status of the Antarctic.

Table of contents

Geografie

overview

the Antarctic as astronomical zone covers 21.2 million km 2; the physical-geographical region is 52 millionkm 2 largely. Antarktika is larger with nearly 13.2 million km 2 about 2.7 million km 2 than Europe. The exact size is not well-known, since under the shelf ice water is. One divides the continent into a westand a substantially larger East part. The highest mountains are that 5,140 m high Vinson massif with the Mount Vinson in the west (every now and then also 4,892 m are indicated), the deepest point are the subglacial with 2.538 m under the sea level (under thatIce lying) Bentleygraben in the East part of the Antarctic.

Apart from many small islands the nearest point of another continent fire country at the south point of South America , thereafter the cape of good hope, is Tasmanien and New Zealand.

Antarktika on a satellite photoNASA

allocation

the Antarctic is divided into several large areas , seas and shelf (sorts alphabetically):

landscapes, mountains and high countries

island world

some islands before the coast of the Antarctic and/or. in the Antarctic Ocean:

glacier

in the peripheral areas of the Antarctic move their ice masses in the form of numerous glaciers toward the coasts of the arctic ocean; in addition count:

of shelves

Eisberge vor der Küste
of icebergs before the coast

within the range of the coasts of the Antarctic - thus among other things in the bays of the Antarctic Ocean - are the ice masses of the shelves, those among other thingsby the glaciers to be fed; in addition count:

of seas

the Antarctic is surrounded by the southern ocean.

a continent under the ice

Antarktika without ice.Not considered here the rise of the sea level due to the ice melt, in addition, not the long-term rise of the continental mass are by the being omitted weight.

The most remarkable characteristic of the Antarctic continent is the nearly complete freezing up. Approximately 90% of the terrestrialIce and 75% the world-wide fresh water - reserves are contained in the ice cover thick up to 4.500 m. In the Antarctic winter the shelf ice areas extend far in the sea, the ice cover extend thereby to an area of up to 30Millions km 2. Only about 280,000 km 2 of the continent are ice-free, which corresponds to about 2.4 per cent of the total area. The most powerful ice sheets lie in the Adelieland in the East part. For only about far away 400 km from the coast is more deeplysubglacial ditch, over whose reason the ice 4,776 m rises highly. One finds the thinnest ice sheets over the subglacial mountains high up to 3.500 m inside the continent.

Without ice cover the outlines of the continent would look completely differentlyas it to be usually represented. Westantarktika would disintegrate into three large parts: the Antarctic peninsula, Marie Byrd country and the Vinson massif. Ostantarktika would consist of a land mass with enormous bays (z. B.Aurora Subglacial Basin and Wilkes Subglacial Basin) and fjords (z.B. in the place of the today's Amery glacier or under the South Pole). The East Antarctic land mass would be scattered with many lakes and Binnenmeeren, whose reason is enough the partly far under sea level. Ostantarktika would look similar as nowadays Canada and Finland.

icebergs

typical for the Antarctic are gigantic board icebergs, which break off regularly from the shelf ice („calve “) and on the sea floating thousands of kilometers to put back can. It can take several years, until a large iceberg melted completely; however can a large iceberg easily into several small break apart, for example by differenzielle Meeresströmungen. This longevity of large icebergs supplied also the basis of futuristic projects, icebergs as fresh water memory, approximately with tractors to transport to Africa or into other dry regions.

With the help ofhere the colored emphasized paläobiogeografischen circulation areas of the reptiles Cynognathus, Mesosaurus and Lystrosaurus as well as the fern Glossopteris the arrangement can be reconstructed today separate continents to Gondwana.

To 30. April 1894 became in the middle in the Atlantic ocean with 26° 30 ' S,25° 40 ' W (southeast from Trindade) an iceberg sighted; it was the northernmost position of an Antarctic iceberg, which was ever noted.

See also: A-38 and B-15

earth-history development

the land surfaces of the Antarctic were before more than170 million years part of the land mass of the large continent Gondwana and were in the proximity of the equator. After the breakup apart of Gondwana due to continental drift the Antarctic was moved slowly to the south. During the continent at the beginning of the Tertiary periodforwards approx. 65 million years still tropical was to subtropical (and to the time still with the Australian continent a common land mass formed), came it due to the drift direction the south to a progressive cooling. Approximately 30 million years ago haditself the continent the pole already so far approached that there were first considerable Eisfelder. Forwards approx. 25 million years, at the turn of the earth-history epochs of Oligozän and Miozän, began due to the opening of the Drake - passage between thatAntarctic and South America and the education of the Zirkumpolarstroms an intensified freezing up released thereby, which those displaced up to then the continent of covering forests. Only for approximately five million years the continent of a thick ice tank is almost completely covered.

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Climate

the Antarctic continent is in all regard a climatic extreme case. From all continents it is

glacier in of Antarctic
  • the coldest: The domestic annual average temperature is with −55 degrees Celsius. The monthly average temperatures vary due to the daily length. In that Polar night in the Antarctic winter seems the sun not at all, in the Antarctic summer however 24 hours on the day. On the polar plateau the temperatures between −40 and −68, at the coast between approx. reach degrees Celsius. −18 degrees Celsius in June andunite degrees on zero in the warmest month January. The lowest ever temperature measured on earth in free nature amounted to −89,2 degrees Celsius, and became to 21. July 1983 of the Soviet Wostok station on the polar plateau, that frequently alsowhen central plateau is designated, noted. Due to these conditions of temperature there is only few Antarctic seas and a only one, even if only temporary river, the Onyx River.
  • the precipitation-poorest: Usually it acts with the Antarctic precipitation overSnow. In the annual average that is something over 40 l/m 2 inside the continent. According to purely precipitation-oriented definitions thus these areas are a desert (the largest of the world). To the coast the snow increases however clearly.
  • that windiest: The pole situation and the constant drop hoist blowing from the polar plateau to the coast affect not only on the continent determining, but also the adjacent polar sea. In July 1972 ' Urville station became a wind velocity of 327 km/h with the Dumont D(91 m/s) measured.

Despite large cold weather are into of Antarctic ice-free zones like the Bunger oasis (see. Literature cut off).

Flora and fauna

Pinguine – die eigentlichen Ureinwohner der Antarktis (NASA)
of penguins - the actual natives of Antarctic (NASA)

the Antarctic is surrounded byan enormous luggage ice zone, in which one of the most sumptuous ecological systems of the world developed. In the seas it wimmelt from enormous swarms Antarctic Krills (Euphausia superba) and other small cancers. This Krill forms the beginning of the food chain forthe numerous sea and land animals, like fish, whales, Kalmare, Seelöwen, sea-dogs, penguins and numerous sea birds.

On the Antarctic luggage ice two kinds of penguin breed: The Kaiserpinguin and the Adeliepinguin. To on the Antarctic continentbreeding birds count however also 19 airworthy kinds of bird as for example the Königsalbatros as well as the snowstorm bird and the silver tower bird, which breed both partially hundred kilometers landinward on the Antarctic continent lying mountains, which protrude ice-freely.

Under the seals,in the Antarctic ashore go, are above all the Weddellrobbe, the Krabbenfresser and the sea-leopard worth mentioning. In the summer are added still more than 100 million migratory birds, which breed on the luggage ice and the pre-aged islands. It becamemeasured that alone the whales of the southern ocean eat about 55 million tons of Tintenfische, it corresponds about three quarters to the quantity of the fishing of the world-wide Fischereiflotten.

Contrary to the various lives in the oceans and at the edges of shelf ice appearthe few ice-free regions, which are called also Antarctic oases and which inside the Antarctic to be, desert and empty, since hardly more highly developed ways of life are found here. Instead these areas become predominant by micro organisms, Moosen and Lichens as well as some eddyless animals populates. In the entire Antarctic there are only two bloom plants: the Antarctic Schmiele (Deschampsia antarctica) and the carnation plant Antarctic one Perl-pepper (Colobanthus quitensis). By humans were brought in however also that Creeping cock foot, the water harrow/selvedge, the Rispengräser Poa annua and Poa pratensis as well as the Vogelmiere. The largest durably landliving animal of the Antarctic is 12 millimeters a large, wingless kind of twitching mosquito named Belgica antarctica. Beside various algae became meanwhilemore as 200 kinds of lichen, more than 100 kinds of Moosen and Lebermoosen as well as about 30 Macrofungi found.

The Antarctic forms its own Florenreich, the Antarctic Florenreich. It covers the south island of New Zealand, the southwest part of Patagoniens and the AntarcticContinent and accommodates thirteen different plant kinds, like for example the south beech (Nothafagus), Gunnera or Fuchsia, from which most are however not in of Antarctic resident.

diversity of species at the bottom of the sea

Booth Iceland and Mount Scott

Also the bottom of the sea of the Antarctic is populated, comparable of a multiplicity of animals and plants with that variety of tropical reefs. Some the animals are already hundreds of years old, which suggests first that the Antarctic sea soil innever larger changes was submitted to these periods. But the icebergs of the Antarctic ice sheet, which break off annually and push themselves with enormous Kraft in the sea, plow the bottom of the sea over. At least five per cent of the continental base are vernarbt by this procedure „“. Thismeans a quite large change for the local ways of life.

If an iceberg slips in the sea, it slides often up to a kilometer over smooth surfaces, without being stuck in the reason. On its way it tightens long ditches in the soil, to ita collection to a halt comes, which is called therefore also „iceberg cemetery “. With this process and following melts this range of the bottom of the sea is damaged for years.

The resettlement of the durchzogenen range from fish, followed of sea-stars and sea-hedgehogs, begun. With the return of glass sponges as last „pioneers “equilibrium adjusts itself after decades.

This procedure repeats itself for example at the iceberg cemetery of the southeast Weddellmeers approximately every 35 years, within the range of the continental base every 230 years.Although the icebergs are in the short term a disaster for the Flora and fauna of the sea, they cause a larger diversity of species in the long term, since after each Durchpflügen also different species settle again the area and develop themselves further.

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Population

research station

the Antarctic does not have population in the actual sense. In over 80 the research stations live however in the summer approx. 4000 and in the winter approx. 1000 humans, whereby the exact number varies strongly. However on the largest station, McMurdo, 79 women and 162 men lived in July 2005 (thus in the middle in the Antarctic winter).

In the Antarctic some children were born: first was the Norwegian girl Solveig Gunbjörg Jacobsen, to 8. October 1913 under British jurisdiction in Südgeorgienborn. In the year 1978 an Argentine boy and 1986/1987 in the Chilean station a boy and a girl were born.

research stations

major items: Research stations in the Antarctic

within the southern range within 60. Degree of latitude exist according to data of COMNAP 82 research stations, of it are 37 stations all year round and 36 stations only in the summer months in use.

To emphasize here the US-American stations are Palmer and McMurdo, whose ports form the logistic basis of most activities in the Antarctic,as well as the Amundsen Scott Südpolstation and from German view the new May he station.

,

in the background the Amundsen Scott Südpolstation the present activities

in the Antarctic are appropriate for research geographical South Pole to a large extent in the research. The reason for this lies in the singularPossibilities, which the Antarctic within many research ranges offers. Due to the high costs by the separatingness of the continent and the thereby developing logistic expenditure one concentrates the research however usually on research ranges, within which the location is either compellingly necessary Antarctic,like for example biological and geological research, or for the better conditions prevail as at other places on earth like for example astrophysical or aeronomische research. Since is so far not yet foreseeable, like the use of the AntarcticContinent in the future will look, affirm many nations by its operational readiness level by scientific stations its present or future requirements on resources of the continent (see under politics).

astrophysics

major item: History of astrophysics in thatAntarctic

in the course 20. Century recognized one the possibilities, which the Antarctic offers for astrophysical investigations. 1912 discovered franc Bickerton, a member of the Mawson - expedition, coincidentally the first meteorites in the Antarctic. Since 1969 systematically for meteorites one searches,since the Antarctic meteorites are very well conserved and only small decomposition traces show. Since the 1950ern detectors for cosmic radiation are operated, since the 1980ern examined and use one the location also increased for the infrared, Submillimeter, radio and Neutrino astronomy.

biology

the Antarctic accommodates ecological systems, which are singular on earth. On the one hand very extreme environmental condition are present, on the other hand are still to a large extent free the region - due to first - from human influences.

An unusual and at the same time very simple ecological system is present in the drying valleys close of the McMurdo station, which is predominantly populated by micro organisms , Moosen and lichens and some eddyless animals. By the few occurring organisms the connections and mutual relations can as well as their adjustment to the extreme living conditions to be very comprehensively examined.

Surprisingly one determined that the life is not only limited to the few ice-free regions, but also in unexpected places to be proven can. In the drying valleys becameExample algae and lichens found, which live within sandstone rock. Even in the widths of the Antarctic ice tank in smaller ice columns and meltwater lakes on the glaciers different algae and other organisms were found.

Contrary to the country the ocean is richat lives. Here the researchers interest above all the adjustment of the organisms to the low temperatures.

geology

seaweed RA mountains

over the entire Antarctic peninsula pulls itself a belt of still active volcanos, under it that nearly 3.800m high Mount Erebus.

Antarktika consists of two continental plates, to the surface-moderately by far larger Antarctic plate, which are to a large extent covered by the inland ice plate today, and a smaller, those mainly the western part of the continent and the Antarctic peninsulatakes. The intensive investigation of the Seymourinsel at the Ausläufer of the peninsula resulted in rich fossil finds, which refer to more moderate zones. These finds prove that the continents in the course of the time shifted, and support thereby Alfreds Wegeners model of continental drift (see also to section earth-history development).

Projects, which contributed substantially to the geological study of the Antarctic, are among other things the GANOVEX expeditions of the Federal Institution for geosciences and raw materials, the polar star - expeditions of the institute for Alfred way he and the Cape Robert Project.

[Covered almost

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] glaciology the Antarctic ice sheet the entire continent and contain about 75% of the fresh water reserves of the earth. The glaciology examines the structure, the history and the internal dynamics of the ice tank. The goal of the investigations lies in the understandingthe future development of the Antarctic and the influence of possible changes on the world climate. The most important realizations are won here from the investigation of ice drill cores.

Das antarktische Ozonloch am 15. Oktober 1987
The Antarctic ozone hole to 15. October 1987

climatology

of the Glaziologen the wonIce drill cores form also for the Klimatologen an important source of information, since from their compositions and their layer superstructures conclusions can be drawn over the climatic history of the earth. These ice archives go back far into geologic history as at every other place of the earth.They at the same time supply complementary information to the ice drill cores of the Northern Hemisphere, like for example from Greenland, since by the large spatial distance of the sampling regional differences can be identified.

One finds resuming information to a climatic research project in the article of the Cape Robert Bohrprojekts.

medicine

the personnel of the Antarctic stations is selected according to strict medical and psychological criteria, since the stations are isolated from the external world usually over longer time. The medical and psychological observation of the scientists offers singular possibilities, among other thingsto the investigation of the influence of the day/night rhythm, the nutrition and the psychological well-being of small groups under high stress.

meteorology

the Antarctic plays an important role for the weather of the Southern Hemisphere, therefore extensive become on the continent meteorological investigations accomplished. These investigations are passed on since the 1950ern to the neighboring states, since they take a great importance for the weather forecasts.

Größte Ausdehnung des antarktischen Ozonlochs (6. Sept. 2000, NASA GSFC)
Largest expansion of the Antarctic ozone hole (6. September. 2000, NASA GSFC)

also aeronomische investigations, i.e., investigations of the higherLayers of the terrestrial atmosphere, above all the stratosphere, have in outgoing 20. Century at meaning won. Here research forms the emphasis over the ozone hole, which could be proven 1985 for the first time.

oceanography

the southern ocean subdivided itselfin its depth structure into three ranges: the Antarctic Oberflächenwasser, the zirkumpolare depth water and a stationary layer which is under it. In the range of the continental shelf however only two ranges are distinguishable; over an easily modified layer of the zirkumpolaren depth water a layer shelf water lies.

The zirkumpolare depth water is merged into the global circulation system of the oceans, so that a large role in the global heat balance comes to the region.

Thereby the vertical circulation stream, which cause an exchange between the deep and Oberflächenwasser, play a substantial role. Thisit leads to it that on the one hand the depth water cools down by heat emission to the much colder atmosphere, on the other hand in addition, with carbon dioxide and oxygen from air is enriched.

One finds about 1,500 kilometers before the coasts with the Antarctic convergencea stable current, the Antarctic Zirkumpolarstrom, which washes around the continent eastward. This current separates the cold Antarctic water from the warmer northern oceans and ensures thereby for an effective thermal insulation of the Antarctic, those substantially to the extremely low temperaturesthe continent contributes.

infrastructure

the remoteness of the Antarctic and the extreme climate conditions cause that Antarktika in relation to its size exhibits the by far weakest supply of infrastructure of all continents. With consideration of the extremely low total population (max.approximately 4,000) and the extremely low population density (0.0001-0.0003 Einwohner/km ²) is communication and traffic infrastructure however nevertheless relatively efficiently, although at enormous technical expenditure. Strongly reduced is however for instance the health care for the inhabitants: Thus there is the whole winterover into of Antarctic no dentist.

communication

Antarctic post office

apart from military communication ways and amateur radio, is usable the iridium system. Until 2009 1,700 km a long optical waveguide cable is for Internet binding on the polar plateau between the South Pole station andthe cathedral C station occupied all year round posed its, with which already a binding exists to the geostationary communication satellites.

transport

the US-American navy maintains two seas port, McMurdo and Palmer, their use however by the US-American government stronglyis reglementiert.

The supply of the mainland act ions is taken over predominantly by Lockheed-C-130-Hercules - airplanes the New York air national Guard. 27 stations possess airports and/or helicopter landing pads. A runway is than three kilometers and six further is longer between two and three kilometerslong. The use of these mechanisms must be likewise approved in the apron by the governments concerned.

politics

major item: Political status of Antarctic

of the far far away from the world trade routes, inhospitably and life-hostilely, is the Antarctic of the Kolonialisierung 19.and early 20. Century spares remained. Also the states, which make classical requirements for territorial valid, had to admit themselves that the actual penetration of such requirements is directly unrealistic.

On initiative of the geophysical yearly in the years 1957/58 therefore one becameForm of the international cooperation found, which is just as unique as of Antarctic. On the basis of the Antarctic contract of 1959 the Antarctic contract system developed, which is independent of the UN, and which Antarctic of economic exploitation and more militarilyUse releases. On the high point of the cold war an international treaty system was created, which has today a key position in the international environmental policy.

economics

a completely trained economic system does not exist in the Antarctic. Most important industry is thoseResearch, which forms also the basis for most other jobs in the Antarctic. Largest employer in the Antarctic is polar the Raytheon responsible for the US stations services company.

currency

a characteristic of the Antarctic is that Antarctic dollar. It is however no official currency, but only 1996 a published collecting tank series automatically created notes of the Antarctica Overseas Exchange Office. With a majority of proceeds research projects in the Antarctic were supported.

Bodenschätze

In the Antarctic about 45 billion barrel oil, 115 trillion cubic meters natural gas, coal, titanium, chrome, iron and Kupfererz as well as uranium ore stores were determined. In addition platinum and Goldvorkommen were found. The Antarctic contract forbids however so far the economic use of the Antarctic. The contractthe 44 nations 2041 will run out.

fishery

in the rich Antarctic Fischgründen 99 officially scarcely 120,000 tons, by illegal fishing however roughly the fivefold, became imprisoned in the season 1998/. 1998 became from the French and Australian navy eight illegal Fischtrawler applied.

tourism

Touristi way
although the Antarctic for humans a life-hostile environment represents, is routistic journeys there ever more popularly. The separatingness, missing infrastructure, weather conditions and strict environmental protection editions make these trips howeverto a pleasure, which remains reserving only very financially strong persons. There are some commercial offers for cruises to the Antarctic region. Beyond that organizers offer land trips on the continent and the pre-aged islands. In addition it is for tourists possible, alsoto visit a small aircraft the US-American Amundsen Scott Südpolstation. For full professionals there is also the opportunity to mount some mountains on the Antarctic continent. For fans of extreme outdoor experiences a stay in the camp offers itself , that to Patriot Hills naturally only by small aircraftto reach is. All journeys to the Antarctic area (in addition everything counts south 60.Degree of latitude) are subject to the regulations of the 1991 into force stepped environmental protection minutes, a which component of the international Antarctic contract is.

The tourism is essentially limited to thoseMonths November until February. While 1990/91 only 1,000 tourists came into the Antarctic, were already in the season 2002/03 14.000. To the USA Germany places the second largest group of visitors. Most popular starting point for Antarctic journeys is Ushuaia at the Südzipfel Argentina. Ofthere out the Antarctic peninsula can by the Drake - passage be attained and only approx. two day's journeys removes.

As particularly unusual routistic action there is a Antarctic since 1995 regularly Marathon with a very much limited number of participants. In addition finds each summerto New Year on McMurdo the music festival IceStock instead of.

history

Bransfield road

long one before the discovery of the Antarctic in the year 1820 one accepted the existence of an enormous south of continent, which forms a counterweight to the land masses of the Northern Hemisphereshould. This continent named Terra australis is shown on numerous maps of the world of the early modern times. There some these representations, for example the map of the Piri rice of 1513, the map of the Oronteus Finaeus of 1531, the map of GerhardMercator of 1569 or the map of Philippe Buache of 1754, astonishing similarities with the actual situation and form of the Antarctic exhibit, give it to authors, who assume that the Antarctic was discovered already for a long time before the official date 1820.

Actually however there are no proof for the presence of humans in the Antarctic before that 19. Century. However discovery journeys in the south pole area were quite already undertaken, then for example the southern Shetlandinseln became probably already 1599 by Dirk Gerritzdiscovered.James Cook through-crossed the southern ocean in the years from 1772 to 1775 and crossed thereby 1773 as probably first humans the southern polar circle, but luggage ice prevented that it got of Antarctic to face.

The first siftingthe Antarctic cannot be fastened with absolute security at an event:Captain Fabian of Bellingshausen of the Russian navy, captain Edward Bransfield of the British navy and the US-American seal hunter Nathaniel Palmer sighted the Antarctic within fewer daysor weeks, Bellingshausen was probable to 16. January 1820 first. The first landing found only one year later by the US-American seal hunter John Davis to 7. February 1821 instead of. The English sailor James Weddell could with good climatic conditions 1823advance in the Weddell sea up to 74° 15 ' south, designated after it. The French king assigned thereupon Jules Dumont D' Urville to break this record but its journey 1837 - 1838 were only successful in the second approach, where he the aristocracy IE countrysighted.

After 1831 the magnetic north pole was located, James Clark Ross with its ships Erebus and terror applied 1839 to the magnetic South Pole. On the search for it Ross could determine its approximate position, not reach it however. Mappedit also the Ross lake, a sea-region, which was designated later after it.

The actual conquest of the Antarctic however began 1895 with that 6. International geographical congress, that took place into of London imperially institutes. At the 3. August became on this congressa resolution discharged, which held, „that this Congress record its opinion that the exploration OF the Antarctic region is the greatest piece OF geographical exploration tons undertaken quietly “, and demanded the scientists of the world up, expeditions there tooplan.

Wildly like no other country it is appropriate for our earth there, ungesehen and unbetreten. (Roald Amundsen, 1911)

in a time, in which the entire world seemed discovered, one felt the Antarctic as last unknown marks of the earth,and the conquest of this part of the earth became the metaphor for the triumph of the imperialism. In this sense Leonard Darwin, the president of the Royal Geographical Society said during a parting meal for Robert Falcon Scott, before these to itsOf Antarctic expedition applied: „Scott is going ton prove once again that the manhood OF our nation is emergency DEAD and that the characteristics OF our ancestors who won the Empire quietly flourish among US.

Die Gauss, eingeschlossen im Eis, während der ersten deutschen Südpolarexpedition am 29. März 1902.Das Foto wurde aus einem Fesselballon aufgenommen und ist die erste Luftaufnahme in der Antarktis.
The Gauss, enclosedin the ice, during the first German South Pole expedition to 29. March 1902.
The photo was taken up from a Fesselballon and is the first aerial photo in the Antarctic.

The Antarctic expedition of Scott (1901 - 1904) approached the South Pole toon 480 miles. The first German South Pole expedition took place from 1901 to 1903 under the direction of Erich von Drygalski . Equipped with the ship Gauss, discovered the researchers the emperor william II. - And sighted country from research a balloon the Gauss mountain.

The expedition of Ernest Henry Shackleton (1907 - 1909), formerly a member of Scotts crew, approached the South Pole up to 97 miles, before it was forced to the reversal. Only to 14. December 1911 reached Roald Amundsen with a Norwegian expedition as the first the South Pole, one month before Robert Falcon Scott and its team concerned there. Scott was stopped on its way back by a snowstorm - he and its whole team died. As a fourth large Antarctic discoverer of theseTime applies for Douglas Mawson, which was only member of the expedition Discovery under the direction of Shackleton, and 1911 its own expedition into the Antarctic accomplished. The second German South Pole expedition under the direction of William Filchner discovered 1912 with fornine months in the luggage ice included expedition ship Germany the Filchner Ronne Schelfeis and the Prinzregent Luitpold country. One of the most legendary expeditions of the Antarctic is however the 1914 expedition begun Endurance, which had the goal to cross the Antarctic however just like the expedition ship Germany, in the luggage ice one included.

A new era of the Antarctic discovery began with the US-American countering admiral Richard Evelyn Byrd, which led altogether five expeditions between 1928 and 1956 into the Antarctic. To 28./29. It flew over November 1929 therebyfirst the South Pole. With its investigations it put the special attention on research, and it used also as the first an airplane on the continent. With from December 1946 until April 1947 taking place operation Highjump, the largest Antarctic expeditionall times, Byrd brought 4,700 humans, 13 ships and 23 airplanes to the base to Little America in the McMurdo Sund and let more than 70,000 aerial photograph photographs make. Byrds expeditions put the basis for modern mapping and study of the continent.

1938 planned oneGerman expedition under presidency of the experienced polar captain Alfred the Rit journey to the South Pole. As ship „the swabia country was selected “, which swimming airplane base of Lufthansa, from which by steam catapults 10t heavy Dornier flight boats of the type whale could start. Thisrevolutionary technology already used Lufthansa since 1934 for the Postverkehr with South America. The swabia country was made Antarctic suited still in the autumn 1938 in Hamburg shipyards for the expedition. After the structural alteration measures that swabia country (it was before main in the Tropics watersused) it left Hamburg to 17. December 1938 and reached the Antarctic to 19. January 1939. In the following weeks on altogether 15 flights of the two Flugboote Boreas and trade wind of nearly 600,000 square kilometers surface were flown over and photographed. 11,000 pictures were made. Scarcely 1/5 of the Antarctic surface were documented so for the first time and at the same time, by release of beflaggten aluminum - bars, when German realm Reich defines. The name of the recently discovered country was new swabia country.

Cape Williams, to 19. February1819 discovered

only once it in the Antarctic actually to fighting because of territorial claims came: 1952 shot Argentine soldiers at British researchers, when these tried to develop a destroyed research station again. Argentina stressed the Antarctic peninsula, there this promontory onfrom the south point of South America is distant for their northern end of only about 1,480 km.

After Amundsen and Scott stood only to 31. October 1956 humans on the South Pole, as the US-American countering admiral George Dufek there with an airplane ofType R4D Skytrain landed.

During the international geophysical yearly 1957 a large number of expeditions took place. Among other things the New Zealander Sir Edmund Hillary with converted tractors reached the South Pole on the Landweg as the first after Scott, and the Britisher Sir Vivian fox reached the South Pole on Shackletons route.

The Antarctic contract became at the 1. December 1959 signs and stepped to 23. June 1961 into force.

To 7. January 1978 became in the proximity of the Hope Bay with Emilio Marcos dePalma the first baby on the continent born. Its nut/mother was sent by the Argentine government into the Antarctic, in order to support the Argentine requirements. To 28. November 1979 fell a DC-10 of the air new Zealand on a tourist flight to Mount Erebus by a navigational error off. This accident, in which all 237 passengers and the 20 crew members died, terminated the era of the commercial tourist flights on the continent. The risks were no longer justifiable without any scientific use. To 13. November 1998 remained being a LC-130-Hercules - a machine the New York air national to Guard, which was on a supplying flight, in a glacier column.

1996 were discovered by Satellitenaufnahmen an enormous lake from liquid water. The Wostoksee is under 3.600Meters thicken ice tanks in the proximity of the Russian station Wostok.

Reinhold Messner and Arved fox could cross 1989 the entire continent for the first time in 92 days to foot. 2001 followed them the two Antarctic adventuresses Ann Bancroft and live Arnesen on Skiern.

different

  • in many maps is a pole of inaccessibility (poles OF Inaccessibility) registered, here concerns it the point in the Antarctic, furthest is distant for which from a coast. Beside init gives itself up to the map registered pole with 83° 50 ' S, 65° 47 ' O, which refers to the ice surface, a further pole of inaccessibility with 77° 15 ' S, 104° 39 ' O in the proximity of the Wostok station,the land mass of the Antarctic refers.
  • Many humans and organizations (NGOs, e.g. the Antarctic and Southern Ocean Coalition (ASOC)) try to receive the Antarctic as a protected area to a large extent unaffected by human hand.
  • The USA would install 1961 in the McMurdo station for one Nuclear reactor. The reactor was switched off 1972 and returned together with more than 100 barrels of contaminated earth into the USA. Although the contamination was at first minimized , later further 11,000 m were cleared away ³ earth and the area only in May 1979again for the unrestricted use approved.
  • The Antarctic is practically free from mold fungi and rot - bacteria, therefore for example also raw meat in the kitchens of the research stations must be not further cooled.
  • Altogether are under the ice massesabout 70 lakes. The largest one among them is the Wostoksee, for which before several millions years formed. Drill cores from the environment of the lake point on ways of life in the lake. Thus it is longest from the remainingWorld cut off habitat on earth. From concern before a contamination with micro organisms sample drillings are to be accomplished into the lake only then if suitable technical means are available.
  • Although of Antarctic no state is, it possesses the owncountry-specific Top level Domain “.aq”.

time into of Antarctic

the 24 time belts of the world became with communication and/or. Date tuning between the numerous research stations into of Antarctic large problems cause. Therefore that became for the whole areaAntarctic as universal time the UTC (world time) fixed. Polar day and polar night make time belts anyway senseless along the degrees of latitude close of the polar circle, since there are hardly day/night changes. One cannot do therefore there, as at the north pole possible, with the Umschreitung of the pole allTime belts cross.

see also

Wikinews: Of Antarctic - current messages
Wiktionary: Of Antarctic - word origin, synonyms and translations
Commons: Of Antarctic - pictures, videos and/or audio files
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coordinates: 80°59 ' S, 49° 13 ' O

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